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  • Ahlgren, Niklas; Catani, Paul (Hanken School of Economics, 2012-09-11)
    Standard asymptotic and residual-based bootstrap tests for error autocorrela- tion are unreliable in the presence of conditional heteroskedasticity. In this article we propose wild bootstrap tests for autocorrelation in vector autoregressive mod- els when the errors are conditionally heteroskedastic. In particular, we investigate the properties of Lagrange multiplier tests. Monte Carlo simulations show that the wild bootstrap tests have satisfactory size properties in models with con- stant conditional correlation generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedas- tic (CCC-GARCH) errors, whereas the standard asymptotic and residual-based bootstrap tests are oversized. The tests are applied to credit default swap prices and Euribor interest rates.
  • Ahlgren, Niklas; Antell, Jan (Hanken School of Economics, 2012-06-28)
    Tests for abnormal returns which are derived under the assumption of cross sectional independence are invalid if the abnormal returns are cross sectionally correlated. We model the cross sectional correlation by a spatial autoregressive model. The abnormal returns of .rms belonging to the same group according to their business activities are correlated, whereas the abnormal returns of .rms belonging to different groups are uncorrelated. Tests for abnormal returns corrected for cross sectional correlation are derived. An empirical application to US stock returns around Bear Stearns.collapse and Lehman Brothers.bankruptcy in 2008 is provided as an illustration. (JEL C21, C22, G12).
  • Bask, Mikael (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009-06-05)
    Perhaps the most fundamental prediction of financial theory is that the expected returns on financial assets are determined by the amount of risk contained in their payoffs. Assets with a riskier payoff pattern should provide higher expected returns than assets that are otherwise similar but provide payoffs that contain less risk. Financial theory also predicts that not all types of risks should be compensated with higher expected returns. It is well-known that the asset-specific risk can be diversified away, whereas the systematic component of risk that affects all assets remains even in large portfolios. Thus, the asset-specific risk that the investor can easily get rid of by diversification should not lead to higher expected returns, and only the shared movement of individual asset returns – the sensitivity of these assets to a set of systematic risk factors – should matter for asset pricing. It is within this framework that this thesis is situated. The first essay proposes a new systematic risk factor, hypothesized to be correlated with changes in investor risk aversion, which manages to explain a large fraction of the return variation in the cross-section of stock returns. The second and third essays investigate the pricing of asset-specific risk, uncorrelated with commonly used risk factors, in the cross-section of stock returns. The three essays mentioned above use stock market data from the U.S. The fourth essay presents a new total return stock market index for the Finnish stock market beginning from the opening of the Helsinki Stock Exchange in 1912 and ending in 1969 when other total return indices become available. Because a total return stock market index for the period prior to 1970 has not been available before, academics and stock market participants have not known the historical return that stock market investors in Finland could have achieved on their investments. The new stock market index presented in essay 4 makes it possible, for the first time, to calculate the historical average return on the Finnish stock market and to conduct further studies that require long time-series of data.
