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  • Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Biese, Ingrid; Heikkinen, Suvi; Louvrier, Jonna; Niemistö, Charlotta; Kangas, Emilia; Koskinen, Paula; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Gustavsson, Malin; Hirvonen, Petri (Hanken School of Economics, 2015)
    This is the final report of the NaisUrat research and development project (1.2.2013–31.1.2015). The project’s main themes were to promote women’s careers, including increasing the number of women in top positions (recognizing the challenges and possibilities); further enhance gender equality in the workplace, with special attention to the challenges of combining work and family; and make gendered structures visible, as well as facilitating change. This report presents the development work the eight participating organizations conducted during the project, as well as the practices for furthering gender equality and women’s careers that they developed and implemented. The report also contains research results based on the research conducted during the project, along with a discussion of the challenges and possibilities of gender equality projects and initiatives in general.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Biese, Ingrid; Heikkinen, Suvi; Louvrier, Jonna; Niemistö, Charlotta; Kangas, Emilia; Koskinen, Paula; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Gustavsson, Malin; Hirvonen, Petri (Hanken School of Economics, 2015)
    This is the final report of the NaisUrat research and development project (1.2.2013−31.1.2015). The project’s main themes were to promote women’s careers, including increasing the number of women in top positions (recognizing the challenges and possibilities); further enhance gender equality in the workplace, with special attention to the challenges of combining work and family; and make gendered structures visible, as well as facilitating change. This report presents the development work the eight participating organizations conducted during the project, as well as the practices for furthering gender equality and women’s careers that they developed and implemented. The report also contains research results based on the research conducted during the project, along with a discussion of the challenges and possibilities of gender equality projects and initiatives in general.
  • Virén, Matti (Hanken School of Economics, 2014)
    Den här studien undersöker allmännyttiga samfund och i synnerhet privata stiftelser i Finland. Frågan är hur relationen mellan dessa organisationer och den offentliga sektorn skall organiseras. Ytterst handlar det om utformningen av beskattningsreglerna och transfereringssystemet (mera konkret offentliga understöd till stiftelserna). Som en viktig bakgrundsfaktor har vi arbetsfördelningen mellan den offentliga sektorn och den så kallade tredje sektorn; borde vi främja eller dämpa den tredje sektorns tillväxt? En oundviklig fråga är hur långt den offentliga sektorn skall gå i att stöda den icke-vinstsyftande sektorn i form av direkta stöd eller skattestöd. Den här forskningsrapporten presenterar grundläggande fakta gällande allmännyttiga samfund, speciellt med hänseende till deras ekonomi och med hänseende till den lagstiftning som är relaterad till deras ekonomi. Rapporten innehåller också en litteraturgenomgång vars syfte är att belysa hur beskattningsfrågan borde lösas i ett sådant här fall. Av uppenbara orsaker betonas internationella jämförelser och erfarenheter i genomgången. Som en röd tråd genom analysen går tanken att den offentliga sektorns roll och ansvar borde begränsas i framtiden. Detta innebär igen att den icke-vinstsyftande sektorns tillväxt måste begränsas speciellt i de fall då tillväxten är helt beroende av den offentliga sektorns stöd utan aktivt deltagande av privata medborgare och företag. En mera kritisk linje borde tillämpas i de fall då de allmännyttiga samfunden snedvrider konkurrensen inom de branscher där de opererar. Ett idealiskt arrangemang vore att de allmännyttiga samfunden kunde finansiera sin verksamhet utan direkt stöd från den offentliga sektorn. Den offentliga sektorn kunde understöda de allmännyttiga samfunden i form av skattelättnader för gåvor och donationer från den privata sektorn. I sådana fall där organisationen inte får stöd från privata medborgare (eller företag) skulle organisationen inte heller få offentliga understöd. Donationer och stöd till allmännyttiga samfund kunde vara avdragbara upp till en viss gräns i beskattningen för privata medborgare. En dylik skattelättnad vore möjlig endast om det offentliga stödet skulle minska med åtminstone samma belopp. En grundprincip i det här nya systemet är att samma regler tillämpas för alla allmännyttiga samfund. Den kontroversiella frågan gällande allmännyttiga samfund gäller beskattningen av kapitalinkomster. Även om beskattningen kan motiveras med hänvisning till fiskala skäl drar den här studien slutsatsen att de negativa effekterna av en kapitalinkomstbeskattning av allmännyttiga samfund är större än den fiskala nyttan. Därmed kan man konstatera att en beskattning av kapitalinkomsterna för dessa organisationer inte är att rekommendera under nuvarande omständigheter. I framtiden kommer Finlands ekonomi att behöva högre kapitalackumulering och den privata sektorn måste ta en större roll för att finansiera vetenskap och kultur. De privata stiftelserna spelar en nyckelroll i detta avseende.
