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  • Unknown author (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Hakola, Outi (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
    COLLeGIUm’s 19th volume discusses mortality at the communal and personal levels of experience. The volume “Death and Mortality” emerges from the Human Mortality project (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies 2011-2013), which provided a framework for discussing death, dying and mortality in an interdisciplinary network. This volume brings together, in particular, anthropological, philosophical, theological and historical perspectives. The writers - including Douglas Davies, Jeff McMahan, Kathryn Edwards and many others - discuss how (good/bad) death can be defined, understood and experienced in different cultural, political, social and historical contexts
  • Pajari, Ilona (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • McMahan, Jeff (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Ronikonmäki, Hanna (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Lizza, John P. (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Heinämaa, Sara (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Lenkewitz, Anna (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Davies, Douglas J. (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Esser, Andrea Marlen (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Unknown author (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Yurchak, Alexei (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Pihlström, Sami (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    19
  • Korpiola, Mia; Lahtinen, Anu (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
  • Haugland, Håkon (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
    This article examines the help the medieval guilds and the early modern craft guilds in Norway could provide when their members died, and how the Reformation of 1536 changed the extent of this help. For the medieval period, the paper discusses the funeral arrangements in urban guilds and rural guilds. For the early modern period, the discussion is limited to the towns, since few, if any rural guilds survived the Reformation. The essay argues that aid to deceased members was essential both to the medieval guilds and the craft guilds that were founded after the Reformation, thus stressing a greater degree of continuity between the medieval guilds and the post-Reformation craft guilds than previous Norwegian research has claimed. The social and religious functions, exemplified by the funeral arrangements, were essential to the early modern craft guilds, as they were in the medieval guilds. Furthermore, there was a continuity in form in the various elements of which the help to the deceased consisted, including being with the dying in his last hours, waking over him, eating and drinking in his honour, following him in a procession to his grave and providing economic support for his funeral. However, the Reformation also constituted a major change, as guild chantries were confiscated, doctrine of purgatory was abolished, the masses for the deceased prohibited and intercession for the deceased made obsolete. Thus, the guilds that survived the Reformation and the new craft guilds that were founded afterward were forced to shift the focus of their help from the intercession for the dead to give them an honourable funeral. A second shift came after the craft guild reforms in the 1680s and 1690s, when attempts were made to limit the extent and the splendour of the funeral processions, and attendance at guild members’ funerals were made optional. This led to the decline of the communal funeral and the privatisation of the Lutheran funeral ritual. Still, one aspect of the help, the financial support for their members’ funerals, continued to be important right up to the dissolution of the Norwegian craft guilds in 1869.
  • Ridder, Iris (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
    In the early seventeenth century, the city of Falun was among the most important cities in Sweden because of its profitable copper mine, called Stora Kopparberget (the Great Copper Mountain). Working as a miner was, particularly in this period, a dangerous profession with high risks. The lives of the miners were frequently exposed to the unpredictability of this dangerous work, and mine accidents were a constant peril. During the Middle Ages and the early modern period, both the accidents and misfortune which befell the miners as well as their successes and wealth were seen as expressions of God’s plan for salvation. People therefore often turned their faith into religious or magical strategies in their effort to protect their lives. The aim of this article is to highlight the connection between dicing and dying in early modern mining industry by analysing an oracular dice game book for miners, printed in Stockholm in 1613. A local mining clerk, Gisle Jacobson, published the text, entitled Ett litet Tidhfördriff (A small pastime), which exploits the peculiar fact that the miners at Stora Kopparberg made decisions with the help of a ritualized dice game.
  • Unknown author (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
  • Riisøy, Anne Irene (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18
    In Norway, an outlaw was “placed outside the law” and, after the introduction of Christianity in the eleventh century, the worst kinds of outlaws, perpetrators described in terms revolving around the vargr and the níðingr, were denied burial in the churchyard. Such people had committed their crimes in an unmanly and stealthy way. Additionally, they may have avoided taking responsibility for their actions. Such behaviour made an otherwise redeemable act irredeemable. This norm for proper conduct is firmly rooted in pre-Christian notions, and the Church used it as a platform to make it easier for the populace to understand that whereas most people belonged within the churchyard, others clearly did not. With some modifications during the high Middle Ages, typically when additional categories of criminals were excluded from Christian burial, this principle carried through well into the early modern period. Documents which can tell us how these rules worked out in practice are few and far between, but are enough to show that the Church tried to ensure that the worst outlaws remained out of the churchyard. The outlaws’ bodies may have been buried at the place of execution, typically close to the gallows, or at the shore or under heaps of stones far away from settlements.
  • Unknown author (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
    18