Articles (OA parallel published)

 

Recent Submissions

  • Jimenez, Ivan; Kuusi, Tuire (2020)
    Although Western tonal syntax can generate a very large number of chord successions of various lengths and degrees of complexity, some types of music, from Renaissance dances to recent pop, tend to rely more heavily on the repetition of relatively simple, short harmonic patterns. Doll recently identified short chord progressions commonly found in North American and British popular music and proposed that these chord progressions can be stored in long-term memory in the form of harmonic schemata that allow listeners to hear them as stereotypical chord progressions. However, considering the challenges that many listeners face when trying to consciously grasp harmony, it seems likely that the feelings of remembering chord progressions varies from listener to listener. To investigate these potential differences, we asked 231 listeners with various levels of musical training to rate their confidence on whether or not they had previously heard six diatonic four-chord progressions. To control for the effect of extra-harmonic features, we instantiated the chord progressions in a way that resembled the piano of a famous song and controlled for participants’ familiarity with that song and whether they had played its chords. We found that ratings correlated with typicality for the two groups of participants who had played an instrument for at least one year and to a lesser extent for the other participants. Additionally, all our players thought of specific songs more often and mentioned songs that better matched the stimuli in harmonic terms. What we did not find, however, was any effect associated to how long participants had played an instrument or the type of the instrument they had played. Our research supports the notion that both musical training and extra-harmonic features affect listeners’ feelings of remembering chord progressions.
  • Jimenez, Ivan; Kuusi, Tuire (2020)
    Research has shown that musical training is associated with a greater ability to aurally connect chord progressions to specific pieces of music. However, it is unclear what specific aspects of musical training contribute to that ability. The present study investigated the effects of various aspects of professional and amateur jazz musicians’ formal training and work with harmony on their ability to identify well-known jazz standards from chord progressions. For participants who were able to identify songs from commercial recordings in this experiment, general long-term involvement with activities believed to increase awareness of harmony, such as playing a harmonic instrument, playing chords by ear, and transcribing harmonic progressions was often not enough to enable them to identify songs from their chord progressions alone. Additionally, the ability to identify songs from chord progressions was most strongly correlated with having played and being able to write out the chord labels of the target pieces from long-term memory. Implications of these and other results of this experiment for our understanding of jazz musicians’ processing and memory of harmonic information are discussed.
  • Jimenez, Ivan; Kuusi, Tuire (2018)
    Musicians can conceptualize harmony in terms of its connection to specific pieces of music. However, research appears to indicate that harmony plays a relatively unimportant role in music identification tasks. The present study examines the ability of listeners of varying levels of musical expertise to identify music from chord progressions. Participants were asked to identify well-known classical and pop/rock pieces from their chord progressions, which were recorded using either piano tones or Shepard tones and were played at six transpositional levels. Although musical training and invariance of surface melodic and rhythmic features were found to have an advantageous effect on the identification task, even some non-musicians were able to identify music from chord progressions in conditions of low invariance of surface features. Implications of these results for our understanding of how listeners mentally represent and remember harmony are discussed.
  • Treacy, Danielle Shannon; Timonen, Vilma; Kallio, Aleksis Anja; Shah, Iman Bikram (Oxford University Press, 2019)
    The intensifying diversity and fast-paced social change characterizing contemporary societies requires music education policy and practice to contend with various and at times conflicting musical and cultural values and understandings. In Nepal this situation is intensified, with a music education curriculum adopted by the Ministry of Education in 2010 guiding music teaching and learning for 77 national districts and over 125 caste/ethnic groups within a rapidly globalizing society. In this context assessment plays a key role in framing the knowledge and pedagogical approaches deemed useful or desirable for Nepali music students, and contributes to the legitimation of music as a subject and as a career. Assessment is therefore of ethical concern and warrants critical reflection if music education is to uphold democratic ideals, such as participation and equal opportunity. In this chapter we identify four institutional visions framing music education in Nepali schools. Considering these visions through John Dewey’s Theory of Valuation (LW13), we suggest that ethical deliberations regarding assessment focus on the relationships between means and ends in learning processes and thereby the quality of student experience. Leaning on Arjun Appadurai’s theories of the imagination (1996) and the capacity to aspire (2004) we then propose that imagining ends-not-yet-in-view may allow for ethical engagements with values different to one’s own and encourage reflection upon the inclusive and exclusive processes of assessment that frame whose ends-in-view count, when, how, and what for.