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Koskinen, Yrjö (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009-03-25)
    Pörssiyhtiöihin liitetään julkisessa keskustelussa usein väitteitä, että pörssiyhtiöt palvelevat osakkeenomistajien lyhytaikaisia etuja muiden sidosryhmien ja myös pitkän aikavälin tuottavuuden kustannuksella. Keskitymme tässä selonteossa tutkimaan onko pörssiyhtiöiden julkisuudessa osalleen saama kritiikki ansaittua. Erityisesti tarkastelemme pörssiyhtiöiden roolia työnantajina ja investoijina 2000- luvulla verrattuna noteeraamattomien yritysten rooliin. Selvitämme myös listattujen ja listaamattomien yritysten eroja sijoituskohteina sekä tutkimme, onko pörssissä ololla vaikutusta yrityksen rahoitusrakenteeseen. Olemme jättäneet vertailun ulkopuolelle nopeasti kasvaneet ja kannattavat tietotekniikka-alan yritykset, joille ei ole olemassa noteeraamattomia vertailukohteita. Lisäksi vertailustamme olemme jättäneet pois yritykset, jotka eivät ole olleet listattuina koko tarkasteluperiodimme aikana. Pois jättämämme kasvuyritykset todennäköisesti parantaisivat pörssiyhtiöiden suhteellista asemaa ainakin kasvu- ja tulosnäkökulmista. Osakkeenomistajien edun lyhytnäköisen valvonnan tulisi johtaa työntekijöiden hyväksikäyttöön ja pitkäaikaisinvestointien karttamiseen. Tuloksemme kuitenkin kertovat päinvastaista. Pörssiyhtiöiden työntekijäkohtaiset henkilökulut ovat selvästi samoilla aloilla toimivia noteeraamattomia yrityksiä korkeammat. Erot ovat huomattavat: pörssiyhtiöiden vuosittaiset henkilökulut ovat noin 3000–4000 euroa suuremmat per henkilö. Lisäksi pörssiyhtiöt ovat kasvattaneet työntekijämääräänsä huomattavasti, toisin kuin noteeraamattomat vertailuyritykset. Otantamme pörssiyhtiöiden kokonaistyöllisyys on 2000-luvulla kasvanut keskimäärin noin 3 % vuodessa. Pörssiyhtiöt työllistivät vuonna 2007 lähes 87.000 työntekijää enemmän kuin vuonna 2001, kun taas yksityisen vertailuryhmän osalta työpaikat olivat samaan aikaan vähentyneet noin 2 500:lla. Pörssiyhtiöiden investoinnit ovat useina vuosina olleet listaamattomia yrityksiä suuremmat, joskin erot kahden ryhmän välillä eivät tyypillisesti ole tilastollisesti merkittäviä. Sidosryhmien hyväksikäytölle tai lyhytjänteisyydelle ei siis tältä osin löydy minkäänlaisia todisteita. Investointituotoissa ei ole järjestelmällisiä eroja kahden ryhmän välillä, lukuunottamatta aivan viime vuosia, jolloin pörssiyhtiöiden oman pääoman tuotto on ollut selvästi korkeampi kuin noteeraamattomien yritysten. Pörssiyhtiöillä ja noteeraamattomilla vertailuyrityksillä on merkittäviä eroja osingonmaksussa. Pörssiyhtiöt maksavat selvästi korkeampia osinkoja kuin vertailuryhmään kuuluvat yritykset. Pörssiyhtiöt maksavat omistajilleen noin puolet nettotuloksistaan osinkoina, kun taas noteeraamattomat yritykset maksavat ainoastaan 20–30 %. Erot pörssiyhtiöiden hyväksi ovat vielä suurempia, kun mittarina käytetään osinkojen suhdetta liikevaihtoon. Tulostemme mukaan pörssiyhtiöt käyttävät velkarahoitusta vastaavia noteeraamattomia yrityksiä enemmän. Tämä voi johtua kahdesta syystä. Ensinnäkin, koska osakkeen julkinen kauppa mahdollistaa omistuspohjan laajenemisen ja alkuperäisyrittäjien sijoitusten paremman hajauttamisen, pörssiyrityksellä on suurempi halukkuus riskinottoon lisäämällä velkarahoitusta. Toisaalta pörssilistaus voi toimia signaalina yrityksen laadusta siten, että rahoittajat tarjoavat velkarahoitusta auliimmin ja paremmilla ehdoilla. Pörssiyhtiöiden suurempi velkaisuus ei ole ollenkaan negatiivinen asia, koska velkarahoitus on verohyötyineen tyypillisesti huomattavasti osakerahoitusta edullisempaa. Tämä taas mahdollistaa lisäinvestointeja, joita ei rahoituksen puutteessa muuten tehtäisi. Yleisemmin rahoitusrakenteiden eroja tarkastellessamme huomaamme viitteitä siitä, että koska pörssiyhtiöillä on mahdollisuus saada osakepääomaa helpommin kuin listaamattomien yhtiöiden, ne pystyvät reagoimaan sekä tuote-, että rahoitusmarkkinoiden 3 mahdollisuuksiin. Listaamattomien yritysten rahoitusrakenne ja myös investoinnit sen sijaan näyttäisivät olevan pitkälle sidonnaisia tulorahoituksen tarjoamiin kassavirtoihin. Pörssiyhtiöt investoivat vähintään yhtä paljon kuin vastaavat noteeraamattomat yritykset ja investointien tuottavuus on vähintään yhtä hyvä. Pörssiyhtiöt ovat parempia palkanmaksajia ja työllistäjiä kuin vastaavat yksityiset yritykset. Pörssiyhtiöt pystyvät maksaamaan selkeästi parempia osinkoja investointien ja muun toiminnan siitä kärsimättä, koska velkarahoituksen parempi saatavuus tai pörssiyhtiöiden suurempi halukkuus käyttää velkarahoitusta tuovat rahoitusrakenteeseen tarvittavaa joustavuutta. Tulostemme valossa arvostelu osakkeenomistajien lyhytaikaisten etujen suosimisesta muiden sidosryhmien tai pitkän aikavälin tuottavuuden kustannuksella ei ole perusteltavissa.
