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  • Editorial 
    Kindström, Daniel; Kowalkowski, Christian (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2014)
  • Kindström, Daniel; Kowalkowski, Christian; Sandberg, Erik (Elsevier Inc., 2013)
  • Fougère, Martin (Sage Publications Ltd., 2009)
  • Nyman, Linus Morten (2013)
    While significant factors that affect the open source community’s interest to participate in a development project have been studied, there has been little focus on the motivating factors that can cause a contributor to become a competitor by utilizing the right to fork a program i.e., to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development. The right to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development is guaranteed by all open source licenses. However, this right to fork a program is rarely exercised. Indeed, there is strong social pressure against code forking stemming from the negative side effects of code forking, such as conflict and duplicated efforts among developers. This paper details the events that led Widenius, the founder of the MySQL project, to decide to fork MariaDB from MySQL. Our findings confirm the previously held notion that there is a high threshold for starting a competing fork. While the few studies that exist of competitive forks find the reasons to be due to disagreement among developers, in the case of MariaDB the fork was caused by Widenius’ concerns regarding the uncertainty of the future freedom and openness of the MySQL codebase. This article makes three contributions. Firstly, it further validates the existing notion that there is a strong threshold to starting a competing fork. Secondly, it offers an in-depth analysis of the events and motivations behind the birth of a fork. Thirdly, it contributes to theory by introducing the freedom factor hypothesis: limiting either developers’ freedoms to contribute to a project or the freedom inherent in a project's license increases the likelihood of a fork.
  • Aaltonen, Aleksi (2011)
    In this paper we propose a theoretical framework to understand the governance of internet-mediated social production. Focusing on one of the most popular websites and reference tools, Wikipedia, we undertake an exploratory theoretical analysis to clarify the structure and mechanisms driving the endogenous change of a large-scale social production system. We argue that the popular transactions costs approach underpinning many of the analyses is an insufficient framework for unpacking the evolutionary character of governance. The evolution of Wikipedia and its shifting modes of governance can be better framed as a process of building a collective capability, namely the capability of editing and managing a new kind of encyclopedia. We understand Wikipedia evolution as a learning phenomenon that gives over time rise to governance mechanisms and structures as endogenous responses to the problems and conditions that the ongoing development of Wikipedia itself has produced over the years. Finally, we put forward five empirical hypotheses to test the theoretical framework.
  • Strandvik, Tore; Heinonen, Kristina; Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob (2013)
    The emancipation of customers has raised an interest into how service providers can involve customers in their processes. In contrast, we argue that the key challenge for companies will become how they can get involved in customers’ processes and that represents an unexplored area open for academic research. Our paper is conceptual with empirical illustrations and builds on a Customer Dominant business Logic approach. It presents a model of how the customer’s logic is grounded in customers’ rather stable interest structure and perception of service providers and how this forms different styles of using service and interacting with service providers.
  • Kowalkowski, Christian; Kindström, Daniel; Gebauer, Heiko (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2013)
    Purpose – Information and communication technology (ICT) is a key enabler for new product- and process-oriented services. The article investigates how ICT can enable service differentiation and in doing so act as a catalyst for a service business orientation. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative, multi-case research design with eight multinational goods manufacturers. Findings –Two distinct types of service-oriented differentiation are identified; services in support of the product (SSP), and services in support of the client’s actions (SSC). The study finds that SSC have the largest positive impact on firms’ service business orientation. Research limitations/implications – Western firms in a limited sample of industries are studied. Furthermore, the service business orientation construct does not include any measurements of service profitability or impact on overall competitive advantage. Practical implications – To various extend, successful firms are likely to pursue both SSP and SSC differentiation traits through ICT. The two options are interdependent and the framework presented helps managers to understand both key specificities and their interrelatedness. Originality/value – The study contributes to theory on service strategies by specifically focusing on the enabling role of ICT for new services and its effects on each of the three dimensions of the service business orientation construct.
  • Edvardsson, Bo; Holmlund, Maria; Strandvik, Tore (Elsevier Inc., 2008)
  • Cooren, François; Vaara, Eero; Langley, Ann; Tsoukas, Haridimos (Oxford University Press, 2014)
    Abstract: Studying language and communication at work implies that we connect them to the very processes, activities, and practices that constitute organizations or organizational phenomena. We demonstrate in this chapter that language and communication at work can mean many things and that there are a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used for such analysis. Four characteristic features of such studies are highlighted: (1) interest in the communicative constitution of organization, (2) focus on discursive or communicative practices, (3) emphasis on temporal aspects and dynamics, and (4) placing language and communication in its sociomaterial context. Not all studies can focus on all these aspects, but these features are central in this nascent stream of research.
