Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

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BMC Microbiology. 2018 Nov 03;18(1):173

Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains
Author: Cruz, Cristina D.; Shah, Shreya; Tammela, Päivi
Publisher: BioMed Central
Date: 2018-11-03
Language: en
Abstract: Abstract Background Biofilms are formed by a complex bacterial community encapsulated by a polymeric matrix, with strong adherent properties and persistent phenotype. Biofilms are considered one of the most challenging areas of modern medicine. Existing antibiotics have been developed against free-floating bacterial cells, and thus, many treatments of biofilm-related infection fail. In this study, we compared the effects of different media on biofilm growth of clinical reference strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci, including multi-drug resistant representatives. Further, we optimized the resazurin-based assay for determining the minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of standard antibiotics, and evaluated its use for the determination of minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Results We showed that tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1% glucose was an optimal media for maximum biofilm growth of all strains tested, with an extended incubation time for Enterococci. A range of parameters were tested for the resazurin assay, including concentration, temperature and time of incubation. Using quality parameters to analyze the assay’s performance, the conditions for the resazurin assay were set as follows: 4 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL, with incubation at 25 °C for 20 min and 40 min for Staphylococci and Enterococci, respectively. Conclusions In summary, we defined conditions for optimal biofilm growth and for standardized resazurin assay for MBIC determination against six Gram-positive clinical reference strains. We also observed that MBEC determination by the resazurin-based assay is limited due to the poor detection limit of the assay. Complementary cell counting data is needed for precise determination of MBEC.
Subject: Biofilm
Gram-positive bacteria
Crystal violet

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