DHanken Digital Repository of Hanken School of Economics

Uusimmat julkaisut

  • Koskinen Sandberg, Paula (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016)
    Economics and Society – 305
    The gender pay gap is a persistent challenge across different national contexts. Within these contexts, however, the underlying mechanisms that have resulted in the gender pay gap can take different shape. In Finland, the gender pay gap has been resistant to policy measures implemented in order to reduce it. This thesis aims to shed light on some of the central features of Finnish society, its institutional context, central actors, and stakeholders, and how these are linked to the apparent failures of Finnish equal pay policy. This study offers a broad-ranging sociological understanding of Finnish society, its historical development, and the kind of citizenship it has offered to its female citizens. The thesis also discusses the role of central labour market organisations in institutionalising wage relativities between the different industries in the Finnish labour market and protecting their vested interests in policy-making. The empirical part of the thesis consists of three articles, each of which addresses an issue that is critical to Finnish and international equal pay policy: the role of collective agreements in institutionalising gendered valuations in wage setting in the Finnish local government sector, evaluation-based pay systems and the assumption that they inherently promote gender pay equity, and non-decision making in tripartite policy process and the way it affected the drafting of the new Finnish gender equality legislation. The first data set was gathered in a participatory action research project in which 18 Finnish organisations took part. The aim of the project was to promote equal pay through developing pay systems The second data set consists of the official minutes of the meetings of the tripartite working group that drafted the law about equal pay comparisons that are mandatory for organisations to conduct. The thesis mainly uses qualitative research methods, along with quantitative and documentary analysis. Based on the research findings, the following arguments are made. The Finnish welfare state has played an active role in creating a secondary labour market for Finnish women in the reproductive work of the public sector. The central labour market organisations have further strengthened the gendered division of labour and hierarchy between male-dominated and female-dominated sectors and industries by institutionalising the wage relativities between these industries in collective agreements. As central actors and powerful players in Finnish policy-making, the central labour market organisations protect their vested interests and resist changes to equal pay policy and legislation. Instead of directly addressing the most important structural and institutional features of the Finnish labour market, current Finnish equal pay policy focuses on less controversial issues, such as organisational practices. Failure to address the most relevant issues on gender pay equity results in modest advances in policy outcomes.
  • Ehrnström-Fuentes, Maria (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016)
    Economics and Society – 304
    This thesis critically analyses corporate-community relations in the forestry industry, with a particular focus on cases in the Latin American context. The key conceptual focus is on the legitimacy of corporate activity from the perspective of local communities in the contested field of sustainability. The concept of legitimacy is critically discussed in the light of a pluriversal approach to reality: Instead of assuming that legitimacy can be derived from a universally socially constructed system of shared norms and believes, legitimacy in the pluriverse signals that the world is not made up of one single history or worldview but many different ways of knowing, sensing, and being; what is perceived as legitimate depends on the place-based social imaginaries of the communities where it emerges. This approach to legitimacy creation, provides a nuanced understanding of the contested nature of forestry-community relations in Latin America. Adapting a pluriversal perspective on legitimacy has consequences for governance and how the corporate world engages with local communities. Instead of promoting consensus-seeking stakeholder dialogues among those do not wish to become stakeholders of the corporate world, there is a need to open up for encounters between worlds through conversations across differences and celebrate conflicts as manifestations of the different worlds within the pluriverse. Rooted governance is introduced as a concept that contrasts with the top-down approach of global governance. Instead, the bottom-up rooted approach recognises local differences, knowledges, and livelihoods as important elements of reproducing and sustaining life in communities. This pluriversal way of conceptualizing and acknowledging different life worlds and social imaginaries opens up opportunities to explore new alternatives for co-existence of communities– one of the most urgent challenges for our and future generations.
  • Högholm, Kenneth (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2016)
  • Harviainen, J. Tuomas; Frank, Katherine (Sage Publications, Inc, 2016)
    Drawing on ethnographic and interview data collected from the United States and Finland on lifestyle (‘‘swinging’’) events, this article explores the implicit and explicit rules influencing negotiations for group sex as a type of play. Participants maintain a sense of freedom and spontaneity while acting within situational constraints—ethical expectations, preexplicated rules, implicit rules, and complex negotiations that occur during the play itself either openly or more subtly. Because it has implications for the participants’ everyday lives, lifestyle group sex is a phenomenon on the border between games and adult play. Through an analysis of the rules and social contracts arising in group sex, we demonstrate how participants learn to read interactions at group sex events in the way that players learn game systems and how they can and do become ‘‘good players’’ in such situations.
  • Laakso, Mikael; Lindman, Juho (Akademiai Kiado Rt, 2016)
    Most scholarly journals have explicit copyright restrictions for authors outlining how published articles, or earlier manuscript versions of such articles, may be distributed on the open web. Empirical research on the development of open access (OA) is still scarce and methodologically fragmented, and research on the relationship between journal copyright restrictions and actual free online availability is non-existent. In this study the free availability of articles published in eight top journals within the field of Information Systems (IS) is analyzed by observing the availability of all articles published in the journals during 2010-2014 (1515 articles in total) through the use of Google and Google Scholar. The web locations and document versions of retrieved articles for up to three OA copies per published article were categorized manually. The web findings were contrasted to journal copyright information and augmented with citation data for each article. Around 60% of all published articles were found to have an OA copy available. The findings suggest that copyright restrictions weakly regulate actual author-side dissemination practice. The use of academic social networks (ASNs) for enabling online availability of research publications has grown increasingly popular, an avenue of research dissemination that most of the studied journal copyright agreements failed to explicitly accommodate.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer; Shen, Cenyu; Laakso, Mikael (PeerJ, Ltd, 2016)