  • Galkina, Tamara; Kock, Sören (Hanken School of Economics, 2014)
    As a growing market, Russia holds great economic interest and potential opportunities for international companies, especially Finnish SMEs. Due to their geographic proximity, Russia and Finland have a long history of established business and trade relations. Finland’s major economic institutions were formed during the period when the country was under Russian rule. Also, the two countries had bilateral trade relations for approximately forty years. Nowadays, Russia is acknowledged as one of Finland’s biggest trading partners and the most important direction for internationalisation of small and medium-sized Finnish companies. Finland has a strategic geopolitical position as a gateway between East and West; hence, there is great potential for the growth of trade, investment, technology transfer and other cooperation between Russian and Finnish businesses. The present book is a result of a long collaborative research project between the Hanken School of Economics, Finland, and St. Petersburg State University, Russia. The book is a response to two calls: one from Finnish business practitioners to develop practical guidelines on how to establish and operate small businesses in Russia and the other from the academe to conduct more research on Russia as a turbulent market with high potential for small entrepreneurial firms. What makes this book different from existing guide books on how to conduct business in Russia? First, it targets a very specific audience; namely, Finnish entrepreneurs and business practitioners who plan to establish their businesses in Russia or who already have companies operating there. We believe our target audience will benefit from this narrow focus as it addresses concrete problems typical for Finnish business people in Russia. We also hope that the results of our research will be employed for teaching purposes in business schools across Finland as, nowadays, many of them offer special courses on Russian business. Second, our research team comprises scholars from both Finland and Russia, which offers a dual perspective on this phenomenon. Third, the empirical part of this research is based on qualitative case studies, not on broad statistical analyses. This approach enabled us to go deeply into specific business cases and to perceive the challenges of running businesses in Russia through the eyes of entrepreneurs and managers.
  • Ahlgren, Niklas; Catani, Paul (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    Standard asymptotic and residual-based bootstrap tests for error autocorrela- tion are unreliable in the presence of conditional heteroskedasticity. In this article we propose wild bootstrap tests for autocorrelation in vector autoregressive mod- els when the errors are conditionally heteroskedastic. In particular, we investigate the properties of Lagrange multiplier tests. Monte Carlo simulations show that the wild bootstrap tests have satisfactory size properties in models with con- stant conditional correlation generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedas- tic (CCC-GARCH) errors, whereas the standard asymptotic and residual-based bootstrap tests are oversized. The tests are applied to credit default swap prices and Euribor interest rates.
  • Niemistö, Charlotta; Hearn, Jeff; Tallberg, Teemu; Niemi, Hertta; Gripenberg, Pernilla; Jyrkinen, Marjut; McKie, Linda (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    This working paper reports the ongoing research conducted in the research project, The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries: A Collaborative Study in Finland and Scotland, under the auspices of Academy of Finland research programme, The Future of Work and Well-being. The research project examines the contradictory pressures for policies and practices towards both the inhibition and the enhancement of work-related well-being that are likely in growth industries. The overall aim is to evaluate the development, implementation and use of work-related well-being policies and practices in four selected growth industries. These – electronics, care, finance and accounting, and tourism – have been selected on the basis of EU and national forecasts, and demographic and socio-economic trends in standard and non-standard employment. Following an earlier survey of 127 employing organisations on questions of growth and well-being, in this working paper we present the initial results of the qualitative phase of the project. This phase comprised ‘portraits of practice’ in nine case companies, selected on the basis of some of the quantitative analysis of the survey, with interviews, ‘mini-ethnographies’, and other data and documents received from the organisations. The working paper concludes with discussion of methodological issues across the quantitative and qualitative phases of the project.
