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  • Lindman, Juho (AIS, 2015-08-18)
  • Laakso, Mikael (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    Engagement in learning activities enhance the level of learning among students. However, when class sizes grow, such engagement can be difficult to achieve. The learning methods that work well in small classes might not work as well, or even be practically feasible, in large lecture halls. When students remain anonymous and cannot be given individual attention there is a challenge in ensuring high quality learning. In an attempt to address this challenge, the study explores ways to pro- mote active learning in the context of large lecture classes. Based on a review of the fundamentals of active learning in the literature, this article presents a range of methods that can be used to facilitate active learning among students in larger classes. Concluding the article is a description of a practical implementation where some of the suggested learning activities are applied and discussed in the context of an actual university course at the Hanken School of Economics taught by the author.
  • Lindman, Juho; Kinnari, Tomi; Rossi, Matti (I E E E, 2015)
  • Lindman, Juho (Universidad de Talca, 2014-09-01)
  • Eränti, Veikko; Lindman, Juho (Valtiotieteellinen yhdistys, 2014-09-01)
  • Björk, Bo-Christer; Solomon, David (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers, 2014-04-01)
    Open access (OA) publishing is steadily growing in both full OA journals and hybrid journals where authors can pay to individually open up their articles. Funding for article processing charges (APCs) is still a strong barrier for many authors particularly for subscription journals where the hybrid option is expensive and an added extra feature after an article is accepted for publication. Many research funders in Europe have started or are considering mechanisms for paying APCs with earmarked funding in order to increase the uptake of OA. At the same time they are well aware that their actions may influence the way the OA market will develop in the near future. This article discusses a number of scenarios for ways in which funders could cover the cost of APCs, while encouraging the development of a competitive and transparent market for APC-funded OA scholarly publishing. We provide evidence that the current APC-funded full OA market is sensitive to journal prestige/impact. We present a value-based cap funding scheme which could help maintain transparency bringing hybrid market pricing in line with the full OA market. We also consider a scenario that addresses hybrid “double dipping” while limiting the cost of transitioning to full OA for research-intensive universities as well as cost-sharing as a mechanism for providing authors with an incentive for considering cost as well as value in choosing where to publish.
  • Lindman, Juho; Nyman, Linus Morten (Talent First Network, 2014-01-30)
    Open data and open source are phenomena that are often automatically grouped together, perhaps because they share the word "open". A careful analysis of what open means in each of these cases is a stepping stone towards building viable businesses around both open source applications and on open data. Although there are, indeed, elements they share through their openness, the ways in which they differ are significant. In this conceptual paper, we aim to out- line the differences and similarities of the two phenomena from a commercial perspective.
  • Widenius, Michael "Monty"; Nyman, Linus Morten (Talent First Network, 2014-01-29)
    This article is meant as a primer for those interested in gaining a basic understanding of the business of open source software. Thus, we cover four main areas: i) what motivates businesses to get involved in open source; ii) common open source licenses and how they relate to community and corporate interests; iii) issues regarding the monetization of an open source program; and iv) open source business models currently employed. This article is particularly suitable for people who want a general understanding of the business of open source software; people who want to understand the significant issues regarding an open source program's potential to generate income; and entrepreneurs who want to create a company around open source code.
  • Lindman, Juho; Kinnari, Tomi; Rossi, Matti (2014-01-06)
  • Laakso, Mikael (Akademiai Kiado Rt., 2014)
    The degree to which scholarly journal articles published in subscription-based journals could be provided open access (OA) through publisher-permitted uploading to freely accessible web locations, so called green OA, is an underexplored area of research. This study combines article volume data originating from the Scopus bibliographic database with manually coded publisher policies of the 100 largest journal publishers measured by article output volume for the year 2010. Of the 1,1 million articles included in the analysis, 80.4% could be uploaded either as an accepted manuscript or publisher version to an institutional or subject repository after one year of publication. Publishers were found to be substantially more permissive with allowing accepted manuscripts on personal webpages (78.1% of articles) or in institutional repositories (79.9%) compared to subject repositories (32.8%). With previous studies suggesting realized green OA to be around 12% of total annual articles the results highlight the substantial unused potential for green OA.
  • Laakso, Mikael; Nyman, Linus Morten (Talent First Network, 2014)
    The video game industry offers insights into the significance of standards and platforms. Furthermore, it shows examples of how new entrants can offer innovative services, while reducing their own risk, through bridging the boundaries between standards. Through an exploration of both past and present, this article aims to serve as a primer for understanding, firstly, the technological standards and platforms of the video game industry, and secondly, the recent innovations within the video game industry that have enabled products to be made available across platforms.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer; Laakso, Mikael; Welling, Patrik; Paetau, Patrik (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014)
    Open Access (OA) is the free unrestricted access to electronic versions of scholarly publications. For peer reviewed journal articles there are two main routes to OA, publishing in OA journals (gold OA) or archiving of article copies or manuscripts at other web locations (green OA). This study focuses on summarizing and extending upon current knowledge about green OA. A synthesis of previous studies indicates that the green OA coverage of all published journal articles is approximately 12 %, with substantial disciplinary variation. Typically, green OA copies become available with considerable time delays, partly caused by publisher imposed embargo periods, and partly by author tendencies to archive manuscripts only periodically. Although green OA copies should ideally be archived in proper repositories, a large share is stored on home pages and similar locations, with no assurance of long-term preservation. Often such locations contain exact copies of published articles, which may infringe on the publisher’s exclusive rights. The technical foundation for green OA uploading is becoming increasingly solid, which is largely due to the rapid increase in the number of institutional repositories. The number of articles within the scope of OA mandates, which strongly influence the self- archival rate of articles, is nevertheless still low.
