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  • Nandelstadh von, Alexander (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 2002)
    This study contributes to the neglect effect literature by looking at the relative trading volume in terms of value. The results for the Swedish market show a significant positive relationship between the accuracy of estimation and the relative trading volume. Market capitalisation and analyst coverage have in prior studies been used as proxies for neglect. These measures however, do not take into account the effort analysts put in when estimating corporate pre-tax profits. I also find evidence that the industry of the firm influence the accuracy of estimation. In addition, supporting earlier findings, loss making firms are associated with larger forecasting errors. Further, I find that the average forecast error increased in the year 2000 – in Sweden.
  • Kulp-Tåg, Sofie (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    This paper examines how volatility in financial markets can preferable be modeled. The examination investigates how good the models for the volatility, both linear and nonlinear, are in absorbing skewness and kurtosis. The examination is done on the Nordic stock markets, including Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Different linear and nonlinear models are applied, and the results indicates that a linear model can almost always be used for modeling the series under investigation, even though nonlinear models performs slightly better in some cases. These results indicate that the markets under study are exposed to asymmetric patterns only to a certain degree. Negative shocks generally have a more prominent effect on the markets, but these effects are not really strong. However, in terms of absorbing skewness and kurtosis, nonlinear models outperform linear ones.
  • Kulp-Tåg, Sofie (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    This paper uses the Value-at-Risk approach to define the risk in both long and short trading positions. The investigation is done on some major market indices(Japanese, UK, German and US). The performance of models that takes into account skewness and fat-tails are compared to symmetric models in relation to both the specific model for estimating the variance, and the distribution of the variance estimate used as input in the VaR estimation. The results indicate that more flexible models not necessarily perform better in predicting the VaR forecast; the reason for this is most probably the complexity of these models. A general result is that different methods for estimating the variance are needed for different confidence levels of the VaR, and for the different indices. Also, different models are to be used for the left respectively the right tail of the distribution.
  • Ben Sita, Bernard (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    This paper investigates the persistent pattern in the Helsinki Exchanges. The persistent pattern is analyzed using a time and a price approach. It is hypothesized that arrival times are related to movements in prices. Thus, the arrival times are defined as durations and formulated as an Autoregressive Conditional Duration (ACD) model as in Engle and Russell (1998). The prices are defined as price changes and formulated as a GARCH process including duration measures. The research question follows from market microstructure predictions about price intensities defined as time between price changes. The microstructure theory states that long transaction durations might be associated with both no news and bad news. Accordingly, short durations would be related to high volatility and long durations to low volatility. As a result, the spread will tend to be larger under intensive moments. The main findings of this study are 1) arrival times are positively autocorrelated and 2) long durations are associated with low volatility in the market.
  • Ahlgren, Niklas; Antell, Jan (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006)
    The likelihood ratio test of cointegration rank is the most widely used test for cointegration. Many studies have shown that its finite sample distribution is not well approximated by the limiting distribution. The article introduces and evaluates by Monte Carlo simulation experiments bootstrap and fast double bootstrap (FDB) algorithms for the likelihood ratio test. It finds that the performance of the bootstrap test is very good. The more sophisticated FDB produces a further improvement in cases where the performance of the asymptotic test is very unsatisfactory and the ordinary bootstrap does not work as well as it might. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo simulations provide a number of guidelines on when the bootstrap and FDB tests can be expected to work well. Finally, the tests are applied to US interest rates and international stock prices series. It is found that the asymptotic test tends to overestimate the cointegration rank, while the bootstrap and FDB tests choose the correct cointegration rank.
  • Ahlgren, Niklas; Antell, Jan (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Financial crises have shown that dramatic movements in one financial market can have a powerful impact on other markets. The paper proposes to use cobreaking to model comovements between financial markets during crises and to test for conta-gion. It finds evidence of cobreaking between stock returns in developed markets. Finding cobreaking has implications for the diversification of international investments. For emerging mar-ket stock returns the evidence of cobreaking is mainly due to the non-financial event of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. Fi-nancial crises originating in one emerging market do not spread to other markets, i.e., no contagion.