  • Aspara, Jaakko; Chakravarti, Amitav (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2015)
  • Butt, Hilal; Virk, Nader Shahzad (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2014)
    This paper presents a simplified single period asset-pricing model adjusted for liquidity and tests it for the Nordic markets. The detailed empirical evidence is presented from Finnish test case. Empirical testing of small yet developed markets is motivated by the increased relevance of the illiquidity effect for illiquid assets/markets. The main evidence reports liquidity risk makes sufficiently larger part of predicted factor risk premium than the market risk, contrary to comparable US evidence. This highlights the ability of liquidity related model betas in capturing the time variation in expected returns across illiquid (Nordic) markets than market beta.
  • Wilén, Kristoffer Bernhard (Vasemmistofoorumi, 2012)
  • Aaltonen, Aleksi (2011)
    How does a new medium create its audience? This study takes the business model of commercial media as its starting point and identifies industrial audience measurement as a constitutive operation in creating the sellable asset of advertising- funded companies. The study employs a qualitative case study design to analyse how a mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) company harnesses digital behavioural records generated by computational network infrastructure to turn network subscribers into an advertising audience product. The empirical evidence is based on a three-months intensive fieldwork at the company office. The analysis reveals comprehensiveness, openness and granularity as the historically new attributes of computational data vis-à-vis traditional audience measurement arrangements. These attributes are then juxtaposed with four kinds of business analytical operations (automatic data aggregation procedures, the use of software reporting tools, organizational reporting practices and custom analyses) observed at the research site to assess how does computational media environment rule key audiencemaking practices. Finally, the implications of this analytical infrastructure are reflected upon three sets of organizational practices. The theoretical framework for the analysis is composed by critically assessing constructivist approaches (SCOT, ANT and sociomateriality) for studying technology and by discussing an approach inspired by critical realism to overcome their limitations with respect to the objectives of the study. The findings contribute toward innovating new digital services, information systems (IS) theory and the study of media audiences. The case opens up considerable complexity involved in establishing a new kind of advertising audience and, more generally, a platform business. Sending out advertisements is easy compared to demonstrating that somebody is actually receiving them. The three computational attributes both extend and provide summative validity for mid-range theorizing on how computational objects mediate organizational practices and processes. Finally, the analysis reveals an interactive nature of digital audience stemming from the direct and immediate behavioural feedback in an audiencemaking cycle.
  • Diaz Ruiz, Carlos; Kowalkowski, Christian (Elsevier Inc., 2014)
    A central question in industrial marketing is whether the form in which the external environment of a firm is represented influences the marketing strategy. This influence has been studied generally through case study research, and quantitative evidence is limited. In response to this limitation, this paper reports on a quasi-experiment investigating whether market representations have a constructive aspect in business. Empirically, this study compares two types of ostensive and performative market representations—service focus and product differentiation—in order to test for influence exacted by industrial marketing on strategies. Results indicate that service focus is selected when market representations rely on agency in firms (i.e., performative), and product strategies are selected when structures are emphasized (i.e., ostensive). This paper contributes to methodology development by expanding the link between a case study approach and quasi-experiments explaining how quasi-experiments can replicate findings in industrial marketing.
  • Edvardsson, Bo; Kowalkowski, Christian; Strandvik, Tore; Voima, Päivi (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2014)
  • Herlin, Heidi; Pazirandeh, Ala (UNOPS, 2010)
  • Holmlund-Rytkönen, Maria; Strandvik, Tore (Emerald Group Publishing, 1999)
  • Björk, Bo-Christer; Solomon, David (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers, 2012)
    The article processing charge (APC) is currently the primary method of funding Open Access peer reviewed journals. The pricing principles of 77 OA publishers publishing over 1000 journals using APCs were studied and classified. The most common method is the fixed single fee, which can either be the same for all of a publisher’s journals or individually determined for each journal. Fees are usually only levied for publication of accepted papers, but there are some journals that also charge for submission. Instead of fixed prices many publishers charge by the page or have multi-tiered fees depending on the length of articles. The country of origin of the author can also influence the pricing, in order to facilitate publishing for authors from developing countries.
  • Aaltonen, Aleksi (Yhdyskuntasuunnittelun seura (YSS) ry, 2006)