Doctoral theses

Nyligen publicerat

  • Zhang, Ling Eleanor (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2015-08-11)
    “China is a bit like malaria, you know, you get it to your blood, and it doesn’t get erased.” Life in China has so much promise, they resolved to stay just for a little bit longer. Yet year after year, this foreign shore has never been short of turbulent storms revealing to them that they have deemed themselves as only temporary residents. They have long departed from their home land, the destination of their journey is yet uncertain – China or yet another foreign land? Thus, between these countries, they might not belong anywhere, or only in that little space in-between, where they could lay down their discontented bones. As a familiar destination for multinational corporations over the last few decades, surprisingly China still remains as one of the most challenging destinations for expatriates. Yet underneath the seemingly high expatriation failure rate exists an ever more routine reality of contemporary working life: from expatriates sent by headquarters, to self-initiated expatriates, to expatriate entrepreneurs, a growing number of sojourners are now, for various reasons, becoming caught up in China. They experience a dizzying array of processes collectively labelled as cross-cultural adjustment, acculturation or biculturalism. Based on comprehensive fieldwork comprising one year’s observation and 78 interviews with expatriates and their host country colleagues in 18 different organisations, I seek to uncover the working and living realities of expatriates in China from a language and culture perspective. I develop two distinct insights in this book. Firstly, I emphasise the importance of empirical context in theorising biculturalism by demonstrating how the specific contexts of the home and host country influence expatriates’ acculturation process. Secondly, I define biculturalism in a contextualised and dynamic manner, and articulate why this is different from existing frameworks, and how this might be applied in future studies. Having immersed myself deeply in these questions, the framework that I developed in analysing individuals as a collectivity in relation to different cultural reference points is profoundly grounded in the phenomenon of expatriation itself. By analysing what characterises expatriates’ journeys in becoming bicultural, I present a holistic understanding of expatriates’ responses and coping mechanisms to their changing environment. I also reveal the various dilemmas expatriates face in terms of their relations with host country employees, home country nationals and third country national expatriates. As an integral part of culture, language plays an indispensable role in expatriates’ internalisation of new cultural practices, and their work and life in general in the host country. I thus explore the multifaceted linguistic challenges faced by expatriates from both their own perspective, as well as that of the host country employees. I further provide a contextual account of expatriate host country language proficiency on cross-cultural adjustment, and inductively build an analytical framework for analysing why and how host country language matters.
  • Vaillancourt, Alain (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2015-07-02)
    Major disasters, conflicts and poverty afflict many millions of people around the world. To address the needs of these people, humanitarian organizations deploy a vast array of resources supported by material, financial and information flows. Some of these resources need efficient logistics support to achieve their goals and through vertical or horizontal coordination, humanitarian organisations can improve the way to respond to a situation. A specific approach to coordination is consolidation which this thesis explores in depth. The thesis and its articles aim to understand the competence and underlying resources for consolidation of materials in supply chains. This thesis covers material consolidation concepts and humanitarian logistics activities such as warehousing consolidation, procurement consolidation and transportation consolidation. The research presented in the thesis is composed of three individually authored articles, the first one is a conceptual paper based on a literature review entitled “A Theoretical Framework for Consolidation in Humanitarian Logistics”. The second article is entitled “Procurement Consolidation in Global Humanitarian Supply Chains” and the third article is entitled “Kit Management in Humanitarian Supply Chains”; both these two articles are based on empirical case studies. This thesis further contributes to dynamic capabilities as it identifies a result that can be expected from the lower supply chain competition and interest in coordination and cooperation by humanitarian organizations: facilitating access to competencies in between organizations through specific consolidation activities. Humanitarian organizations do not seek profit neither do they compete through their supply chains and instead sometimes cooperate and coordinate to improve aid delivery.