  • Nandelstadh von, Alexander; Rosenberg, Matts (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 2003)
    This paper examines the association between corporate governance attributes and firm performance of Finnish firms during 1990 – 2000. The empirical results suggest that corporate governance matters for firm performance. First, univariate test results indicate that firms characterized by a high (efficient) level of corporate governance have delivered greater stock returns, are higher valued based on the measure of Tobin’s Q, and exhibit higher ratios of cash flow to assets, on average, in comparison to their counterparts characterized by a low (inefficient) level of corporate governance. Second, controlling for a number of well-known determinants of stock returns, we find evidence that firms categorized by inefficient corporate governance have delivered inferior returns to shareholders during the investigation period. Finally, after controlling for several common determinants of firm value, we find that firms characterized by efficient corporate governance have been valued higher during the investigation period, measured by Tobin’s Q.
  • Ekholm, Anders; Nandelstadh von, Alexander (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2004)
    Inspired by the recent debate in the financial press, we set out to investigate if financial analysts warn their preferred customers of possible earnings forecast revisions. The issue is explored by monitoring investors’ trading behavior during the weeks prior to analyst earnings forecast revisions, using the unique official stock transactions data set from Finland. In summary, we do not find evidence of large investors systematically being warned of earnings forecast revisions. However, the results indicate that the very largest investors show trading behavior partly consistent with being informed of future earnings forecast revisions.
  • Rosenberg, Matts (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 2002)
    This paper analyzes the effect of uncertainty on investment and labor demand for Finnish firms during the time period 1987 – 2000. Utilizing a stock return based measure of uncertainty decomposed into systematic and idiosyncratic components, the results reveal that idiosyncratic uncertainty significantly reduces both investment and labor demand. Idiosyncratic uncertainty seems to influence investment in the current period, whereas the depressing effect on labor demand appears with a one-year lag. The results provide support that the depressing effect of idiosyncratic uncertainty on investment is stronger for small firms in comparison to large firms. Some evidence is reported regarding differential effects of uncertainty on labor demand conditional on firm characteristics. Most importantly, the depressing effect of lagged idiosyncratic uncertainty on labor demand tends to be stronger for diversified firms compared with focused firms.
  • Sundkvist, Kim (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    This study evaluates three different time units in option pricing: trading time, calendar time and continuous time using discrete approximations (CTDA). The CTDA-time model partitions the trading day into 30-minute intervals, where each interval is given a weight corresponding to the historical volatility in the respective interval. Furthermore, the non-trading volatility, both overnight and weekend volatility, is included in the first interval of the trading day in the CTDA model. The three models are tested on market prices. The results indicate that the trading-time model gives the best fit to market prices in line with the results of previous studies, but contrary to expectations under non-arbitrage option pricing. Under non-arbitrage pricing, the option premium should reflect the cost of hedging the expected volatility during the option’s remaining life. The study concludes that the historical patterns in volatility are not fully accounted for by the market, rather the market prices options closer to trading time.
  • Lindqvist, Thomas; Söderman, Ronnie (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    In this paper, we examine the predictability of observed volatility smiles in three major European index options markets, utilising the historical return distributions of the respective underlying assets. The analysis involves an application of the Black (1976) pricing model adjusted in accordance with the Jarrow-Rudd methodology as proposed in 1982. Thereby we adjust the expected future returns for the third and fourth central moments as these represent deviations from normality in the distributions of observed returns. Thus, they are considered one possible explanation to the existence of the smile. The obtained results indicate that the inclusion of the higher moments in the pricing model to some extent reduces the volatility smile, compared with the unadjusted Black-76 model. However, as the smile is partly a function of supply, demand, and liquidity, and as such intricate to model, this modification does not appear sufficient to fully capture the characteristics of the smile.