    Open Access (OA) is nowadays increasingly being used as a business model for the publishing of scholarly peer reviewed journals, both by specialized OA publishing companies and major, predominantly subscription-based publishers. However, in the early days of the web OA journals were mainly founded by independent academics, who were dissatisfied with the predominant print and subscription paradigm and wanted to test the opportunities offered by the new medium. There is still an on-going debate about how OA journals should be operated, and the volunteer model used by many such ‘indie’ journals has been proposed as a viable alternative to the model adopted by big professional publishers where publishing activities are funded by authors paying expensive article processing charges (APCs). Our longitudinal quantitative study of 250 ‘indie’ OA journals founded prior to 2002, showed that 51% of these journals were still in operation in 2014 and that the median number of articles published per year had risen from 11 to 18 among the survivors. Of these surviving journals, only 8% had started collecting APCs. A more detailed qualitative case study of five such journals provided insights into how such journals have tried to ensure the continuity and longevity of operations.
  • Sundvik, Dennis (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016)
    Economics and Society – 303
    The opportunistic aspects of financial reporting have largely been investigated under the umbrella term of earnings management. However, most research is devoted to capital market settings and listed firms in large economies, including the United States in particular. As a contrast, this dissertation examines earnings management based on tax incentives among private firms in European settings. In particular, the four interrelated essays analyze situations where the statutory corporate tax rate in a country is changed and firms are expected to report lower (higher) earnings while the tax rate is higher (lower) to reduce their total tax burden. While these tax changes are introduced to enhance international tax competitiveness, they also give rise to strong incentives for earnings management. For example, when the tax rate is to be decreased, firms may employ various accruals to defer earnings from high to low tax periods. The first essay of the dissertation contributes to the literature by investigating decomposed measures of earnings management instead of relying on a broad measure that does not provide much insight. Based on Swedish private firms, the analyses clearly show income-decreasing earnings management on the aggregate level before two tax rate cuts. The aggregate results are later observed to be largely driven by unexpected changes in accounts receivable. The second essay uses Finnish data and provides evidence that private firms, under certain circumstances, also change the end of the fiscal year to achieve benefits around tax reforms. Further, the analyses demonstrate that a reform that simultaneously lowers corporate tax and hikes dividend tax creates conflicting incentives to manage earnings. The motivation behind the third essay stems from the debate on the appropriate level of book-tax conformity. The essay documents that higher conformity between accounting and tax reporting in jurisdictions is associated with more earnings management in response to an upcoming change in the tax rate. A contribution of this study is the analysis of a clear incentive for earnings management instead of a sole focus on absolute measures. In the fourth and final essay, private firms that use external help in the financial reporting process are separated from firms that do not. The hypothesis is that firms, that handle their accounting function internally, have greater possibilities to influence their reporting opportunistically. The results also suggest that the minority of smaller private firms who perform the tasks in-house, and have the knowledge and resources needed, are able to manage taxes to a larger extent
  • Zhang, Mo (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2016)
    Economics and Society – 302
    Along with Chinese economic development, the Chinese stock market is growing rapidly, and is now the second largest stock market in the world. However, despite its size, the Chinese stock market trades like the wildest emerging markets, with huge volatility, big boom and bust cycles, driven by fast-trading individual investors, and heavy involvement from the government. Owing to the peculiarity of the Chinese economic and political system, there are some unique structures within the Chinese stock market. In one sense, this makes the Chinese stock market an interesting laboratory. This dissertation comprises three single-authored essays. The first two analyze a special phenomenon, called B-share discounts in the Chinese stock market, seeking to explain why this phenomenon exists from the perspective of exchange risk. It shows that dual-class stock price disparity in the Chinese stock market can be explained, in a way, by exchange risk, meaning that “to some extent, investors are rational and ask for compensation for taking extra risks”. This is in line with the classical efficient market theory. The second essay uses this phenomenon as a natural experiment to test whether a new reform policy, namely granting permission for short selling, benefits the efficiency of the Chinese stock market. When the Chinese government lift the ban on short selling in the Chinese stock market, mispricing decreases significantly, even though the volume of short selling in the Chinese stock market is trivial relative to total trading volume. Instead of studying a particular set of stocks, the third essay focuses on the mispricing formation mechanism at the general market level. The market results show that both the resale option and inflation illusion hypotheses can explain the level of market mispricing. Only investors’ heterogeneous beliefs affect the volatility of market mispricing, in line with the resale option hypothesis prediction. Additionally, the results show that state-controlled industries tend to be underestimated more, when mispricing is negative, but to be overvalued less, when mispricing is positive.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Biese, Ingrid; Heikkinen, Suvi; Louvrier, Jonna Kristina; Niemistö, Charlotta; Kangas, Emilia; Koskinen, Paula; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Gustavsson, Malin; Hirvonen, Petri (Hanken School of Economics, 2015)
    Research Reports
  • Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Biese, Ingrid; Heikkinen, Suvi; Louvrier, Jonna Kristina; Niemistö, Charlotta; Kangas, Emilia; Koskinen, Paula; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Gustavsson, Malin; Hirvonen, Petri (Hanken School of Economics, 2015)
    Research Reports

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