Persuaded by the machine : The effect of virtual nonverbal cues and individual differences on compliance in economic bargaining

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Harjunen , V J , Spape , M , Ahmed , I , Jacucci , G & Ravaja , N 2018 , ' Persuaded by the machine : The effect of virtual nonverbal cues and individual differences on compliance in economic bargaining ' , Computers in Human Behavior , vol. 87 , pp. 384-394 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.012

Title: Persuaded by the machine : The effect of virtual nonverbal cues and individual differences on compliance in economic bargaining
Author: Harjunen, Ville Johannes; Spape, Michiel; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Social Research (2010-2017)
University of Helsinki, Liverpool Hope University
University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science
University of Helsinki, Ubiquitous Interaction research group / Giulio Jacucci
University of Helsinki, Medicum
Date: 2018-10
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: Computers in Human Behavior
ISSN: 0747-5632
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/236683
Abstract: Receiving a touch or smile increases compliance in natural face-to-face settings. It has been unclear, however, whether a virtual agent’s touch and smile also promote compliance or whether there are individual differences in proneness to nonverbal persuasion. Utilising a multimodal virtual reality, we investigated whether touch and smile promoted compliance to a virtual agent’s requests and whether receiver’s personality modulated the effects. Compliance was measured using the ultimatum game, in which participants were asked to either reject or accept an agent’s monetary offers. Decision-making data were accompanied by offer-related cardiac responses, both of which were analyzed as a function of expression (anger, neutral, and happiness), touch (visuo-tactile, visual, no touch), and three personality traits: behavioral inhibition/activation system sensitivity (BIS/BAS) and justice sensitivity. People accepted unfair offers more often if the agents smiled or touched them. The effect of touch was more enhanced in those with low justice sensitivity and BAS, whereas facial expressions affected those with high BIS the most. Unfair offers amplified the cardiac response, but this effect was not dependent on nonverbal cues. Together, the results suggest that virtual nonverbal behaviors of virtual agents increase compliance and that there is substantial interindividual variation in proneness to persuasion.
Subject: 5144 Social psychology
Emotions
ECONOMIC DECISION-MAKING
nonverbal communication
113 Computer and information sciences
Human computer interaction
Affective computing
virtual reality (VR)
Interpersonal touch
Facial expression
Compliance
Decision-making
Virtual agent
MEDIAL FRONTAL NEGATIVITY
SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING
MIXED-EFFECTS MODELS
ULTIMATUM-GAME
INTERPERSONAL TOUCH
MIDAS TOUCH
BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION
JUSTICE SENSITIVITY
FACIAL EXPRESSION
RESPONSES
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