  • Söderman, Ronnie (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    The objective of this paper is to investigate and model the characteristics of the prevailing volatility smiles and surfaces on the DAX- and ESX-index options markets. Continuing on the trend of Implied Volatility Functions, the Standardized Log-Moneyness model is introduced and fitted to historical data. The model replaces the constant volatility parameter of the Black & Scholes pricing model with a matrix of volatilities with respect to moneyness and maturity and is tested out-of-sample. Considering the dynamics, the results show support for the hypotheses put forward in this study, implying that the smile increases in magnitude when maturity and ATM volatility decreases and that there is a negative/positive correlation between a change in the underlying asset/time to maturity and implied ATM volatility. Further, the Standardized Log-Moneyness model indicates an improvement to pricing accuracy compared to previous Implied Volatility Function models, however indicating that the parameters of the models are to be re-estimated continuously for the models to fully capture the changing dynamics of the volatility smiles.
  • Pasternack, Daniel (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    In this paper I investigate the exercise policy, and the market reaction to that, of the executive stock option holders in Finland. The empirical tests are conducted with aggregated firm level data from 34 firms and 41 stock option programs. I find some evidence of an inverse relation between the exercise intensity of the options holders and the future abnormal return of the company share price. This finding is supported by the view that information about future company prospect seems to be the only theoretical attribute that could delay the exercise of the options. Moreover, a high concentration of exercises in the beginning of the exercise window is predicted and the market is expected to react to deviations from this. The empirical findings however show that the market does not react homogenously to the information revealed by the late exercises.
  • Pasternack, Daniel (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    This study contributes to the executive stock option literature by looking at factors driving the introduction of such a compensation form on a firm level. Using a discrete decision model I test the explanatory power of several agency theory based variables and find strong support for predictability of the form of executive compensation. Ownership concentration and liquidity are found to have a significant negative effect on the probability of stock option adoption. Furtermore, I find evidence of CEO ownership, institutional ownership, investment intensity, and historical market return having a significant and a positive relationship to the likelihood of adopting a executive stock option program.
  • Vikström, Mikael (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    This study examined the effects of the Greeks of the options and the trading results of delta hedging strategies, with three different time units or option-pricing models. These time units were calendar time, trading time and continuous time using discrete approximation (CTDA) time. The CTDA time model is a pricing model, that among others accounts for intraday and weekend, patterns in volatility. For the CTDA time model some additional theta measures, which were believed to be usable in trading, were developed. The study appears to verify that there were differences in the Greeks with different time units. It also revealed that these differences influence the delta hedging of options or portfolios. Although it is difficult to say anything about which is the most usable of the different time models, as this much depends on the traders view of the passing of time, different market conditions and different portfolios, the CTDA time model can be viewed as an attractive alternative.
  • Ekholm, Anders (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2001)
    The study contributes to our understanding of the forces that drive the stock market by investigating how different types of investors react to new financial statement information. Using the extremely comprehensive official register of share holdings in Finland, we find that the majority of investors are more probable to sell (buy) stocks in a company after a positive (negative) earnings surprise, and show a bias towards buying after the disclosure of new financial statement information. Large investors, on the other hand, show behavior opposite to that of the majority of investors in the market. Further, foreign investors show behavior similar to that of domestic investors. We suggest investor overconfidence and asymmetric information as possible explanations for the documented behavior.