  • Ahlgren, Niklas; Antell, Jan (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    Tests for abnormal returns which are derived under the assumption of cross sectional independence are invalid if the abnormal returns are cross sectionally correlated. We model the cross sectional correlation by a spatial autoregressive model. The abnormal returns of .rms belonging to the same group according to their business activities are correlated, whereas the abnormal returns of .rms belonging to different groups are uncorrelated. Tests for abnormal returns corrected for cross sectional correlation are derived. An empirical application to US stock returns around Bear Stearns.collapse and Lehman Brothers.bankruptcy in 2008 is provided as an illustration. (JEL C21, C22, G12).
  • Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka (Hanken School of Economics, Department of Management and Organisation, Management and Organisation, 2012)
    Leadership without the full participation of women not only excludes women individually and collectively, but is also a huge waste of talent, knowledge and expertise. And crucially, given the current state of society and the world, this aspect of gender inequality is likely to become even more important in the future. NASTA - Women’s Leadership: A Research and Education Development Project was established in 2005 as a national multi-university project mainly and generously funded by Finnish Ministry of Education. The project aims at producing new knowledge and increasing understanding about women’s leadership, as well as promoting women’s leadership through research, development of teaching, and public outreach. NASTA is a joint effort of three Finnish universities – Hanken School of Economics, University of Jyväskylä School of Business and Economics, and the Helsinki School of Economics (now part of Aalto University) – and has been coordinated by Hanken. This report presents research and activities conducted within and around the project. NASTA activities have been many and various. They have examined the position and experiences of women in relation to leadership, management, organisation and work more generally. They have sought new knowledge about gender and leadership, on women leaders’ values, attitudes and behaviour, as well as about values, attitudes and behaviour in relation to women’s leadership. NASTA activities have included teaching, student supervision, research theses, research projects, publishing, networking, seminars, meetings, an international conference, and knowledge transfer into other sectors of society. The first section of the book introduces NASTA joint projects, including web-based teaching material, a survey of gender staffing and teaching on gender in business schools, critical review of previous research literature, and new empirical research. The next section includes research articles on different aspects of gender, leadership and manage¬¬ment from more individual projects conducted by participating researchers and research groups linked to NASTA across the three universities. The final section includes short presentations of other research in progress. The appendix lists publications by NASTA members – journal articles, research reports, books, chapters, journal special issues, popular journal articles, magazine articles - and masters, licentiate and doctoral theses that have been produced. These matters of women, leadership and management are not simply academic concerns but urgent matters for practice, organisations, management, policy, and society more generally.
  • Grönroos, Christian; Voima, Päivi (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    In order to further develop the logic of service, value creation, value co-creation and value have to be formally and rigorously defined, so that the nature, content and locus of value and the roles of service providers and customers in value creation can be unambiguously assessed. In the present article, following the underpinning logic of value-in-use, it is demonstrated that in order to achieve this, value creation is best defined as the customer’s creation of value-in-use. The analysis shows that the firm’s and customer’s processes and activities can be divided into a provider sphere, closed for the customer, and a customer sphere, closed for the firm. Value creation occurs in the customer sphere, whereas firms in the provider sphere facilitate value creation by producing resources and processes which represent potential value or expected value-in use for their customers. By getting access to the closed customer sphere, firms can create a joint value sphere and engage in customers’ value creation as co-creators of value with them. This approach establishes a theoretically sound foundation for understanding value creation in service logic, and enables meaningful managerial implications, for example as to what is required for co-creation of value, and also further theoretical elaborations.