  • Caldas Vianna, Bruno (2020)
    This article uses the exhibition “Infinite Skulls”, which happened in Paris in the beginning of 2019, as a starting point to discuss art created by artificial intelligence and, by extension, unique pieces of art generated by algorithms. We detail the development of DCGAN, the deep learning neural network used in the show, from its cybernetics origin. The show and its creation process are described, identifying elements of creativity and technique, as well as question of the authorship of works. Then it frames these works in the context of generative art, pointing affinities and differences, and the issues of representing through procedures and abstractions. It describes the major breakthrough of neural network for technical images as the ability to represent categories through an abstraction, rather than images themselves. Finally, it tries to understand neural networks more as a tool for artists than an autonomous art creator.
  • Trento, Francisco (2020)
    This article presents a glossary of protocols for dis(abling) artistic research in academic institutions to activate a forum for institutional critique. It focuses on crafting spaces that foreground non-ableist modes of existence and socialities. The protocols welcome useless failures—not feeding a neoliberal discourse of coaching. Non-normative body-minds are experts in failure. Pressured by growing productivity requirements, art education institutions standardise deadlines, the measurements of research impact and their spaces. These constant readjustments are based on flawlessly able bodies. The protocols highlight invisible disabilities, especially considering the neuroqueer subjectivities in art schools.
  • Heimonen, Kirsi (Helsingin Diakonissalaitos, 2012)
  • Trento, Francisco (2020)
    According to the philosopher Fabián Ludueña, before biopolitics, Rome and Greece put in motion the zoopolitics of an Anthropotechnical machine. The practice of expositio is the foundational zoopolitical human gesture. It consisted of leaving new-born children exposed at street markets to be sold as slaves, or in nature, left to survive (or die). The spectres of those body-minds still haunt our onto-epistemologies: by creatively fabulating with Ludueña’s work, I suggest looking back to the broken chains of the production of able bodies instead of perpetuating the reproductive futurity. Ludueña’s work investigates how and why the figure of the spectre gradually disappeared from the discursive milieu, and why it needs to be brought back into the spotlight. Its potential resides in its existence between binary categories like God and human, man and animal, male and female. It queers, defying epistemological boundaries, what it means to be dead or alive. Melanie Yergeau employs the term "neuroqueer" to talk about the non-neurotypical and queer subjectivities that are a continuum of indiscernibility and are violently dislodged into binary categories. In the conclusion, I argue for operationalising the concept of the spectre to help to short-circuit the ableneurotypical and heteronormative futurism, looking back to the ghosts of the exposed children.
  • Järvi, Elisa (Mackinger Verlag, 2019)
  • Anttila, Eeva (2018)
    This article presents how guided core reflection can be used in tertiary dance education, and how this approach may support the professional development of novice dance teachers. During the final stages of their studies, a three-stage procedure of guided core reflection developed for this study with an emphasis on embodiment was conducted with dance teacher trainees. The first stage was video recording of the dance class taught by the student, the second stage was watching the recorded dance class, followed by a stimulated recall interview and a reflective discussion. The third stage was written reflection. Qualitative content analysis was used for data analysis, and the meaning units were categorized following a framework of six dimensions of embodiment (Svendler Nielsen 2015). The social body and the sensing body were identified as key components of students' reflections suggesting that this three-stage reflection model allows for the embodied nature of dance teachers' professions to be taken into account as part of reflective work. Furthermore, this study illustrates how the reflection process can be used and supported in educating future dance teachers.