  • Pettersson, John (Hanken School of Economics, 2015-07-02)
    The efficient market hypothesis stipulates that investors are unable to consistently gain risk adjusted returns with the information known to them at the time of the investment. The expected return, conditional on the information set known to investors, is determined from an assumed expected return theory (asset pricing model). However, it has previously been shown that past winners outperform past losers. A trading strategy taking a long position in previous winner stocks and a short in previous loser stocks earn positive statistically and economically significant risk-adjusted returns. These results are confirmed in international markets, but also in different asset classes. A number of alternative asset pricing models explaining momentum returns imply that momentum should be stronger among high uncertainty assets. Many of these alternative asset pricing models build on investor psychology. This premium, with higher momentum returns among high risk stocks has also been empirically documented. This dissertation evaluates some behavioral explanations to momentum returns by their implications. Behavioral explanations often imply that the momentum anomaly is stronger when uncertainty about information is high. Essay one confirms that there is an overreaction to information causing momentum to be high when uncertainty is high. However, when uncertainty is low momentum still exists, now caused by a slow incorporation of new information into asset prices. Contrary to what many behavioral models imply, the results in essay three suggest that uncertainty about information in the portfolio formation period does not cause a stronger momentum anomaly. Stock prices imply a larger under-reaction to positive and relatively reliable information, than to more uncertain information. Based on previous literature, the results in this study suggest that the driver of the return premium in high volatility assets is the general risk level of single stocks, and not uncertainty about portfolio formation period information. Using equity index futures data, essay two links time series momentum profits to volatility states. Time series momentum portfolio returns are driven by assets in a low volatility state. These results support the general finding that momentum is not caused by uncertainty about portfolio formation period information.
  • Virtanen, Henrik (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2015-04-23)
    Att samarbeta med en konkurrent i den internationella verksamheten kan vara ett alternativ för små- och medelstora företag. Parterna stöter på hinder i den internationella verksamheten, vilket ger motiv till samarbete. Det finns olika typer av samarbete mellan konkurrenter. Fokus i denna avhandling är att skilja på vilken eller vilka funktioner i företaget samarbetet omfattar. Parterna kan samarbeta kring gemensamma funktioner (integrerat samarbete) eller kring delade funktioner (sekventiellt samarbete). Förekomsten av olika typer av samarbete, indikerar att man kan anta att samarbetet styrs av den strategiska situation parterna befinner sig i. I samarbetet råder det en spänning mellan samarbete och konkurrens. Man samarbetar för att skapa värde, medan man konkurrerar för att utnyttja värdet. Ett samarbete kan medföra konkurrensfördelar, men samtidigt kan spänningen mellan samarbete och konkurrens skapa problem och risker. Forskningen kring samarbetande konkurrenter har varit mindre omfattande. En kunskapsutveckling är önskvärd. Syftet med denna avhandling är att analysera samarbeten mellan konkurrerande små- och medelstora företag, med avsikten att utveckla den teoretiska och empiriska förståelsen av samarbeten, samt samarbetsmotiven och -förutsättningarna i en internationell kontext. En målsättning är att besvara frågan varför parterna väljer att samarbeta antingen integrerat eller sekventiellt. Ytterligare är målsättningen att klargöra hur parterna hanterar spänningen mellan samarbete och konkurrens, samt utreda vilka problem och risker som finns i samarbetet. Den empiriska delen av avhandlingen utgörs av en kvantitativ kartläggning samt fyra fallstudier. Resultaten visar att indelningen av samarbetstyper inte är helt klar. Man kan identifiera rena integrerade samarbeten, man kan identifiera rena sekventiella samarbeten, samt man kan identifiera hybrider av dessa två, där det finns både integrerade och sekventiella funktioner i samarbetet. En funktion i företagets produktionskedja består av olika aktiviteter som kräver olika insats av resurser och kompetenser. Trots att man samarbetar inom samma funktion (per definition integrerat samarbete), kan man dela aktiviteterna mellan parterna i funktionen (sekventiell logik). Eftersom tanken att dela in samarbeten i två typer är oklar, är det även problematiskt att normativt kunna påvisa klara skillnader mellan dessa vad gäller t.ex. motiv och risker. Varje samarbete är unikt. Ett sätt att mildra spänningen mellan samarbete och konkurrens och riskerna parterna upplever i samarbetet är att separera samarbets- och konkurrensfunktionerna från varandra. I intensiva och betydande samarbeten tenderar parterna, speciellt om det är frågan om små- och medelstora företag, att avveckla den direkta konkurrensen genom att t.ex. specialisera sig på olika kunder och nischer (produkter) eller fokusera på olika marknader. Parterna kan definiera när man har rollen som konkurrent och när som samarbetspartner. Personliga relationer, förtroende, gemensamma normer och förfaringssätt förmildrar spänningen och motverkar parternas intentioner att handla opportunistiskt.