  • Tallberg, Teemu; Hearn, Jeff; Niemistö, Charlotta; Gripenberg, Pernilla; Jyrkinen, Marjut; McKie, Linda (Hanken School of Economics, 2011)
    This working paper reports the ongoing research conducted in the research project, The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries: A Collaborative Study in Finland and Scotland, under the auspices of Academy of Finland research programme, The Future of Work and Well-being. The research project examines the contradictory pressures for policies and practices towards both the inhibition and the enhancement of work-related well-being that are likely in growth industries. The overall aim is to evaluate the development, implementation and use of work-related well-being policies in four selected growth industries. These – electronics, care, finance and accounting, and tourism – have been selected on the basis of EU and national forecasts, and demographic and socio-economic trends in standard and non-standard employment. In this paper we aim to review the survey that constitutes the second main phase of this research.
  • Vilppo, Tiina; Lindberg-Repo, Kirsti (Hanken School of Economics, 2011)
    Purpose – This research paper studies how the strategy of repositioning enables marketers to communicate CSR as their brand’s differentiating factor. It aims at understanding how consumer perceptions can be managed to generate brand value through corporate brand repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor. The purpose of this paper is to answer the following research question: How can consumer perceptions be managed to generate brand value through corporate brand repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor? The two research objectives were: 1. to build a model, which describes the different components of consumer perceptions involved in generation of brand value through repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor, 2. to identify the most critical components in the context of the case company, IKEA for generation of brand value during the process of corporate brand repositioning Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on the literature review covering the logic of brand value generation, repositioning strategy and consumer perceptions connected to CSR activities. A key concept of the positioning theory, the brand’s differentiating factor, was explored. Previous studies have concluded that desirability of the differentiating factor largely determines the level of brand value-creation for the target customers. The criterion of desirability is based on three dimensions: relevance, distinctiveness and believability. A model was built in terms of these desirability dimensions. This paper takes a case study approach where the predefined theoretical framework is tested using IKEA as the case company. When developing insights on the multifaceted nature of brand perceptions, personal interviews and individual probing are vital. They enable the interviewees to reflect on their feelings and perceptions with their own words. This is why the data collection was based on means-end type of questioning. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 consumers. Findings – The paper highlights five critical components that may determine whether IKEA will fail in its repositioning efforts. The majority of the critical components involved believability perceptions. Hence, according to the findings, establishing credibility and trustworthiness for the brand in the context of CSR seems primary. The most critical components identified of the believability aspect were: providing proof of responsible codes of conduct via conducting specific and concrete CSR actions, connecting the company’s products and the social cause, and building a linkage between the initial and new positioning while also weakening the old positioning. Originality/value – Marketers’ obligation is to prepare the company for future demands. Companies all over the globe have recognized the durable trend of responsibility and sustainability. Consumer´s worry about the environmental and social impact of modern lifestyles is growing. This is why Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) provides brands an important source of differentiation and strength in the future. The strategy of repositioning enables marketers to communicate CSR as their brand’s differentiating factor. This study aimed at understanding how consumer perceptions can be managed to generate brand value through corporate brand repositioning when CSR is the differentiating factor.
  • Hampf, Anders; Lindberg-Repo, Kirsti (Hanken School of Economics, 2011)
    Branding, as any other concept, has evolved over time: from the days when sheep of one herd started to be branded to distinguish them from another herd to the current era when everything, from water and flowers to clothes and food, is branded. Throughout these times, there have been numerous theories to describe and understand the underlying nuances. This paper finds the relationships in previous literature and reveals how these theories see branding from various perspectives and how they can be integrated to form a coherent view. It is also discussed how branding and society affect each other. Based on the knowledge of how branding theories have been developed as dependent variables of each other and the society, we are able to form a better understanding of the past, the present, and the future of branding.
  • Gerkman, Linda; Ahlgren, Niklas (2011)
    In this article we introduce and evaluate testing procedures for specifying the number k of nearest neighbours in the weights matrix of spatial econometric models. The spatial J-test is used for specification search. Two testing procedures are suggested: an increasing neighbours testing procedure and a decreasing neighbours testing procedure. Simulations show that the increasing neighbours testing procedures can be used in large samples to determine k. The decreasing neighbours testing procedure is found to have low power, and is not recommended for use in practice. An empirical example involving house price data is provided to show how to use the testing procedures with real data.
