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  • Losada, Fernando (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2013)
    Governance in the Eurozone has recently been reinforced following two different but complementary strategies. On the one hand, the passing of several legal acts of secondary EU law (known as the Six Pack and the forthcoming Two Pack) has strengthened the existing, but perceived as insufficient, coordination of national economic policies. On the other hand, a piece of international law has been signed by all but two of the Member States (the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union) in order to install in their national legal orders the principles guiding European economic governance. This paper is particularly concerned with the legitimation mechanisms for these new arrangements. In previous research the author established a threefold scheme for studying different examples of governance in relation to democratic legitimacy. In particular, governance can be conceived (1) as fully respecting decisions adopted according to democratic legitimacy and emphasizing its efficient implementation; (2) as complementing democratic legitimacy, for instance by accepting or even integrating technical and expert advice in public decision-making; or (3) as an alternative to democratic legitimacy, as is the case when public decision-making relies on independent non-majoritarian agencies. The aim of this paper is to proceed with a democratic legitimacy assessment of recent developments in Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), in particular of the new governance mechanisms resulting from those two strategies. This task cannot be carried out without dealing with the underlying conceptions EMU is based on, and from which its particular features result. Hence, we will first describe and specify the theoretical models according to which the relationship between governance and democratic legitimacy can be assessed (I). In a second step, we will describe the main features of EMU as designed in Maastricht (II) and will compare that construction with the theoretical models (III). A description will follow of the development of governance in the European Union and, in particular, of the new governance mechanisms recently designed for EMU (IV). Then, we will assess them against the yardstick of our theoretical models (V). Finally, we will conclude by summarizing the main findings of the survey (VI).
  • Salmela, Mikko; Pessi, Anne Birgitta; Tissari, Heli (Tutkijakollegium, 2008)
  • Kuuskoski, Martti-Tapio (Tutkijakollegium, 2009)
  • Halliwell, Stephen (Tutkijakollegium, 2010)
  • Hyvärinen, Matti (Tutkijakollegium, 2006)
  • Ojakangas, Mika (Tutkijakollegium, 2010)
  • Ojanen, Markku (Tutkijakollegium, 2008)
  • Scott, Maggie (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2012)
    This paper examines the linguistic identities of Edinburgh, Scotland’s capital city, and the contexts in which they are currently used. The city is known by a range of different names that are linked with its historical and contemporary identities as they are represented in Scottish Gaelic, Scottish English and Scots. In terms of its etymology, the name Edinburgh is part Celtic and part Germanic, but in modern usage it exists within the official and standard discourses of the dominant language variety, Scottish English. It is the form of the name most usually employed in other British and International Englishes. In modern Scottish Gaelic, the city is called Dùn Èideann, and of those designations which could qualify as Scots, the best known is probably the nickname Auld Reekie “Old Smoky”, made popular in 18th century literature and still in use today. Particular attention is drawn here to the role that these toponymic identities play in relation to the place identity of the city. Each name resonates with different narratives of history and culture, which, although subjectively shaped at the individual level, share at least sufficient prototypical meaning for them to be employed effectively (and further shaped and manipulated) in a variety of public and commercial contexts. It is argued here that the ways in which these three toponymic layers describe the city reveal a complex paradigm of contested space, and that by better understanding the uses of these names we can better understand the linguistic politics of the city’s image and the current roles played by Scotland’s languages.
  • Jouannet, Emanuelle (Tutkijakollegium, 2008)
  • Rimmon-Kenan, Slomith (Tutkijakollegium, 2006)
    Transposed to media like film, drama, opera, music, and the visual arts, “narrative” is no longer characterized by either temporality or an act of telling, both required by earlier narratological theories. Transposed to other disciplines, “narrative” is often a substitute for “assumption”, “hypothesis”, a disguised ideological stance, a cognitive scheme, and even life itself. The potential for broadening the concept lay dormant in narratology, both in the double use of “narrative” for the medium-free fabula and for the medium-bound sjuzet, and in changing interpretations of “event”. Some advantages of the broad use of “narrative” are an evocation of commonalities among media and disciplines, an invitation to re-think the term within the originating discipline, a constructivist challenge to positivistic and foundational views, an emphasis on a plurality of competing “truths”, and an empowerment of minority voices. Conversely, disadvantages of the broad use are an illusion of sameness whenever the term is used and the obliteration of specificity. In a Wittgensteinian spirit, the essay agrees that concepts of narrative are mutually related by “family resemblance”, but wishes to probe the resemblances further. It thus postulates two necessary features: double temporality and a transmitting (or mediating) agency, and an additional cluster of variable optional characteristics. When the necessary features are not dominant, the configuration may have “narrative elements” but is not “a narrative”.
  • Pieri, Elisa (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2014)
    A growing body of literature is accumulating around theories of cosmopolitanism. The concept is hotly debated within a number of disciplines, and similar debates circulate beyond academia, among national and transnational actors. This paper aims to critically appraise some of the current competing discourses and agendas around cosmopolitanism and their implications. The recent emphasis on cosmopolitanism is not without its detractors, and this paper engages with some of the key critiques of the current cosmopolitan turn. These touch on multiple dimensions of the cosmopolitan project, its essentialising and reductionist features, its western-centric bias and its postcolonial inflection. While some scholars mobilise the concept of cosmopolitics to contest the political nature of cosmopolitanism rhetoric and agenda, others historicise its political and economic context. Still others flesh out the figure of the cosmopolitan, offering alternative readings of the current postmodern condition, or undoing the cosmopolitan project from within. Through an exploration of the discrepancies between competing accounts of cosmopolitanism, and of contested understandings of who can or cannot aspire to be considered ‘cosmopolitan’, the paper sets out to highlight the situatedness of specific political projects associated with cosmopolitanism and to discuss the ramifications of privileging specific views of cosmopolitanism over others.
  • Pennanen, Risto Pekka (Tutkijakollegium, 2010)
  • Stapelbroek, Koen (Tutkijakollegium, 2011)