  • Ahlgren, Niklas; Antell, Jan (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008-07-04)
    Financial crises have shown that dramatic movements in one financial market can have a powerful impact on other markets. The paper proposes to use cobreaking to model comovements between financial markets during crises and to test for conta-gion. It finds evidence of cobreaking between stock returns in developed markets. Finding cobreaking has implications for the diversification of international investments. For emerging mar-ket stock returns the evidence of cobreaking is mainly due to the non-financial event of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. Fi-nancial crises originating in one emerging market do not spread to other markets, i.e., no contagion.
  • Sjöholm, Hans-Kristian (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007-11-07)
    This paper examines the potential impact of new capital requirements on asset allocations of Finnish pension institutions. We describe the new requirements and consider portfolio construction to minimize regulatory capital, given the investor’s preferred level of expected return. Results identify portfolio transactions that enhance expected return without increasing capital needs. Regulation calls for portfolio diversification and prudence in management, but this paper shows that market participants can exploit inconsistencies in regulation. Possible future consequences include capital outflows from the pension system and an unintended decrease in pre-funding of old-age pensions.
  • Kulp-Tåg, Sofie (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007-04-13)
    This paper uses the Value-at-Risk approach to define the risk in both long and short trading positions. The investigation is done on some major market indices(Japanese, UK, German and US). The performance of models that takes into account skewness and fat-tails are compared to symmetric models in relation to both the specific model for estimating the variance, and the distribution of the variance estimate used as input in the VaR estimation. The results indicate that more flexible models not necessarily perform better in predicting the VaR forecast; the reason for this is most probably the complexity of these models. A general result is that different methods for estimating the variance are needed for different confidence levels of the VaR, and for the different indices. Also, different models are to be used for the left respectively the right tail of the distribution.
  • Kulp-Tåg, Sofie (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007-04-12)
    This paper examines how volatility in financial markets can preferable be modeled. The examination investigates how good the models for the volatility, both linear and nonlinear, are in absorbing skewness and kurtosis. The examination is done on the Nordic stock markets, including Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Different linear and nonlinear models are applied, and the results indicates that a linear model can almost always be used for modeling the series under investigation, even though nonlinear models performs slightly better in some cases. These results indicate that the markets under study are exposed to asymmetric patterns only to a certain degree. Negative shocks generally have a more prominent effect on the markets, but these effects are not really strong. However, in terms of absorbing skewness and kurtosis, nonlinear models outperform linear ones.
  • Kulp-Tåg, Sofie (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007-04-02)
    This paper examines the asymmetric behavior of conditional mean and variance. Short-horizon mean-reversion behavior in mean is modeled with an asymmetric nonlinear autoregressive model, and the variance is modeled with an Exponential GARCH in Mean model. The results of the empirical investigation of the Nordic stock markets indicates that negative returns revert faster to positive returns when positive returns generally persist longer. Asymmetry in both mean and variance can be seen on all included markets and are fairly similar. Volatility rises following negative returns more than following positive returns which is an indication of overreactions. Negative returns lead to increased variance and positive returns leads even to decreased variance.