  • Helle, Pekka (2011)
    There is an urgent interest in marketing to move away from neo-classical value definitions suggesting that value creation is a process of exchanging goods for money. In the present paper, value creation is conceptualized as an integration of two distinct, yet closely coupled processes. First, actors co-create what this paper calls an underlying basis of value. This is done by interactively re-configuring resources. By relating and combining resources, activity sets, and risks across actor boundaries in novel ways actors create joint productivity gains – a concept very similar to density (Normann, 2001). Second, actors engage in a process of signification and evaluation. Signification implies co-constructing the meaning and worth of joint productivity gains co-created through interactive resource re-configuration, as well as sharing those gains through a pricing mechanism as value to involved actors. The conceptual framework highlights an all-important dynamics associated with ´value creation´ and ´value´ - a dynamics the paper claims has eluded past marketing research. The paper argues that the framework presented here is appropriate for the interactive service perspective, where value and value creation are not objectively given, but depend on the power of involved actors´ socially constructed frames to mobilize resources across actor boundaries in ways that ´enhance system well-being´ (Vargo et al., 2008). The paper contributes to research on Service Logic, Service-Dominant Logic, and Service Science.
  • Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Leadership and management remain highly gendered. Recent decades have seen a major international growth of studies on gender relations in leadership, organisations and management, in both empirical research and theoretical analysis. The differential relations of women and men to leadership and management are a key question for both theory and practice. Recent research and discussion on the gendering of leadership have been influenced by and have addressed: feminism; recognition of women and women’s situations, experiences and voices in leadership; organisational culture; communication; divisions of labour, hierarchy, power and authority; imagery and symbolism; information technology; sexuality, harassment, bullying and violence in organisations; home-work relations; men and masculinities in leadership; globalisation, transnationalism, intersectionality and post¬¬colonialism – amongst other issues. Having said that, the vast majority of mainstream work on leadership retains little or no gender analysis. In most business schools and other universities the position of gender-explicit work on leadership is still not well established. Leadership through the Gender Lens brings together critical analyses and debates on gender, leadership and management with contributions from 13 countries and five continents. How leadership and management are gendered can mean more gender equal or more gender unequal conditions for women and men. This includes how education and training can contribute to gendered leadership and management. The volume is organised in three main sections, on: careers and leadership; management, hierarchy and leadership: and interventions in leadership.
  • Heinonen, Kristina; Mickelsson, Jakob; Strandvik, Tore (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    All companies have a portfolio of customer relationships. From a managerial standpoint the value of these customer relationships is a key issue. The aim of the paper is to introduce a conceptual framework for customers’ energy towards a service provider. Customer energy is defined as the cognitive, affective and behavioural effort a customer puts into the purchase of an offering. It is based on two dimensions: life theme involvement and relationship commitment. Data from a survey study of 425 customers of an online gambling site was combined with data about their individual purchases and activity. Analysis showed that involvement and commitment influence both customer behaviour and attitudes. Customer involvement was found to be strongly related to overall spending within a consumption area, whereas relationship commitment is a better predictor of the amount of money spent at a particular company. Dividing the customers into four different involvement / commitment segments revealed differences in churn rates, word-of-mouth, brand attitude, switching propensity and the use of the service for socializing. The framework provides a tool for customer management by revealing differences in fundamental drivers of customer behaviour resulting in completely new customer portfolios. Knowledge of customer energy allows companies to manage their communication and offering development better and provides insight into the risk of losing a customer.
