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  • Korkman, Oskar (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006-01-31)
    This thesis introduces a practice-theoretical approach to understanding customer value formation to be used in the field of service marketing and management. In contrast to current studies trying to understand value formation by analysing customers as independent actors and thinkers, it is in this work suggested that customer value formation can be better understood by analysing how value is formed in the practices and contexts of the customers. The theoretical approach developed in this thesis is applied in an empirical study of family cruises. The theoretical analysis in this thesis results in a new approach for understanding customer value formation. Customer value is, according to this new approach, something that is formed in practice, meaning that value is formed in constellations of the customer and contextual elements like tools, physical spaces and contextually embedded images and know-how. This view is different from the current views that tend to see value as subjectively created, co-created, perceived or experienced by the customer. The new approach has implications on how we view customer value, but also on the methods and techniques we can use to understand customer value in empirical studies. It is also suggested that services could in fact be reconceptualised as practices. According to the stance presented in this thesis the empirical analysis of customer value should not focus on individual customers, but should instead take the contextual entity of practices as its unit of analysis. Therefore, ethnography is chosen as a method for exploring how customer value is formed in practice in the case of family cruises on a specific cruise vessel. The researcher has studied six families, as well as the context of the cruise vessel with various techniques including non-participant observation, participant observation and interviews in order to create an ethnographic understanding of the practices carried out on board. Twenty-one different practices are reported and discussed in order to provide necessary insight to customer value formation that can be used as input for service development.
  • Gummerus, Johanna (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2011-02-18)
    Customer value has been identified as “the reason” for customers to patronize a firm, and as one of the fundamental blocks that market exchanges build upon. Despite the importance of customer value, it is often poorly defined, or seems to refer to different phenomena. This dissertation contributes to current marketing literature by subjecting the value concept to a critical investigation, and by clarifying its conceptual foundation. Based on the literature review, it is proposed that customer value can be divided into two separate, but interrelated aspects: value creation processes, and value outcome determination. This means that on one hand, it is possible to examine those activities through which value is created, and on the other hand, investigate how customers determine the value outcomes they receive. The results further show that customers may determine value in four different ways: value as a benefit/sacrifice ratio, as experience outcomes, as means-end chains, and value as phenomenological. In value as benefit/sacrifice ratio, customers are expected to calculate the ratio between service benefits (e.g. ease of use) and sacrifices (e.g. price). In value as experience outcomes, customers are suggested to experience multiple value components, such as functional, emotional, or social value. Customer value as means-ends chains in turn models value in terms of the relationships between service characteristics, use value, and desirable ends (e.g. social acceptance). Finally, value as phenomenological proposes that value emerges from lived, holistic experiences. The empirical papers investigate customer value in e-services, including online health care and mobile services, and show how value in e-service stems from the process and content quality, use context, and the service combination that a customer uses. In conclusion, marketers should understand that different value definitions generate different types of understanding of customer value. In addition, it is clear that studying value from several perspectives is useful, as it enables a richer understanding of value for the different actors. Finally, the interconnectedness between value creation and determination is surprisingly little researched, and this dissertation proposes initial steps towards understanding the relationship between the two.
  • Golik Klanac, Natasa (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008-08-11)
    During past years, we have witnessed the widespread use of websites in communication in business-to-business relationships. If developed appropriately, such communication can result in numerous positive implications for business relationships, amplifying the importance of designing website communication that meet customer needs. In doing that, an understanding of value of website communication for customers is crucial. The study develops a theoretical framework of customer value of website communication in business-to-business relationships. Theoretically, the study builds on the interaction approach to industrial marketing, different approaches to customer value and inter-organisational communication theory. The empirical part involves a case study with a seller and nine different customer companies in the elevator industry. The data collection encompasses interviews and observations of representatives from the customer companies, interviews with the seller and an analysis of various reports of the seller. The continuous iteration between the theory and the case study resulted in the integrated approach to customer value and in the holistic theoretical framework of customer value of website communication in business-to-business relationships. The framework incorporates and elicits meanings of different components of customer value: website communication characteristics that act as drivers of customer value, customer consequences – both benefits and sacrifices, customer end-states as the final goals that lead customer actions, and different types of linkages between these components. Compared to extant research on customer value, the study offers a more holistic framework of customer value that depicts its complexity and richness. In addition, it portrays customer value in the neglected context of website communication. The findings of the study can be used as tools in any analysis of customer value. They are also of relevance in designing appropriate website communication as well as in developing effective website communication strategies. Nataša Golik Klanac is associated with the Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management (CERS) at Hanken.
  • Tami Tamsia, Leo (Hanken School of Economics, 2010-04-26T09:44:54Z)
  • Ollqvist, Hanna (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2015-05-07)
  • Serlachius, Bror Erik Gösta (Hanken School of Economics, 2010-08-11T10:54:22Z)
  • Lindman, Juho; Tammisto, Yulia (2012-06-20)
  • Sundgren, Maja (Hanken School of Economics, 2010-04-30T12:15:17Z)
  • Laakso, Mikael; Björk, Bo-Christer (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2013)
    Delayed open access (OA) refers to scholarly articles in subscription journals made available openly on the web directly through the publisher at the expiry of a set embargo period. Though a substantial number of journals have practiced delayed OA since they started publishing e-versions, empirical studies concerning open access have often overlooked this body of literature. This study provides comprehensive quantitative measurements by identifying delayed OA journals, collecting data concerning their publication volumes, embargo lengths, and citation rates. Altogether 492 journals were identified, publishing a combined total of 111 312 articles in 2011. 77,8 % of these articles were made open access within 12 months from publication, with 85,4 % becoming available within 24 months. A journal impact factor analysis revealed that delayed OA journals have on average twice as high average citation rates compared to closed subscription journals, and three times as high as immediate OA journals. Overall the results demonstrate that delayed OA journals constitute an important segment of the openly available scholarly journal literature, both by their sheer article volume as well as by including a substantial proportion of high impact journals.
