Exploring the applicability of dissipative fluid dynamics to small systems by comparison to the Boltzmann equation

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Gallmeister , K , Niemi , H , Greiner , C & Rischke , D H 2018 , ' Exploring the applicability of dissipative fluid dynamics to small systems by comparison to the Boltzmann equation ' , Physical Review C , vol. 98 , no. 2 , 024912 . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.98.024912

Title: Exploring the applicability of dissipative fluid dynamics to small systems by comparison to the Boltzmann equation
Author: Gallmeister, K.; Niemi, H.; Greiner, C.; Rischke, D. H.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics
Date: 2018-08-21
Language: eng
Number of pages: 16
Belongs to series: Physical Review C
ISSN: 2469-9985
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/241215
Abstract: Background: Experimental data from heavy-ion experiments at RHIC-BNL and LHC-CERN are quantitatively described using relativistic fluid dynamics. Even p + A and p + p collisions show signs of collective behavior describable in the same manner. Nevertheless, small system sizes and large gradients strain the limits of applicability of fluid-dynamical methods. Purpose: The range of applicability of fluid dynamics for the description of the collective behavior, and in particular of the elliptic flow, of small systems needs to be explored. Method: Results of relativistic fluid-dynamical simulations are compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equation in a longitudinally boost-invariant picture. As the initial condition, several different transverse energy-density profiles for equilibrated matter are investigated. Results: While there is overall a fair agreement of energy- and particle-density profiles, components of the shear-stress tensor are more sensitive to details of the implementation. The highest sensitivity is exhibited by quantities influenced by properties of the medium at freeze-out. Conclusions: For some quantities, like the shear-stress tensor, agreement between fluid dynamics and transport theory extends into regions of Knudsen numbers and inverse Reynolds numbers where relativistic fluid dynamics is believed to fail.
Subject: HEAVY-ION COLLISIONS
RELATIVISTIC FLUIDS
KINETIC-THEORY
FREEZE-OUT
FLOW
MODELS
114 Physical sciences
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