  • Nyman, Linus (Hanken School of Economics, 2015-02-28)
    Open source software is everywhere. From phones, tablets, TVs, and game consoles to less self-evident examples like cars, washing machines, and the International Space Station. However, what makes open source software remarkable is not where it can be found, but rather what can be done with it. One of the most astounding rights guaranteed by all open source software licenses is the right to fork the source code. In other words, the right to copy any program, either in part or in its entirety, and use that program to create a new, modified version of it. The right to fork has an enormous impact on both the development and governance of open source software. Despite its significance, code forking has seen little academic study. This dissertation examines the right to fork, its impact and significance, and how it is viewed and practiced by developers. The study draws on data consisting of hundreds of forks, interviews with open source software programmers, and an in-depth analysis of the birth of the MariaDB fork. This dissertation is relevant to anyone seeking a greater general understanding of how open source works and why it is considered a superior software development model. It may also serve as a useful resource for firms seeking to harness the power of open source software. Furthermore, it offers important insights to those who want to better understand how code forking is practiced and viewed by developers. This study finds that forks are primarily started for non-competitive reasons, with unique features or goals that distinguish them from their parent projects. Competitive forks are rare but do exist, with some motivating factors being to ensure the freedom of the code and the community’s ability to contribute to it. Furthermore, though developers may not always agree with the forking of a project, they nonetheless consider the right to fork to be of vital importance, and a cornerstone of free and open source software. In many ways, open source can be thought of as a return to how software was developed before the emergence of proprietary licensing. The same freedoms of development and sharing that thrived back then can be found today in the open source community. Indeed, in many ways the right to fork is synonymous with freedom: the freedom to explore and experiment, the freedom to benefit from the work done by others, and the freedom to keep any project relevant and vibrant even when faced with leadership decisions that are deemed unsupportable. In short, the right to fork is open source software’s guardian of freedom and watchdog of meritocracy.
  • Mukminov, Rinat (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2015-01-28)
    In the period from 2007 to 2009 the world experienced the deepest financial crisis since the Great Depression. The world economy was in the most severe recession since the Second World War. The financial crisis was followed by a debt crisis in the euro area, which is still far from being resolved. The world economy is yet to recover from the crisis. The financial crises are recurring phenomena. The financial crisis of 2007-2009 is in many ways similar to the previous crises. It has been argued that banks’ poor screening incentives at the peak of the business cycle are one of the main causes of the recurring crises. Bank screening literature argues that in boom times, when the majority of loan applications are good, the price competition between the banks intensifies, leading to lower returns from screening loan applicants. As a consequence, screening standards decline and many bad loans end up on the bank balance sheets. Defaults of the bad loans lead to a deterioration of the banks’ loan portfolios, which causes credit crunches and bank crises. There is also an emerging finance literature arguing that a lower cost of funds, such as a lower cost of deposits, cheaper credit in the interbank market, a lower discount rate, encourages the banks to take excessive risks. Excessive risk-taking by the banks can also lead to a bank crisis. These two approaches explain excessive bank risk-taking from two different points of view: the former one from the point of view of bank revenues, while the latter approach explains excessive risk-taking from the point of view of bank costs. The aim of this dissertation is to build a bridge between these two approaches. This dissertation contributes to the screening literature by explicitly introducing the cost of funds into a bank screening model. This is novel, as most previous bank screening literature has assumed the deposit market to be fully competitive with zero interest rate, thus ignoring the impact of the deposit interest rate on bank screening incentives. This dissertation also extends the literature, which explores the effects of costs of funds on the bank risk-taking, by explicitly modelling the banks’ investment in screening of potential loan applicants.
