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  • Editorial 
    Kindström, Daniel; Kowalkowski, Christian (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2014)
  • Välikangas, Liisa (Cambridge University Press, 2015-03-01)
    I am honored to join the MOR editorial team as the editor for Dialogue, Debate, and Discussion. My commitment is to facilitate dialogue, debate, and discussion on management and organization theory that is rooted in practice in emerging economies yet has implications beyond. Let us learn ‘slowly’ (cf. Levinthal & March, 1993) and resist too fast convergence to Western management methods before we have a chance to better understand and assimilate the divergence around the world.
  • Kindström, Daniel; Kowalkowski, Christian; Sandberg, Erik (Elsevier Inc., 2013)
  • Turcotte, Marie-France; Reinecke, Juliane; den Hond, Frank (Walter de Gruyter, 2014)
    Amid concerns for a regulatory void in transnational fields, the principle of private regulation has become institutionalized. Many sectors have seen the emergence of multiple and overlapping standards. When comparing the sectors, there is considerable variation in standard multiplicity. We build on three institutional perspectives that have been put forward to explain the emergence of sustainability standards—the economic, idealist and political-institutional perspectives—to analyze the phenomenon of standard multiplicity. Each perspective reflects a different kind of action logic and is simultaneously present and accessible to various parties involved. Based on a cross-sector analysis of standards multiplicity in the forestry, coffee and textile sectors, this article seeks to make two contributions. First, whereas these three perspectives have been presented as competing, we propose that they are complementary in offering partial explanations for different episodes in the dynamics underlying standards multiplicity in different sectors. Second, whereas most studies have analyzed standard setting in single sectors and thus have understood it as being an intra-sector phenomenon, our cross-sector analysis of the dynamics of standard setting suggests that it is propelled by both sector-specific contingencies and experiences as well as by the experiences from other sectors.
  • Allen, Ann; Kovacs, Gyöngyi; Masini, Andrea; Vaillancourt, Alain; van Wassenhove, Luk (Emerald, 2013)
  • Nyman, Linus Morten; Mikkonen, Tommi; Lindman, Juho; Fougère, Martin (2011)
    The ability to create and maintain high-quality software artifacts that preserve their usability over time is one of the most essential characteristics of the software business. In such a setting, open source software offers excellent examples of sustainability. In particular, safeguarding mechanisms against planned obsolescence by any single actor are built into the very definition of open source development. The most powerful of these safeguarding mechanisms is the ability to fork the project as a whole. In this position paper, we argue that the possibility to fork any open source program serves as the invisible hand of sustainability, ensuring that the code can always remain open and that the code that best fulfills the needs of the community will live on.
  • Fougère, Martin (Sage Publications Ltd., 2009)
  • Neganova, Irina; Heinonen, Kristina; Jaakkola, Elina (2015-06-09)
  • Nyman, Linus Morten (2013-08)
    While significant factors that affect the open source community’s interest to participate in a development project have been studied, there has been little focus on the motivating factors that can cause a contributor to become a competitor by utilizing the right to fork a program i.e., to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development. The right to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development is guaranteed by all open source licenses. However, this right to fork a program is rarely exercised. Indeed, there is strong social pressure against code forking stemming from the negative side effects of code forking, such as conflict and duplicated efforts among developers. This paper details the events that led Widenius, the founder of the MySQL project, to decide to fork MariaDB from MySQL. Our findings confirm the previously held notion that there is a high threshold for starting a competing fork. While the few studies that exist of competitive forks find the reasons to be due to disagreement among developers, in the case of MariaDB the fork was caused by Widenius’ concerns regarding the uncertainty of the future freedom and openness of the MySQL codebase. This article makes three contributions. Firstly, it further validates the existing notion that there is a strong threshold to starting a competing fork. Secondly, it offers an in-depth analysis of the events and motivations behind the birth of a fork. Thirdly, it contributes to theory by introducing the freedom factor hypothesis: limiting either developers’ freedoms to contribute to a project or the freedom inherent in a project's license increases the likelihood of a fork.
  • Steele, Pamela; Kovacs, Gyöngyi (BVL - Bundesvereinigung Logistik, 2013)
  • Kovacs, Gyöngyi; Pazirandeh, Ala; Tatham, Peter (2012)
  • den Hond, F.; Boersma, F.K.; Heres, L.; Kroes, E.H.J.; van Oirschot, E. (Routledge, 2012-08-01)
    There is an increasing interest in the application of Structuration Theory in the fields of management and organization studies. Based upon a thorough literature review, we have come up with a data-set to assess how Structuration Theory has been used in empirical research. We use three key concepts of this theory (duality of structure, knowledgeability, and time-space) as sensitizing concepts for our analysis. We conclude that the greatest potential of Structuration Theory for management and organization studies is to view it as a process theory that offers a distinct building block for explaining intra and interorganizational change, as exemplified through concepts such as routine, script, genre, practice, and discourse.
