Exposure to coarse particles and floor dust biological and chemical contamination inside Jordanian indoor environments

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Title: Exposure to coarse particles and floor dust biological and chemical contamination inside Jordanian indoor environments
Author: Maragkidou, Androniki
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Science, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)
Doctoral Programme in Atmospheric Sciences
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2018-09-21
Language: en
Belongs to series: Helsingin yliopiston verkkojulkaisut
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-7276-08-2
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Abstract: This thesis consists of two parts where Indoor Environmental Quality is studied in the first part by analyzing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biological contamination levels in floor dust inside an educational building and dwellings within the capital city of Jordan (Amman). Exposure, dose and health risk assessments of PAHs were also performed. The second part investigates particle distribution of accumulation and coarse particles as well as workers’/students’ exposure to coarse particles inside an educational workshop. For the first part of the thesis, floor dust samples were taken from the living room and the entrance area inside eight houses as well as from four offices, two lecture rooms, two corridors and two areas of a workshop inside a university building. For the second part, the inhaled deposited dose of coarse particles inside an educational workshop was estimated. The total PAHs concentrations at the living rooms ranged from around 64165422 ng/g and at the entrance area from 2419266 ng/g. Half of the dwellings had higher total PAHs concentrations at the living rooms than at the entrance area. Our findings indicated that both outdoor and indoor sources contributed to high PAHs concentrations. Based on the answers of the occupants of the dwellings, the main sources of indoor PAHs included indoor smoking, cooking activities, heating system and traffic, correlating with the results from other studies. However, more studies are needed to make a confirm conclusion regarding the specific source(s) of PAHs in household floor dust. The total PAHs concentrations inside the educational building varied from around 7145246 ng/g. The PAHs concentrations inside offices, where tobacco smoking took place, were higher than those observed inside lecture rooms and the workshop area. This finding indicated that exposure to tobacco smoking inside poorly ventilated and small indoor environments can be seriously harmful. Especially important was the fact that our results revealed that Jordanian occupants inside residential and occupational environments were less exposed to toxic PAHs via dust ingestion than occupants in similar indoor environments in Europe and Asia. The bacterial and fungal concentrations varied significantly among and within the studied environments indoors, indicating that that the origin of bio-contaminants differs depending on the locations within the city. In addition to occupancy, human’s activities and outdoor sources, environmental conditions, are also responsible for the increase of bacterial and fungal concentrations indoors. Inside the workshop area, the highest mean and maxima PN0.3-1 (PM0.3-1) and PN1-10 (PM1-10) concentrations were detected during welding activities. The variation in the accumulation mode and coarse mode aerosol concentrations could be attributed to the type of activity (i.e. specific source) and the particle loss rate (i.e. dry deposition and removal via ventilation). During an 8-hour exposure to particles produced during welding and other activities, the total estimated inhaled deposited dose would be less than 750 μg. The mass regional deposition was ~ 53% in the alveolar region, ~ 29% in the tracheobronchial and ~ 18% in the head/throat region. The results obtained for the inhaled deposited dose could be used in epidemiological studies and in the creation of risk assessment models during welding or related processes.
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