  • Bor, Sanne (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-11-25)
    Organisations collaborate with one another. And they appear to do so more and more frequently in the recent decades. At the same time many of these efforts fail to deliver what the collaboration was set up for. This combination creates the basis for the fascinating and stimulating research field of inter-organisational relations – a field which is still very much in development. In this thesis the focus is on meta-organisations, associations in which organisations are members. The steering of such inter-organisational structures appears to need a novel approach, a collective, multi-level engagement which I set out to examine. The thesis is structured to foreground the process of the research and the development of my thinking. The study is conducted on R&D consortia funded as Networks of Excellence by the European Commission under Framework Programme 6. The study is based primarily on five case studies, by way of documentation and interviews. In addition, the study draws on data collected on 101 consortia and consortium agreements from 50 consortia. The thesis develops the theoretical understanding of meta-organisations and their organisational conditions and implications. Meta-organisation theory, thus far, has focused mainly on the implications following from having organisations as members. This thesis suggests adding to this theory the implications created by constitutional membership, that is, members that constitute the organisation. Constitutional membership makes a difference in three ways: it creates a clear boundary of the meta-organisation; it assumes collective ownership of the meta-organisation; and it makes possible the utilising of indirect resources – the resources of the member organisations, and most importantly their personnel – by the meta-organisation. In addition, the thesis develops a conceptual framework of steering processes, combining governance, management and administration. This framework shows how both decisions and mutual adjustment in top-down, bottom-up, and horizontal directions steer meta-organisations. The framework may, however, be fruitfully used to study other organisations as well. The findings from the analysis of the steering processes show that the utilisation of indirect resources decentralises the governance, management and administration of activities to the participants of member organisations who are undertaking these activities. The results also demonstrate that the governance, management and administration of undivided tasks centralises to those with formal management responsibility. In addition, the analysis shows how control and granting are avoided, externalised or formalised to deal with lack of hierarchical authority. These and other findings of the study seek to refine and extend the hypothesised conditions of meta-organisation theory.
  • Tuori, Annamari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-11-20)
    Social categories, such as ethnicity and gender, have been shown to be important for people’s identities in organisations. Different categories of people can experience very different realities in terms of who they are or can be at work, often influenced by inequalities in relation to and indeed between the categories. However, the inequalities often tend to be silenced. At the same time, silence in individual people’s identity work in organisations has remained relatively unexamined in the research literature. Accordingly, this thesis examines identity work in organisations at the interface of social categories, inequalities, and silence(s). The thesis examines people’s identity work in organisations through a notion of ‘intersectional job-related identity work’, meaning the construction of a job-related identity at the intersections of different social categories. It focuses in particular on, first, how in identity work people relate to inequalities, and, second, how they are silent about social categories as a part of their identity work. The empirical context for the study is three small to medium-sized ICT companies in Finland. The thesis is based on 33 semi-structured interviews. The main findings of the study concern two aspects related to intersectional job-related identity work. First, the study identifies two different types of ‘intersectional strategies', namely, the combining and separating strategies that people engage in in their job-related identity work. These refer to different ways of combining and separating social categories with and from one’s job-related identity, respectively. Intersectional job-related identity work is not only about different ways of combining a job-related identity with social categories, but also about how social categories are kept separate from one’s identity at work. Moreover, in line with previous studies, this study suggests that inequalities, in terms of different positions and experiences of privilege and/or disadvantage are often central for how identity work is done. Second, the thesis identifies different ways in which people are (and are not) silent on social categories at work. It identifies organisational, interpersonal and individual level silences, identifying inequalities as the issue that the interviewees seem to be mostly silent on. Thus, while inequalities related to social categories seemed to be important for how intersectional job-related identity work is done, they are also simultaneously that which the interviewees seemed to be most silent on. The thesis contributes particularly to the research literature on identities, identity work and intersectionality in organisations, by providing new knowledge on both silence in and around (intersectional) identity work in organisations, and how social categories may be kept separate from job-related identity.
