The annual, temporal and spatial pattern of Setaria tundra outbreaks in Finnish reindeer : a mechanistic transmission model approach

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Haider , N , Laaksonen , S , Kjaer , L J , Oksanen , A & Bodker , R 2018 , ' The annual, temporal and spatial pattern of Setaria tundra outbreaks in Finnish reindeer : a mechanistic transmission model approach ' , Parasites & vectors , vol. 11 , 565 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3159-z

Title: The annual, temporal and spatial pattern of Setaria tundra outbreaks in Finnish reindeer : a mechanistic transmission model approach
Author: Haider, Najmul; Laaksonen, Sauli; Kjaer, Lene Jung; Oksanen, Antti; Bodker, Rene
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Departments of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Date: 2018-11-12
Language: eng
Number of pages: 13
Belongs to series: Parasites & vectors
ISSN: 1756-3305
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/265106
Abstract: BackgroundIn northern Finland (Lapland), reindeer are reared as semi-domesticated animals. The region has a short summer season of 2-3 months, yet reindeer are infected with the mosquito-borne filarioid parasite Setaria tundra. The infection causes peritonitis and perihepatitis, which cause significant economic losses due to reduced body weight of infected animals. The objective of this study was to: (i) describe the spatial and temporal pattern of outbreaks in three different areas across Finnish Lapland; and (ii) construct a temperature-driven mechanistic transmission model to quantify the potential role of temperature on intensity of S. tundra transmission in reindeer.MethodsWe developed a temperature-driven transmission model able to predict the number of S. tundra potentially transmitted from an infectious reindeer. We applied the model to the years 2004-2015, and compared the predictions to the proportion of reindeer whose livers were condemned due to S. tundra infection at the time of slaughter.ResultsThe mean proportion of liver condemnation increased in reindeer slaughtered in late autumn/winter compared to earlier dates. The outbreaks were geographically clustered each year but there were no fixed foci where outbreaks occurred. Larger outbreaks were recorded in the southern regions of reindeer-herding areas compared to the central or northern parts of Lapland. Our model showed that temperatures never allowed for transmission of more than a single generation of S. tundra each season. In southern (Kuusamo) and central (Sodankyla) Lapland, our model predicted an increasing trend from 1979 to 2015 for both the duration of the effective transmission period of S. tundra (P <0.001) and for the potential number of L3 S. tundra larvae being transmitted from an infectious reindeer (P <0.001).ConclusionsThe effective transmission period for S. tundra in reindeer is very short in Lapland, but it increased over the period studied. Only one generation of S. tundra can be transmitted in one season among reindeer in Lapland. Increasing temperatures may facilitate a range expansion and increasing duration of effective transmission period for S. tundra.
Subject: Setaria tundra
Spatio-temporal distribution
Disease outbreak
Reindeer
Finland
Microclimatic temperature
Climate change
CLIMATE-CHANGE
AEDES-AEGYPTI
TEMPERATURE
DIROFILARIA
BLUETONGUE
EXAMPLE
FINLAND
EUROPE
VIRUS
RISK
413 Veterinary science
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