  • Liljeblom, Eva; Vaihekoski, Mika (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007-03-22)
    Increased media exposure to layoffs and corporate quarterly financial reporting have created arguable a common perception – especially favored by the media itself – that the companies have been forced to improve their financial performance from quarter to quarter. Academically the relevant question is whether the companies themselves feel that they are exposed to short-term pressure to perform even if it means that they have to compromise company’s long-term future. This paper studies this issue using results from a survey conducted among the 500 largest companies in Finland. The results show that companies in general feel moderate short-term pressure, with reasonable dispersion across firms. There seems to be a link between the degree of pressure felt, and the firm’s ownership structure, i.e. we find support for the existence of short-term versus long-term owners. We also find significant ownership related differences, in line with expectations, in how such short-term pressure is reflected in actual decision variables such as the investment criteria used.
  • Rokkanen, Nikolas (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007-02-07)
    This paper examines empirically the effect firm reputation has on the determinants of debt maturity. Utilising data from European primary bond market between 1999 and 2005, I find that the maturity choice of issuers with a higher reputation is less sensitive to macroeconomic conditions, market credit risk-premiums, prevailing firm credit quality and size of the debt issue. The annualised coupon payments are shown to be a significant factor in determining the debt maturity and reveal a monotonously increasing relationship between credit quality and debt maturity once controlled for. Finally, I show that issuers lacking a credit rating have an implied credit quality positioned between investment-grade and speculative-grade debt.
  • Ahlgren, Niklas; Antell, Jan (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006-09-11)
    The likelihood ratio test of cointegration rank is the most widely used test for cointegration. Many studies have shown that its finite sample distribution is not well approximated by the limiting distribution. The article introduces and evaluates by Monte Carlo simulation experiments bootstrap and fast double bootstrap (FDB) algorithms for the likelihood ratio test. It finds that the performance of the bootstrap test is very good. The more sophisticated FDB produces a further improvement in cases where the performance of the asymptotic test is very unsatisfactory and the ordinary bootstrap does not work as well as it might. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo simulations provide a number of guidelines on when the bootstrap and FDB tests can be expected to work well. Finally, the tests are applied to US interest rates and international stock prices series. It is found that the asymptotic test tends to overestimate the cointegration rank, while the bootstrap and FDB tests choose the correct cointegration rank.
  • Harju, Kari; Hussain, Syed Mujahid (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006-07-28)
    Utilizing concurrent 5-minute returns, the intraday dynamics and inter-market dependencies in international equity markets were investigated. A strong intraday cyclical autocorrelation structure in the volatility process was observed to be caused by the diurnal pattern. A major rise in contemporaneous cross correlation among European stock markets was also noticed to follow the opening of the New York Stock Exchange. Furthermore, the results indicated that the returns for UK and Germany responded to each other’s innovations, both in terms of the first and second moment dependencies. In contrast to earlier research, the US stock market did not cause significant volatility spillover to the European markets.
  • Harju, Kari; Hussain, Syed Mujahid (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006-03-08)
    Using a data set consisting of three years of 5-minute intraday stock index returns for major European stock indices and U.S. macroeconomic surprises, the conditional mean and volatility behaviors in European market were investigated. The findings suggested that the opening of the U.S market significantly raised the level of volatility in Europe, and that all markets respond in an identical fashion. Furthermore, the U.S. macroeconomic surprises exerted an immediate and major impact on both European stock markets’ returns and volatilities. Thus, high frequency data appear to be critical for the identification of news that impacted the markets.
  • Jern, Benny (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005-05-18)
    This study investigates the relationship between fund attributes and performance. The focus is on funds available in the Swedish Premium Pension system (PPM-funds). The aim has been to investigate whether administration fees, manager tenure or past performance are of importance for pension savers when they pick their PPM-funds. The results indicate that high fees are a disadvantage to pension savers investing in bond funds but not to those investing in stock funds. Manager tenure has no relationship with performance. There is evidence of performance persistency in most of the investigated fund categories.