  • Anttila, Eeva; Suominen, Anniina (Routledge, 2018)
  • Anttila, Eeva (Taylor & Francis, 2018)
    The responsibilities of physical education teachers are responding to increased migration and wider political shifts in Europe. How might tertiary institutions prepare the next generation of PE teachers to address issues of social inclusion and cultural pluralism? This article critically reflects on an experiential learning intervention in Jyväskylä, Finland, in which trainee PE teachers facilitated kinaesthetic language-learning workshops for asylum seekers. We focus on how this intervention may have transformed the trainee PE teachers’ understandings and expectations of their emerging professional identities. We interpret the trainee PE teachers’ written accounts of the experience through contemporary theories of acculturation.
  • Anttila, Eeva (Taylor & Francis, 2018)
    The results of the 2016 British referendum on membership of the European Union and the presidential election in the United States of America initiated political changes that will arguably have resounding impacts, within and beyond the UK and the US for years to come. Much of the rhetoric accompanying these political victories appears to confront humanist ideals associated with inclusion, rationalism and transnational exchange. This article argues that these seismic political events in Europe and America will have an international impact on policies, practices and pedagogies associated with dance education, inevitably challenging those who seek to broaden meanings of socially, culturally, economically and politically inclusive arts education. We have gathered the queries of leading dance education researchers from around the world, to better understand how these political shifts are perceived, who feels they may be affected, how they feel it may affect them, and how research into dance education may respond to, and address, these effects. In doing so, we hope to provide a global snapshot of concerns felt by dance education academics in the aftermath of the 2016 British referendum and US Presidential election, and a research framework for investigating the implications of these events on dance education.
  • Lehtonen, Jussi (2019)
    Over the past few years I as theatre practitioner and scholar have been developing the concept of a hybrid community of artistic expression (HCAE). This community includes people from different backgrounds who collectively create a joint piece of art. These are individuals who would not spend time together otherwise. The community aims to call attention to the stories of marginalised or stigmatised people, fostering change by making these experiences understandable to a larger audience. It also seeks to provide it’s members with the opportunity to participate in the public discourse through the medium of art. The Other Home project of The Finnish National Theatre is an example of this kind of a community. It included participants from three groups: 1) artists who sought asylum in Finland in 2015 2) artists with background in Finland 3) non-artist asylum seekers who had participated in an open workshop led by the project. The final product is a kind of documentary theatre: the production tells not just the stories of the community, but also the imagined stories of the community it considers itself to be. A key role comes when the community presents its production to the audience, as the ticketholders become a part of both the community and its final product by contributing their own unique input. The activities of a HCAE are politically charged in many ways. The Other Home community contained members that fought on opposing sides of civil wars in Syria and Iraq. It was a big challenge to make these people do art together. Politics was also present with regards to the unresolved asylum applications of many members of the community. Over the course of the project, both positive and negative asylum decisions were handed down. Further tensions in the community included conflicts between males and female, the young and old and the group’s professionals and amateurs. HCAE is an imagined community that perpetuates a vision of its inner sameness while also being aware of the phenomena that cause its members to be different. This is part of the community’s performance and self-narrated story.