  • Forss, Maria (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-10-01)
    Den här avhandlingen handlar om hur fortbildning arrangeras för sjukskötare i en finländsk sjukvårdsorganisation. Fortbildning är viktig för organisationer och anses vara ett strategiskt verktyg för att möta, bemästra och skapa förändringar. Forskning kring fortbildning kretsar ofta kring pedagogiska lösningar eller lärande där fortbildning uppfattas som något neutralt. Min avhandling tillför forskning om fortbildning ett maktperspektiv och ett retoriskt perspektiv och jag behandlar inte fortbildning som något enbart positivt eftersom fortbildning även är handlingar med potential för normativ kontroll. Jag utgår ifrån att fortbildning är partisk och värdeladdad. Min titel för avhandlingen syftar på den mångbottnade förståelse som kan skönjas i begreppet fortbildning. Det finns begränsad forskning vilken ser fortbildning som uttryck för sammanhang och helheter. Inte heller finns forskning som ser arrangemangen kring fortbildning som handlingar vilka skapar/fråntar anställda makt eller forskning som ser fortbildning som uttryck för självreglerande handlingar. Det är till denna mindre uppmärksammade sida som jag riktar mitt vetenskapliga bidrag. Jag har tematiskt intervjuat sjukskötare och ledare samt utbildningsplanerare. Dessutom har jag analyserat organisationens texter om och för fortbildning samt observerat två olika fortbildningar. Avhandlingen är en omfattande fallstudie som bygger på 31 intervjuer av 23 informanter och på två olika icke-deltagande observationer. Jag har koncentrerat, kategoriserat och tematiserat mitt material och byggt broar mellan det som kan förefalla motsägelsefullt med hjälp av kritisk hermeneutik för att presentera det som resultat. Sedan har resultatet tolkats med hjälp av en konstruerad analysmodell som bygger på två olika analyslinser. Den ena är den kommunikativt handlande linsen och den andra linsen är governmentality. Resultaten nås således genom att analysera fortbildningsaktiviteter med hjälp av två olika teorier, kommunikativt handlande och governmentality. Från de tre viktigaste aktörernas perspektiv försöker jag skapa en helhetsbild av fortbildning som fenomen. Fortbildning granskas från tre aktörers perspektiv samtidigt och på detaljnivå med syftet att fånga en helhet. Som vetenskapligt bidrag är detta en kritisk organisationsstudie av HR verksamhet med fokus på fortbildning. Jag demonstrerar hur ledningens förväntningar och anställdas förväntningar kring fortbildning omöjligt kan mötas om det inte finns vilja, initiativ och plats för dem. Makt och positioner kan inte separeras från retoriska handlingar, något jag visar i avhandlingen.
  • Blomkvist, Magnus (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-09-29)
    The recent financial crisis of 2007-2009 highlights the impact that financial markets can have on firm behavior. The effect of market states on asset prices is well documented. Until recently, market states have played a less significant role in the corporate finance literature. This dissertation aims to give further understanding concerning firms’ financing and investments during different market states. In the first essay, I study firm-specific factors behind merger waves. My evidence suggests that acquisition activity of financially constrained firms is an important determinant of the observed waves in the aggregate M&A activity. When capital liquidity increases, financially constrained firms are better able to obtain debt and equity financing to finance their investment opportunities. In contrast, financially unconstrained firms are indifferent to the overall capital liquidity and thereby do not have equally clustered M&A activity. In the second essay, I study the behavior of equity issuing firms during cold IPO-markets. I find that firms that go public during cold markets tend to stage their financing while firms that issue during hot markets tend to raise a larger amount financing, which is consistent with the market timing effect. In the third essay, I study whether the acquisition motive of equity issuance differs between firms going public in hot and cold markets.
  • Kedzior, Richard (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-09-05)
    Changes in consumption related to digital technologies, digitization and the emergence of new media have been topics of great interest to both academics and managers. The backbone of all these changes, the Internet has penetrated consumers’ daily lives and changed the way they work, shop and socialize. The new digital spaces (e.g., social networking sites, massively multiplayer online games, or online virtual worlds) have become important conduits for sociality and consumption as evidenced by the time and money consumers spend online. Yet, frequently the social, cultural and economic significance of digital worlds has been dismissed due to their “immaterial” character. The evidence discussed in this volume demonstrates that consumers experience digital worlds as material, yet materiality in this instance transcends the conventional notions of tangibility and physicality. Thus, this study introduces the concept of digital materiality to more accurately describe the phenomenon of materiality in digital environments, and focuses on the ways in which it emerges in digital worlds. To this end, presented here conceptual framework maps out five distinct processes through which digital worlds become material to their consumers. Each of these processes is driven by a set of consumer motivations which correspond to consumer perceptions of digital materiality. Apart from the theoretical and conceptual contributions to academic literature, this research offers a number of managerial implications which can benefit professionals working with digital media. The ideas discussed here may be especially valuable for public policy makers and product managers struggling with the inherent instability of digital materiality. Some of the insights can also cast light on ways in which businesses could expand their market offering by complementing existing product lines with either digital or physical components. This interdisciplinary work is positioned within Consumer Culture Theory and Digital Consumption Studies, and draws on the extant literature in consumer research, cultural studies, anthropology, and human-computer interaction. Richard Kedzior is an Assistant Professor of Markets, Innovation and Design at the School of Management, Bucknell University. He is a consumer researcher who studies phenomena at the intersection of technology and culture.