  • Voima, Päivi; Heinonen, Kristina; Strandvik, Tore (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    This paper extends current discussions about value creation and proposes a customer dominant value perspective. A customer-dominant marketing logic positions the customer in the center, rather than the service provider/producer or the interaction or the system. The focus is shifted from the company´s service processes involving the customer, to the customer´s multi-contextual value formation, involving the company. It is argued that value is not always an active process of creation; instead value is embedded and formed in the highly dynamic and multi-contextual reality and life of the customer. This leads to a need to look beyond the current line of visibility where visible customer-company interactions are focused to the invisible and mental life of the customer. From this follows a need to extend the temporal scope, from exchange and use even further to accumulated experiences in the customer´s life. The aim of this paper is to explore value formation from a customer dominant logic perspective. This is done in three steps: first, value formation is contrasted to earlier views on the company’s role in value creation by using a broad ontologically driven framework discussing what, how, when, where and who. Next, implications of the proposed characteristics of value formation compared to earlier approaches are put forward. Finally, some tentative suggestions of how this perspective would affect marketing in service companies are presented. As value formation in a CDL perspective has a different focus and scope than earlier views on value it leads to posing questions about the customer that reveals earlier hidden aspects of the role of a service for the customer. This insight might be used in service development and innovation.
  • Sorsa, Virpi; Pälli, Pekka; Vaara, Eero; Peltola, Katja (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Strategisen johtamisen oppi on tunkeutunut nykyään lähes kaikenlaisiin organisaatioihin suuryrityksistä julkisorganisaatioihin ja kolmannelle sektorille. Siitä on muodostunut suosittu johtamiskäytäntö, jota pidetään yleisesti jopa välttämättömyytenä ja itsestään selvänä tapana johtaa ja tehdä päätöksiä. Tässä kirjassa tuodaan esille, miten strategiapuhe ei kuitenkaan ole mikään viaton tai neutraali tapa tuottaa todellisuuttamme; se pitää sisällään erilaisia valtarakennelmia ja vaihtoehdottomuutta. Tutkimus antaa myös mielenkiintoisen näkökulman erityisesti isossa kaupunkiorganisaatiossa tehtävään strategiatyöhön. Kirja tarjoaa näköaloja ja tutkimuksellisia avauksia erityisesti strategian retoriikkaan, keskustelukäytäntöihin, strategian kääntämisen ilmiöön, osallistumisen problematiikkaan sekä strategian ja maineenhallinnan yhteyteen.
  • Strandvik, Tore; Rindell, Anne (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Purpose This paper takes a customer view on corporate image and value, and discusses the value of image in service. We propose a model depicting how the customer’s corporate brand image affects the customer’s value-in-use. Methodology/approach The paper represents conceptual development on customers’ value and image construction processes. By integrating ideas and elements from the current service and branding literature a model is proposed that extends current views on how value-in-use emerges. Findings From a current service perspective it is the customer who makes value assessments when experiencing service. Similarly, if branding is a concept used to denote the service provider’s intentions and attempts to create a corporate brand, image construction is the corresponding process where the customer constructs the corporate image. This image construction process is always present both in service interactions and in communication and has an effect on the customer’s value-in-use. We argue that two interrelated concepts are needed to capture corporate image construction and dynamics and value-in-use – the image-in-use and image heritage. Research implications The model integrates two different streams of research pointing to the need to consider traditional marketing communication and service interactions as inherently related to each other from the customer’s point of view. Additionally the model gives a platform for understanding how value-in-use emerges over time. New methodological approaches and techniques to capture image-in-use and image heritage and their interplay with value-in-use are needed. Practical implications The company may not be able to control the emergence of value-in-use but may influence it, not only in interactions with the customer but also with pure communication. Branding activities should therefore be considered related to service operations and service development. Additionally, practitioners would need to apply qualitative methods to understand the customer’s view on image and value-in-use. Originality/value The paper presents a novel approach for understanding and studying that the customer’s image of a company influences emergence of value-in-use. The model implies that the customer’s corporate image has a crucial role for experienced value-in-use.
  • Rindell, Anne (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    This paper focuses on the time dimension in consumers’ image construction processes. Two new concepts are introduced to cover past consumer experiences about the company – image heritage, and the present image construction process - image-in-use. Image heritage and image-in-use captures the dynamic, relational, social, and contextual features of corporate image construction processes. Qualitative data from a retailing context were collected and analysed following a grounded theory approach. The study demonstrates that consumers’ corporate images have long roots in past experiences. Understanding consumers’ image heritage provides opportunities for understanding how consumers might interpret management initiatives and branding activities in the present.