  • Heikkinen, Tero; Kaverma, Petri; Ziegler, Denise (Tutkijaliitto, 2017)
  • Thomson, Nathan Riki; Lähdeoja, Otso (Open Library of Humanities, 2019)
    This paper investigates the ways in which new sonic identities begin to emerge through a dialogue between cultures, artistic disciplines and technology. Musicians worldwide commonly shape their identity and forms of musical expression through the lens of the environment they grow up in. Ideas about desirable sonic aesthetics vary drastically across musical traditions and cultures globally. Whilst one musician may strive for a sound that is clear, pure and unaltered, another may strive for a distorted, inharmonic sound, for example. The article examines what happens when a musician from a given sonic tradition is exposed to and interacts with a diversely different approach to producing sound. It puts forward the case of an Australian double bass player with a long immersion into Tanzanian musical culture, carving out a personal approach to double bass playing via a synthesis of traditional western techniques, extended techniques influenced by Tanzanian sonic aesthetics, as well as mechanical preparations and electronic augmentation of the instrument. The combination of these diverse elements allows for the emergence of a distinctive sonic identity, illustrated by excerpts from three pieces composed and performed within this specific aesthetic framework. The article’s discussion on sonic identity formation holds relevance as an example case of artistic creation within the current globalised context, where finding the distinct quality of one’s expression needs to be negotiated through layers of transcultural and technological elements.
  • Jääskeläinen, Tuula (Sage, 2019)
    Hate speech has become a growing topic of discussion and debate on a global scale, especially as advances in the internet transform communication on many levels. Among scholars, hate speech has been defined as any form of expression – for example by means of speech, images, videos, or online activity – that has the capacity to increase hatred against a person or people because of a characteristic they share, or a group to which they belong. In order to maintain the integrity of a functioning democracy, it is important to identify the best balance between allowing freedom of expression and protecting other human rights by countering hate speech. In addition to strengthening the legal framework to address the cases when hate speech can be considered criminal, and developing automated monitoring of online systems to prevent the spreading of cyberhate, counter narratives can be utilised by the targets of hate speech and their communities to create campaigns against hate speech. The employment of artists’ expression and arts education have great potential for creating different counter narratives to challenge one-sided narratives and hate speakers’ simplified generalisations. Because hate speech is not an easy issue to address in schools, clear research evidence, concrete guidelines, and practical examples can help teachers to contribute, along with their students, in combating it. A great body of evidence supporting the beneficial social impacts of the arts and culture fields is already available, but much more research, backed by sufficient resources, is needed to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of intervention strategies in countering hate speech through arts education.
  • Kramer, Paula (Intellect, 2018)
    These pages reflect on a short, intensive collaboration that took place during the fourth Dance and Somatic Practices Conference (2017) – a methodology lab I initiated to discuss and elaborate on working among and across material constellations of various orders. Three people with diverse backgrounds spent time co-investigating material agency, earthly matters, atmospheric impacts, geoastrological time scales and emplacement: Nigel Clark (NZ/UK) – social geography/geological agency/anthropocene/fire; Simo Kellokumpu (FI) – choreographic thinking/atmosphere/scale/reading; and Paula Kramer (DE/FI) – intermateriality/movement/body/ site-specificity. The lab took place in the studio and outdoors, where together and alone we tested, moved, read, talked, discussed. In the end we shared an indoor installation and outdoor performance practice. This text is written by Paula, a third of the trio, from a partial and particular perspective.
  • Hast, Susanna (Taylor & Francis, 2018)
    This article elaborates how the political television drama House of Cards presents the state as a gendered human body, anthropomorphised in the United States’ presidential couple Frank and Claire Underwood and Russia’s President Viktor Petrov for popular consumption. In an attempt to bring gender into conversation with the concept of sphere of influence, the article shows the tensions between militarist masculinity and queer subjectivity. In House of Cards, the viewer can identify statecraft as mancraft, and see how nonnormative behaviour is written off statecraft. The article focuses on bodily performances as signs of different approaches to power, and argues that House of Cards reinforces a militarised ideal of power over in the everyday practices in and around the White House, as well as in the form of spheres of influence. The series produces a choreography of militarist performance, an imagery which reinforces the understanding of world politics as a terrain for establishing spheres of influence. In the series, spheres of influence become manifest through the exacerbating of patriarchal conduct and centralisation of power, as well as in the premise of building security on the basis of enmities and influence. Sphere of influence, thus, represents a form of masculinised order, pinned against feminised anarchy, leading not only to the subordination of the influenced state, but nonnormative subjectivities, in particular.

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