  • Délèze, Frédéric (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-08-15)
    Financial assets prices are not always in perfect equilibrium and deviate from their fundamental values. The dramatic rise and fall of the stock market raises concern about the rationality of sudden changes in stock valuations. The mispricing of assets contributes to financial crises, which can damage the overall economy. This dissertation analyses the effect of market imperfections at different time horizons. Starting at a macroeconomic level with a change of currency, the first essay analyses the impact of the introduction of Euro on interest rate sensitivity of European firms. We found that the connection between bond issuance and reductions in interest rate sensitivity is most significant among financially constrained firms, which suggests that financially constrained firms are the main beneficiaries of the relaxed public borrowing constraint in Europe after the introduction of euro. Releases of macroeconomic news announcements cause sudden price discontinuities, or jumps and co-jumps, on financial markets. The second essay attempts to explain the effect of US macroeconomic announcements on European equity, interest rate and foreign exchange markets at a high-frequency level. While European equity markets are more sensitive to US fundamentals, US macroeconomic announcements cause significant jumps and cojumps on all European asset classes. We found that European markets are highly co-integrated and observed a strong correlation between the type of news and the direction of the jumps. Motivated by the phenomenal success of some quantitative trading funds, the third essay describes a new pairs trading strategy, where the spread between two co-integrated portfolios is modelled stochastically. Taking into account transaction costs, the algorithm generates a systematic positive excess return based on a pure statistical arbitrage strategy. While very convenient, traditional asset pricing relies on two restrictive assumptions. First, asset returns are conventionally modelled with Gaussian-based distributions even though actual financial time series exhibit volatility clustering. The second assumption mainly affects market microstructure studies. Time series are sampled at regular interval of time and asset return distribution is used as the unique driver to model the price fluctuation of an asset over time. In reality, the time between two transactions, often called waiting-time, is stochastic and conveys important information about price formation. The two last essays relax the assumptions of log-normally of asset prices and model asset prices with a continuous-time random walk. The fourth article compares the Markovian and non-Markovian forms of the continuous-time random walk process and shows the relevance of the waiting-time distribution on price formation. The last article applies the framework to statistical arbitrage.
  • Huotari, Kai (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-08-15)
    In his dissertation, Kai Huotari studied how customer-to-customer (C2C) communication becomes a part of service experience. Using grounded theory, Huotari investigated TV live-tweeting – i.e., people reading and writing Twitter messages about a TV program while viewing it. He interviewed 45 live-tweeters and analyzed more than 4,000 tweets in the U.S. during 2011–12. The study identified four distinct groups of users live-tweeting about TV programs (fanatic TV live-tweeters, systematic TV live-tweeters, sporadic TV live-tweeters, and active Twitter users) and four main categories of TV live-tweets (courtesy tweets, outlet tweets, selection tweets, and analysis tweets); described several TV live-tweeting practices, from preparation practices to reading and writing live-tweets and including certain use of Twitter functions; and revealed that a TV live-tweeter is an empowered TV viewer who can, by experientializing live-tweeting into his or her TV viewing, personalize and control his or her TV viewing experience better than before, can express him- or herself more fully, and can reach a large enough audience and acceptance for his or her ideas. Experientializing is the core concept that emerged from the study. It refers to the consumer integrating two activities with each other in a way that leads to new practices of consumption and to a transformed and empowering experience. The study develops a substantive theory of experientializing live-tweeting into the TV viewing experience. Huotari suggests that the concept can, however, be used also in other contexts and presents two abstractions of the theory: experientializing C2C communication into a consumption experience and experientializing a customer activity into a service experience. The associated tentative models can be used to explain, for example, museum visitors’ willingness to go to museums in groups or how reading on public transportation changes the experience of commuting. The study brings new insight to television studies, especially for the ongoing discussion of the so-called “second screen.” The study repositions the research on C2C communication: it investigates C2C communication as a part of consumption experience instead of considering it only as communication about consumption experience. In addition, the study suggests new ways to categorize C2C communication. For marketing in general, it introduces the concept of experientializing as a customer driven process wherein service providers have only limited visibility. The media industry can take advantage of the empirical part of the study. At the same time, the theoretical contributions of the study have broader applicability and, accordingly, can be made use of in various industries.