  • Ekholm, Anders; Nandelstadh von, Alexander (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2004-06-03)
    Inspired by the recent debate in the financial press, we set out to investigate if financial analysts warn their preferred customers of possible earnings forecast revisions. The issue is explored by monitoring investors’ trading behavior during the weeks prior to analyst earnings forecast revisions, using the unique official stock transactions data set from Finland. In summary, we do not find evidence of large investors systematically being warned of earnings forecast revisions. However, the results indicate that the very largest investors show trading behavior partly consistent with being informed of future earnings forecast revisions.
  • Pasternack, Daniel; Rosenberg, Matts (Hanken School of Economics, 2003)
    This paper analyzes factors driving the design of stock option plans for Finnish firms. We examine determinants of the scope of plans, exercise price, target group, and dividend protection. The scope is found to be negatively related to Tobin’s Q and positively related to proxies for monitoring costs. The scope is also greater in broad-based plans, and in plans with dividend protection. Prior stock return is found to be negatively related to the size of the premium (out-of-the-moneyness), whereas dividend protection increases the premium. The results also suggest that investment intensity, cash flow, and monitoring costs are associated with the likelihood of granting premium (out-of-the-money) stock options. Furthermore, the likelihood of granting broad-based plans is increasing in institutional ownership and cash flow constraints, and decreasing in firm size. Broad-based plans are also more likely among firms in growth industries. We find support that the likelihood of dividend protection is decreasing in foreign ownership. In addition, firms paying zero-dividends are less likely to include dividend protection, whereas higher unsystematic risk is associated with a greater likelihood of including dividend protection.
  • Nandelstadh von, Alexander; Rosenberg, Matts (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 2003)
    This paper examines the association between corporate governance attributes and firm performance of Finnish firms during 1990 – 2000. The empirical results suggest that corporate governance matters for firm performance. First, univariate test results indicate that firms characterized by a high (efficient) level of corporate governance have delivered greater stock returns, are higher valued based on the measure of Tobin’s Q, and exhibit higher ratios of cash flow to assets, on average, in comparison to their counterparts characterized by a low (inefficient) level of corporate governance. Second, controlling for a number of well-known determinants of stock returns, we find evidence that firms categorized by inefficient corporate governance have delivered inferior returns to shareholders during the investigation period. Finally, after controlling for several common determinants of firm value, we find that firms characterized by efficient corporate governance have been valued higher during the investigation period, measured by Tobin’s Q.
  • Rosenberg, Matts (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 2003)
    This paper addresses several questions in the compensation literature by examining stock option compensation practices of Finnish firms. First, the results indicate that principal-agent theory succeeds quite well in predicting the use of stock options. Proxies for monitoring costs, growth opportunities, ownership structure, and risk are found to determine the use of incentives consistent with theory. Furthermore, the paper examines whether determinants of stock options targeted to top management differ from determinants of broad-based stock option plans. Some evidence is found that factors driving these two types of incentives differ. Second, the results reveal that systematic risk significantly increases the likelihood that firms adopt stock option plans, whereas total firm risk and unsystematic risk do not seem to affect this decision. Third, the results show that growth opportunities are related to time-dimensional contracting frequency, consistent with the argument that incentive levels deviate more rapidly from optimum in firms with high growth opportunities. Finally, the results suggest that vesting schedules are decreasing in financial leverage, and that contract maturity is decreasing in firm focus. In addition, both vesting schedules and contract maturity tend to be longer in firms involving state ownership.
  • Jern, Benny (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    People saving in mutual funds often look at historical performance before they decide which funds to invest in. The implicit assumption made is that superior performance is likely to be repeated in the future. The findings presented in this study, which investigates funds sold on the Swedish market, support such an approach provided that the time horizons are limited to one year. International stock funds that have performed strongly one year are likely to outperform their peers also the following years. But if the historical and future time horizons are extended to two or three years, the positive relationship between past and future performance vanishes in most cases. Persistence tests focusing on the aggregated performance of fund companies were also carried out. These tests produced results rather similar to those on the individual fund level.