  • Björk, Bo-Christer (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014)
    Subject repositories are open web collections of working papers or manuscript copies of published scholarly articles, specific to particular scientific disciplines. The first repositories emerged already in the early 1990’s and in some fields of science they have become an important channel for the dissemination of research results. Using quite strict inclusion criteria 56 subject repositories were identified from a much larger number indexed in two repository indexes. A closer study of these demonstrated a huge variety in sizes, organizational models, functions and topics. When they first started to emerge subject repositories catered to a strong market demand, but the later development of Internet search engines, the rapid growth of institutional repositories and the tightening up of journal publisher OA policies seems to be slowing down their growth.
  • Nyman, Linus Morten (2013-08)
    While significant factors that affect the open source community’s interest to participate in a development project have been studied, there has been little focus on the motivating factors that can cause a contributor to become a competitor by utilizing the right to fork a program i.e., to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development. The right to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development is guaranteed by all open source licenses. However, this right to fork a program is rarely exercised. Indeed, there is strong social pressure against code forking stemming from the negative side effects of code forking, such as conflict and duplicated efforts among developers. This paper details the events that led Widenius, the founder of the MySQL project, to decide to fork MariaDB from MySQL. Our findings confirm the previously held notion that there is a high threshold for starting a competing fork. While the few studies that exist of competitive forks find the reasons to be due to disagreement among developers, in the case of MariaDB the fork was caused by Widenius’ concerns regarding the uncertainty of the future freedom and openness of the MySQL codebase. This article makes three contributions. Firstly, it further validates the existing notion that there is a strong threshold to starting a competing fork. Secondly, it offers an in-depth analysis of the events and motivations behind the birth of a fork. Thirdly, it contributes to theory by introducing the freedom factor hypothesis: limiting either developers’ freedoms to contribute to a project or the freedom inherent in a project's license increases the likelihood of a fork.
  • Solomon, David; Laakso, Mikael; Björk, Bo-Christer (Elsevier BV, 2013-07)
    The study documents the growth in the number of journals and articles along with the increase in citation normalized citation rates of open access (OA) journals listed in the Scopus bibliographic database between 1999 and 2010. Longitudinal statistics on growth in journals/articles and citation rates are broken down by funding model, discipline, and whether the journal was launched or had converted to OA. The data were retrieved from the web sites of SCIMago Journal and Country Rank (journal /article counts), JournalM3trics (SNIP2 values), Scopus (journal discipline) and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) (OA and funding status). OA journals/articles have grown much faster than subscription journals but still make up less that 12% of the journals in Scopus. Two-year citation averages for journals funded by article processing charges (APCs) have reached the same level as subscription journals. Citation averages of OA journals funded by other means continue to lag well behind OA journals funded by APCs and subscription journals. We hypothesize this is less an issue of quality than due to the fact that such journals are commonly published in languages other than English and tend to be located outside the four major publishing countries
  • Widenius, Michael; Nyman, Linus Morten (Talent First Network, 2013-06)
    The benefits of the open source development model have been proven by the test of time; however, making this development model economically feasible can be challenging. In this article, Monty Widenius puts forth a suggestion for a new type of license, which is the result of the lessons learned from decades of work on open source, both as programmer and entrepreneur. The result, “business source”, is a license that seeks to enable a business model that can both harness the benefits of open source while generating sufficient income for the program’s continued development. The business source license automatically changes terms after a given period: an initial non-open source license with specific usage restrictions that transforms to a fully open source license on a specific future date. In this article, we contribute a proposal for a novel license, a set of recommendations for managers, and a sample text of a business source license. This work will be of relevance to four main groups: i) those developing or managing a closed source program but who are interested in the benefits open source offers; ii) those managing open core programs; iii) projects in development; and iv) investors interested in funding open source projects.
  • Nyman, Linus Morten; Lindman, Juho (Talent First Network, 2013-01-15)
  • Lindman, Juho; Rossi, Matti; Tuunainen, Virpi (2013-01-10)
  • Björk, Bo-Christer; Solomon, David (Elsevier BV, 2013)
    Publishing in scholarly peer reviewed journals usually entails long delays from submission to publication. In part this is due to the length of the peer review process and in part because of the dominating tradition of publication in issues, earlier a necessity of paper-based publishing, which creates backlogs of manuscripts waiting in line. The delays slow the dissemination of scholarship and can provide a significant burden on the academic careers of authors. Using a stratified random sample we studied average publishing delays in 2700 papers published in 135 journals sampled from the Scopus citation index. The shortest overall delays occur in science technology and medical (STM) fields and the longest in social science, arts/humanities and business/economics. Business/economics with a delay of 18 months took twice as long as chemistry with a 9 month average delay. Analysis of the variance indicated that by far the largest amount of variance in the time between submission and acceptance was among articles within a journal as compared with journals, disciplines or the size of the journal. For the time between acceptance and publication most of the variation in delay can be accounted for by differences between specific journals.