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Koskinen, Yrjö (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009)
    Pörssiyhtiöihin liitetään julkisessa keskustelussa usein väitteitä, että pörssiyhtiöt palvelevat osakkeenomistajien lyhytaikaisia etuja muiden sidosryhmien ja myös pitkän aikavälin tuottavuuden kustannuksella. Keskitymme tässä selonteossa tutkimaan onko pörssiyhtiöiden julkisuudessa osalleen saama kritiikki ansaittua. Erityisesti tarkastelemme pörssiyhtiöiden roolia työnantajina ja investoijina 2000- luvulla verrattuna noteeraamattomien yritysten rooliin. Selvitämme myös listattujen ja listaamattomien yritysten eroja sijoituskohteina sekä tutkimme, onko pörssissä ololla vaikutusta yrityksen rahoitusrakenteeseen. Olemme jättäneet vertailun ulkopuolelle nopeasti kasvaneet ja kannattavat tietotekniikka-alan yritykset, joille ei ole olemassa noteeraamattomia vertailukohteita. Lisäksi vertailustamme olemme jättäneet pois yritykset, jotka eivät ole olleet listattuina koko tarkasteluperiodimme aikana. Pois jättämämme kasvuyritykset todennäköisesti parantaisivat pörssiyhtiöiden suhteellista asemaa ainakin kasvu- ja tulosnäkökulmista. Osakkeenomistajien edun lyhytnäköisen valvonnan tulisi johtaa työntekijöiden hyväksikäyttöön ja pitkäaikaisinvestointien karttamiseen. Tuloksemme kuitenkin kertovat päinvastaista. Pörssiyhtiöiden työntekijäkohtaiset henkilökulut ovat selvästi samoilla aloilla toimivia noteeraamattomia yrityksiä korkeammat. Erot ovat huomattavat: pörssiyhtiöiden vuosittaiset henkilökulut ovat noin 3000–4000 euroa suuremmat per henkilö. Lisäksi pörssiyhtiöt ovat kasvattaneet työntekijämääräänsä huomattavasti, toisin kuin noteeraamattomat vertailuyritykset. Otantamme pörssiyhtiöiden kokonaistyöllisyys on 2000-luvulla kasvanut keskimäärin noin 3 % vuodessa. Pörssiyhtiöt työllistivät vuonna 2007 lähes 87.000 työntekijää enemmän kuin vuonna 2001, kun taas yksityisen vertailuryhmän osalta työpaikat olivat samaan aikaan vähentyneet noin 2 500:lla. Pörssiyhtiöiden investoinnit ovat useina vuosina olleet listaamattomia yrityksiä suuremmat, joskin erot kahden ryhmän välillä eivät tyypillisesti ole tilastollisesti merkittäviä. Sidosryhmien hyväksikäytölle tai lyhytjänteisyydelle ei siis tältä osin löydy minkäänlaisia todisteita. Investointituotoissa ei ole järjestelmällisiä eroja kahden ryhmän välillä, lukuunottamatta aivan viime vuosia, jolloin pörssiyhtiöiden oman pääoman tuotto on ollut selvästi korkeampi kuin noteeraamattomien yritysten. Pörssiyhtiöillä ja noteeraamattomilla vertailuyrityksillä on merkittäviä eroja osingonmaksussa. Pörssiyhtiöt maksavat selvästi korkeampia osinkoja kuin vertailuryhmään kuuluvat yritykset. Pörssiyhtiöt maksavat omistajilleen noin puolet nettotuloksistaan osinkoina, kun taas noteeraamattomat yritykset maksavat ainoastaan 20–30 %. Erot pörssiyhtiöiden hyväksi ovat vielä suurempia, kun mittarina käytetään osinkojen suhdetta liikevaihtoon. Tulostemme mukaan pörssiyhtiöt käyttävät velkarahoitusta vastaavia noteeraamattomia yrityksiä enemmän. Tämä voi johtua kahdesta syystä. Ensinnäkin, koska osakkeen julkinen kauppa mahdollistaa omistuspohjan laajenemisen ja alkuperäisyrittäjien sijoitusten paremman hajauttamisen, pörssiyrityksellä on suurempi halukkuus riskinottoon lisäämällä velkarahoitusta. Toisaalta pörssilistaus voi toimia signaalina yrityksen laadusta siten, että rahoittajat tarjoavat velkarahoitusta auliimmin ja paremmilla ehdoilla. Pörssiyhtiöiden suurempi velkaisuus ei ole ollenkaan negatiivinen asia, koska velkarahoitus on verohyötyineen tyypillisesti huomattavasti osakerahoitusta edullisempaa. Tämä taas mahdollistaa lisäinvestointeja, joita ei rahoituksen puutteessa muuten tehtäisi. Yleisemmin rahoitusrakenteiden eroja tarkastellessamme huomaamme viitteitä siitä, että koska