  • Kähkönen, Tapio (Hanken School of Economics, 2010-05-07)
    Undersökningens problem gäller underordning. Syftet med undersökningen är att på basen av teori skapa en helhetssyn som man kan stödja sig på när val mellan underordning och icke-underordning görs i planering av organisationsregler. Problemställningen grundar sig på forskarens vardagserfarenheter av beslutsfattande i grupp. Om en av gruppens medlemmar kan underordna de andra har han en möjlighet att styra kommunikationen och på det sättet påverka den kunskap, som gruppen förfogar över då gemensamma beslut fattas. Bristfällig kunskap kan möjligen leda till, att man inte finner den lösning, som skulle vara bäst ur helhetens synvinkel. Underordning tillskrivs varierande betydelse i olika organisationer beroende på grupperingsprinciperna. I organisationer där medlemskapet i princip är ärvt, är en minimering av subordinationsförhållandena ett värde i sig medlemmarna emellan. Dylika organisationer är familjen och territoriellt bildade samhälleliga organisationer. Samhällets organisationsregler, sådana som de kan läsas och tolkas i statsförfattningsteori och i författningen, är föremål för granskning. Granskningen sker med hjälp av två idealtyper, som avbildar två ytterligheter, den ena ett samhälle, där underordningen är minimal, den andra ett samhälle, där underordningen är maximal. Den förstnämnda idealtypen benämns demokrati. Egenskaper som givits den är symmetriska relationer aktörerna emellan, dvs. kommunikationen är dubbelriktad och rollutbytet fritt. Den andra idealtypen benämns byråkrati. Den karakteriseras av osymmetriska relationer aktörerna emellan, dvs. kommunikationen är enkelriktad och mellan samhällsmedlemmarna finns en rollfördelning. Idealtypernas egenskaper vidareutvecklas genom deduktion. Som hjälpmedel i en sociologisk konstruktion används två- och treaktörsmodeller. Enhällighet och lösning av konflikter genom lottdragning är demokratiska beslutsregler. En byråkratisk regel är majoritetsbeslut. Enligt politologisk granskning är grundmodellen för reglerna i ett demokratiskt samhälle en överenskommelse om ett monogamt äktenskap. Grundmodellen för byråkrati är promiskuitet, ur vilken man inte kan härleda någon annan organisationsprincip för styrning av samhället än styrning genom maktgrupper. Den organisationsteoretiska utvecklingen sker genom en konstruktion av motsatta regler för en byråkratisk förvaltningsorganisation, nämligen regler för en debyråkratisk förvaltningsorganisation. I den systemteoretiska granskningen konstateras att författningen måste utarbetas med utgångspunkt i att samhället är ett slutet system i förhållande till omgivande samhällen. Utvecklandet av samhällelig organisationsteori sker med hjälp av deduktion, där man som hjälpmedel använder en fyraktörsmodell. Modellen avbildar att möte vid vilket två ordföranden, som kontrollerar varandra, och två medlemmar deltar. Med hjälp av modellen klassificeras de samhälleliga relationerna i tre olika dimensioner. Den vertikala dimensionen avbildar relationerna medborgare och statsorgan emellan. Av de horisontala dimensionerna avbildar den ena relationerna statsorganen emellan och den andra avbildar relationerna medborgare emellan. Med hjälp av teori analyseras antikens, liberalismens och socialismens samhällsstyre med tanke på symmetrin i styrningsprinciperna. Teorin kompletteras genom en definition av hierarkiska idealtyper: i den symmetriska idealtypen är medborgarnas deltagande i beslutsfattandet maximalt och i den osymmetriska minimalt. På basen av detta bildas idealtyper för en symmetrisk resp. osymmetrisk författning. Med hjälp av teori utförs en granskning av Finlands författning. I en analys av den historiska utveckling som Finlands författningsteori har genomgått konstateras att stamsamhällets styrning, som grundade sig på gemenskap, har övergått i en individualistisk, mekanisk styrning inom nationalstatens ramar där mat tyr sig till omröstningar och till representationsprincipen. Relationerna statsorganen emellan har utvecklats genom experimentering i många olika faser. Den territoriella organisationen har ägnats mindre uppmärksamhet. Som slutsats av analysen utvecklas en organisationsprincip för reglerad osymmetri. En analys av grundlagen pekar på möjligheter till dess demokratisering eller byråkratisering. På basen av en analys av grundlagsändringarna åren 1972 och 1981 kommer man enligt den metod som har använts i undersökningen till en slutsats om att dessa lagändringar innebär en byråkratisering. Möjligheter till demokratisering belyses med ett exempel.