  • Aaltonen, Aleksi (2011)
    In this paper we propose a theoretical framework to understand the governance of internet-mediated social production. Focusing on one of the most popular websites and reference tools, Wikipedia, we undertake an exploratory theoretical analysis to clarify the structure and mechanisms driving the endogenous change of a large-scale social production system. We argue that the popular transactions costs approach underpinning many of the analyses is an insufficient framework for unpacking the evolutionary character of governance. The evolution of Wikipedia and its shifting modes of governance can be better framed as a process of building a collective capability, namely the capability of editing and managing a new kind of encyclopedia. We understand Wikipedia evolution as a learning phenomenon that gives over time rise to governance mechanisms and structures as endogenous responses to the problems and conditions that the ongoing development of Wikipedia itself has produced over the years. Finally, we put forward five empirical hypotheses to test the theoretical framework.
  • Laakso, Mikael (Akademiai Kiado Rt., 2014)
    The degree to which scholarly journal articles published in subscription-based journals could be provided open access (OA) through publisher-permitted uploading to freely accessible web locations, so called green OA, is an underexplored area of research. This study combines article volume data originating from the Scopus bibliographic database with manually coded publisher policies of the 100 largest journal publishers measured by article output volume for the year 2010. Of the 1,1 million articles included in the analysis, 80.4% could be uploaded either as an accepted manuscript or publisher version to an institutional or subject repository after one year of publication. Publishers were found to be substantially more permissive with allowing accepted manuscripts on personal webpages (78.1% of articles) or in institutional repositories (79.9%) compared to subject repositories (32.8%). With previous studies suggesting realized green OA to be around 12% of total annual articles the results highlight the substantial unused potential for green OA.
  • Strandvik, Tore; Heinonen, Kristina; Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob (2013)
    The emancipation of customers has raised an interest into how service providers can involve customers in their processes. In contrast, we argue that the key challenge for companies will become how they can get involved in customers’ processes and that represents an unexplored area open for academic research. Our paper is conceptual with empirical illustrations and builds on a Customer Dominant business Logic approach. It presents a model of how the customer’s logic is grounded in customers’ rather stable interest structure and perception of service providers and how this forms different styles of using service and interacting with service providers.
  • Lindman, Juho; Rajala, Risto (Talent First Network, 2012-01-01)
  • Björk, Bo-Christer; Solomon, David (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers, 2014-04-01)
    Open access (OA) publishing is steadily growing in both full OA journals and hybrid journals where authors can pay to individually open up their articles. Funding for article processing charges (APCs) is still a strong barrier for many authors particularly for subscription journals where the hybrid option is expensive and an added extra feature after an article is accepted for publication. Many research funders in Europe have started or are considering mechanisms for paying APCs with earmarked funding in order to increase the uptake of OA. At the same time they are well aware that their actions may influence the way the OA market will develop in the near future. This article discusses a number of scenarios for ways in which funders could cover the cost of APCs, while encouraging the development of a competitive and transparent market for APC-funded OA scholarly publishing. We provide evidence that the current APC-funded full OA market is sensitive to journal prestige/impact. We present a value-based cap funding scheme which could help maintain transparency bringing hybrid market pricing in line with the full OA market. We also consider a scenario that addresses hybrid “double dipping” while limiting the cost of transitioning to full OA for research-intensive universities as well as cost-sharing as a mechanism for providing authors with an incentive for considering cost as well as value in choosing where to publish.
  • Kovacs, Gyöngyi; Spens, Karen (Emerald, 2011)
  • Kowalkowski, Christian; Kindström, Daniel; Gebauer, Heiko (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2013)
    Purpose – Information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabler for new product- and process-oriented services. The article investigates how ICT can enable service differentiation and in doing so act as a catalyst for a service business orientation. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative, multi-case research design with eight multinational goods manufacturers. Findings –Two distinct types of service-oriented differentiation are identified; services in support of the product (SSP), and services in support of the client’s actions (SSC). The study finds that SSC have the largest positive impact on firms’ service business orientation. Research limitations/implications – Western firms in a limited sample of industries are studied. Furthermore, the service business orientation construct does not include any measurements of service profitability or impact on overall competitive advantage. Practical implications – To various extend, successful firms are likely to pursue both SSP and SSC differentiation traits through ICT. The two options are interdependent and the framework presented helps managers to understand both key specificities and their interrelatedness. Originality/value – The study contributes to theory on service strategies by specifically focusing on the enabling role of ICT for new services and its effects on each of the three dimensions of the service business orientation construct.