pörssiyhtiöillä on mahdollisuus saada osakepääomaa helpommin kuin listaamattomien yhtiöiden, ne pystyvät reagoimaan sekä tuote-, että rahoitusmarkkinoiden 3 mahdollisuuksiin. Listaamattomien yritysten rahoitusrakenne ja myös investoinnit sen sijaan näyttäisivät olevan pitkälle sidonnaisia tulorahoituksen tarjoamiin kassavirtoihin. Pörssiyhtiöt investoivat vähintään yhtä paljon kuin vastaavat noteeraamattomat yritykset ja investointien tuottavuus on vähintään yhtä hyvä. Pörssiyhtiöt ovat parempia palkanmaksajia ja työllistäjiä kuin vastaavat yksityiset yritykset. Pörssiyhtiöt pystyvät maksaamaan selkeästi parempia osinkoja investointien ja muun toiminnan siitä kärsimättä, koska velkarahoituksen parempi saatavuus tai pörssiyhtiöiden suurempi halukkuus käyttää velkarahoitusta tuovat rahoitusrakenteeseen tarvittavaa joustavuutta. Tulostemme valossa arvostelu osakkeenomistajien lyhytaikaisten etujen suosimisesta muiden sidosryhmien tai pitkän aikavälin tuottavuuden kustannuksella ei ole perusteltavissa.
  • Al-Khail, Mohammed Aba (Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 2002)
    A large volume of literature suggests that information asymmetry resulting from the spatial separation between investors and investments have a significant impact on the composition of investors’ domestic and international portfolios. I show that institutional factors affecting trading in tangible goods help explain a substantial portion of investors’ spatial bias. More importantly, I demonstrate that an information flow medium with breadth and richness directly linked to the bilateral commitment of resources between countries, that I measure by their trading intensity in tangible goods, is consistent with the prevailing country allocation in investors’ international portfolios.
  • Sundkvist, Kim; Vikström, Mikael (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    This study examines the intraday and weekend volatility on the German DAX. The intraday volatility is partitioned into smaller intervals and compared to a whole day’s volatility. The estimated intraday variance is U-shaped and the weekend variance is estimated to 19 % of a normal trading day. The patterns in the intraday and weekend volatility are used to develop an extension to the Black and Scholes formula to form a new time basis. Calendar or trading days are commonly used for measuring time in option pricing. The Continuous Time using Discrete Approximations model (CTDA) developed in this study uses a measure of time with smaller intervals, approaching continuous time. The model presented accounts for the lapse of time during trading only. Arbitrage pricing suggests that the option price equals the expected cost of hedging volatility during the option’s remaining life. In this model, time is allowed to lapse as volatility occurs on an intraday basis. The measure of time is modified in CTDA to correct for the non-constant volatility and to account for the patterns in volatility.
  • Harju, Kari; Hussain, Syed Mujahid (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006)
    Utilizing concurrent 5-minute returns, the intraday dynamics and inter-market dependencies in international equity markets were investigated. A strong intraday cyclical autocorrelation structure in the volatility process was observed to be caused by the diurnal pattern. A major rise in contemporaneous cross correlation among European stock markets was also noticed to follow the opening of the New York Stock Exchange. Furthermore, the results indicated that the returns for UK and Germany responded to each other’s innovations, both in terms of the first and second moment dependencies. In contrast to earlier research, the US stock market did not cause significant volatility spillover to the European markets.