Increased fluctuation in a butterfly metapopulation leads to diploid males and decline of a hyperparasitoid

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Nair , A , Nonaka , E & van Nouhuys , S 2018 , ' Increased fluctuation in a butterfly metapopulation leads to diploid males and decline of a hyperparasitoid ' , Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences , vol. 285 , no. 1885 , 20180372 . https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0372

Title: Increased fluctuation in a butterfly metapopulation leads to diploid males and decline of a hyperparasitoid
Author: Nair, Abhilash; Nonaka, Etsuko; van Nouhuys, Saskya
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme
University of Helsinki, Biosciences
University of Helsinki, Biosciences
Date: 2018-08-29
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences
ISSN: 0962-8452
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/244930
Abstract: Climate change can increase spatial synchrony of population dynamics, leading to large-scale fluctuation that destabilizes communities. High trophic level species such as parasitoids are disproportionally affected because they depend on unstable resources. Most parasitoid wasps have complementary sex determination, producing sterile males when inbred, which can theoretically lead to population extinction via the diploid male vortex (DMV). We examined this process empirically using a hyperparasitoid population inhabiting a spatially structured host population in a large fragmented landscape. Over four years of high host butterfly metapopulation fluctuation, diploid male production by the wasp increased, and effective population size declined precipitously. Our multitrophic spatially structured model shows that host population fluctuation can cause local extinctions of the hyperparasitoid because of the DMV. However, regionally it persists because spatial structure allows for efficient local genetic rescue via balancing selection for rare alleles carried by immigrants. This is, to our knowledge, the first empirically based study of the possibility of the DMV in a natural host–parasitoid system.
Subject: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
bottleneck
climate change
complementary sex determination
host-parasitoid dynamics
diploid male vortex
extinction
COMPLEMENTARY SEX DETERMINATION
PARASITOID WASP
GENETIC DIVERSITY
POPULATION EXTINCTION
DEPENDENT DISPERSAL
COTESIA-VESTALIS
ISLAND ISOLATION
HYMENOPTERA
CONSEQUENCES
DYNAMICS
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