A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of the "Social" Genotype and Diversity of the Phenotype

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Oksman , E , Rosenstrom , T , Hintsanen , M , Pulkki-Raback , L , Viikari , J , Lehtimaki , T , Raitakari , O T & Keltikangas-Jarvinen , L 2018 , ' A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of the "Social" Genotype and Diversity of the Phenotype ' , Frontiers in Psychology , vol. 9 , 2034 . https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02034

Title: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of the "Social" Genotype and Diversity of the Phenotype
Author: Oksman, Elli; Rosenstrom, Tom; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli Tuomas; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology and Logopedics
University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology and Logopedics
University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology and Logopedics
University of Helsinki, Medicum
University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology and Logopedics
Date: 2018-10-24
Language: eng
Number of pages: 15
Belongs to series: Frontiers in Psychology
ISSN: 1664-1078
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/258651
Abstract: Sociability and social domain-related behaviors have been associated with better well-being and endogenous oxytocin levels. Inspection of the literature, however, reveals that the effects between sociability and health outcomes, or between sociability and genotype, are often weak or inconsistent. In the field of personality psychology, the social phenotype is often measured by error-prone assessments based on different theoretical frameworks, which can partly explain the inconsistency of the previous findings. In this study, we evaluated the generalizability of "sociability" measures by partitioning the population variance in adulthood sociability using five indicators from three personality inventories and assessed in two to four follow-ups over a 15-year period (n = 1,573 participants, 28,323 person-observations; age range 20-50 years). Furthermore, we tested whether this variance partition would shed more light to the inconsistencies surrounding the "social" genotype, by using four genetic variants (rs1042778, rs2254298, rs53576, rs3796863) previously associated with a wide range of human social functions. Based on our results, trait (between-individual) variance explained 23% of the variance in overall sociability, differences between sociability indicators explained 41%, state (within-individual) variance explained 5% and measurement errors explained 32%. The genotype was associated only with the sociability indicator variance, suggesting it has specific effects on sentimentality and emotional sharing instead of reflecting general sociability.
Subject: personality assessments
personality development
longitudinal analysis
multilevel modeling
sociability
oxytocin gene
PERSONALITY-TRAITS
GENDER-DIFFERENCES
SEX-DIFFERENCES
PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL MODEL
ADULT PERSONALITY
5-FACTOR MODEL
LIFE-COURSE
MEAN-LEVEL
TEMPERAMENT
METAANALYSIS
515 Psychology
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