  • Cadillo Chandler, Dhanay María (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-08-07)
    The Role of Patents in the Latin American Development: ‘Models of Protection’ of pharmaceutical patents and access to medicines in Brazil, Chile and Venezuela Access to medicines, pharmaceutical patents, and public health are topics often addressed in the news. On the one hand, there is an imperative need to tackle pressing health concerns, and on the other hand, it is also important to provide adequate incentives to carry out research and development. Even though common health concerns exist within the developing world, each country has a different set of needs. The approach to solve or the strategies to balance intellectual property rights and access to medicines vary at large. Latin American countries i.e. Brazil, Chile and Venezuela, even though geographically located in the same continent, deal with the challenges in a different and unique manner. Before the TRIPS Agreement countries had the freedom to decide on whether or not to grant patent protection for medicines. Thus, most of the developing and least developed countries, now WTO member countries, did not provide patent protection for pharmaceuticals because they feared that patent protection would increase the price of pharmaceuticals, and hence, become an obstacle for the access to medicines. On the one hand, patent protection represents an incentive for the pharmaceutical industry to carry out R&D for new and needed drugs. But on the other hand, patents, as the system of financing R&D, has been regarded as a flawed system due to the high costs transferred to the finalised product (medicine) thus deterring access to medicines. Patent protection allows the inventor to prevent others from making use, selling, producing or distributing the invention without his consent for a period of no less than 20 years. Moreover, these rights conferred by the patent grant seem to constitute the pharmaceutical industry’s incentive to recoup the high costs associated with the R&D of a new drug. This book reviews the strategies or models of protection used in Brazil, Chile and Venezuela to balance both intellectual property rights (pharmaceutical patents) and access to medicines. Each country seems to have shaped their policies in accordance with their national priorities, whether these are motivated by health, political or commercial issues. This study portrays the different approaches followed in different national contexts despite all three having to implement the minimum standards of intellectual property protection according to the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement). The outcome of the comparison of the policy implementations and the patterns followed by each of the analysed countries is without a doubt the main contribution of this academic study.
  • Liewendahl, Helena (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014-08-07)
    Motivation is a popular notion in today’s worklife. Employees, in particular those who work in traditional customer service, should be motivated to care for their customers. Service literature assumes that managers are able to order subjectivity towards employees and see to it that employees are motivated. This study deviates from this viewpoint by adopting a humanistic and systemic stance. It sees motivation as an intrinsic process, and employees as active subjects in worklife as well as owners of their motivation. It takes an employee perspective as it sets out to explore their motivation to live up to value promises. Value promises is another topical concept. Currently, companies promise all kinds of things that should enhance customers’ value formation. Often these promises deviate from what actually occurs in service encounters, and psychological contracts such as value, brand and service promises are broken. Currently employees do, despite the increase of e-services, have a substantial role in delivering promises. The more complex and abstract the promise is, such as “the best service”, the more is required of employees to live up to it. The more emotion work embedded in the promise, the more important motivation for living up to it becomes. Taking value practices, i.e., service encounters and firm internal practices underpinning these as its locus, this study explored employees’ experiences by identifying issues that employees found having an impact on their work in customer interface, and thus influencing their motivation. A number of demotivating as well as motivating factors were identified: Too abstract marketing ideas and fuzzy promises, as well as a paternalistic and objectifying stance towards employees do impinge motivation negatively. Truthful authentic promises that reflect value practices as they are, and employees having agency to participate not only in delivering, but also in enabling and giving promises, to name a few, were found to have a positive impact on motivation. By noting these factors, this study strives to widen our understanding of the mechanisms that underpin employee motivation in a service context. The thesis suggests a Human Service Logic (HSL) as a new paradigmatic perspective to service research, parallel to the other current prevailing service logics. As central to employee motivation, the HSL emphasises social- and service competences. Drawing upon the three promises framework a promise integration (PI) model is suggested. The PI model introduces a new perspective on the TPF model; reordering, reorienting, and reframing it from promise management, governed mainly by managerial control, norms, and procedure, to a dynamic promise-living perspective, directed by human principles and co-active managing of value practices. The HSL framework, and its PI model, describes an employee discourse on motivation in a service context.