Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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Roth , G A , Collaborotors , G B D C D , Abate , D , Abate , K H , Abay , S M , Abbafati , C , Abbasi , N , Abbastabar , H , Abd-Allah , L , Abdela , J , Abdelalim , A , Abdollahpour , I , Abdulkader , R S , Abebe , H T , Abebe , M , Abebe , Z , Abejie , A N , Abera , S F , Abil , O Z , Abraha , H N , Abrham , A R , Abu-Raddad , L J , Accrombessi , M M K , Acharya , D , Adamu , A A , Adebayo , O , Adedoyin , R A , Adekanmbi , V , Adookunboh , O , Adhena , B M , Adib , M G , Admasie , A , Afshin , A , Agarwal , G , Agesa , K M , Agrawal , A , Agrawal , S , Ahmadi , A , Ahmadi , M , Ahmed , M B , Ahmed , S , Aichour , A N , Aichour , I , Aichour , M T F , Akbari , M E , Akinyeniti , R O , Akseer , N , Al-Aly , Z , Al-Eyadhy , A , Al-Raddadi , R M , Alandab , F , Alam , K , Alam , T , Alebel , A , Alene , K A , Alijanzadeh , M , Alizadeh-Navaei , R , Aljunid , S M , Alkerwi , A , Alla , F , Allebeck , P , Alonso , J , Altirkawi , K , Alvis-Guzman , N , Amare , A T , Aminde , L N , Amini , E , Ammar , W , Amoako , Y A , Anber , N H , Andrei , C L , Androudi , S , Animut , M D , Anjomshoa , M , Ansari , H , Aniha , M G , Antonio , C A T , Anwari , P , Aremu , O , Arnlov , J , Arora , A , Arora , M , Artaman , A , Aryal , K K , Asayesh , H , Asfaw , E T , Ataro , Z , Atique , S , Atre , S R , Ausloos , M , Avokpaho , E F G A , Awasthi , A , Quintattilla , B P A , Ayele , Y , Ayer , R , Azzopardi , P S , Babazadeh , A , Bacha , U , Badali , H , Badawi , A , Bali , A G , Ballesteros , K E , Banach , M , Banerjee , K , Bannick , M S , Banoub , J A M , Barboza , M A , Barker-Collo , S L , Barnighausen , T W , Barquera , S , Barrero , L , Bassat , Q , Base , S , Baune , B T , Baynes , H W , Bazargan-Hejazi , S , Beth , N , Beghi , E , Behzadifar , M , Behzadifar , M , Bejot , Y , Bekele , B B , Belacliew , A B , Belay , E , Belay , Y A , Bell , M L , Bello , A K , Bennett , D A , Bensenor , I M , Berman , A F , Bernabe , E , Bernstein , R S , Bertolacci , G J , Beuran , M , 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A , Lozano , R , Lunevicius , R , Ma , S , Macarayan , E R K , Mackay , M T , MacLachlan , J H , Maddison , E R , Nadotto , F , Abd El Razek , H M , Abd El Razek , M M , Maghavani , D P , Majdan , M , Majdzadeh , R , Majeed , A , Malekzadeh , R , Malta , D C , Manda , A-L , Mandarano-Filho , L G , Manguerra , H , Mansournia , M A , Mapoma , C C , Marami , D , Maravilla , J C , Marcenes , W , Marczak , L , Marks , A , Marks , G B , Martinez , G , Martins-Melo , F R , Martopullo , I , Marz , W , Marron , M B , Masci , J R , Lylassenburg , B B , Mathur , M R , Mathur , P , Matzopoulos , R , Maulik , P K , Mazidi , M , McAlinden , C , McGrath , J J , McKee , M , McMahon , B J , Mehata , S , Mehndiratta , M M , Mehrotra , R , Mehta , K M , Mehta , V , Mekonnen , T C , Melese , A , Melku , M , Memiah , P T N , Memish , Z A , Mendoza , W , Mengistu , D T , Mengistu , G , Mensah , G A , Mereta , S T , Meretoja , A , Meretoja , T J , Meshovic , T , Mezgebe , H B , Miazgowski , B , Miazgowski , 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, Samy , A M , Sanabria , J , Sanchez-Nino , M D , Santomauro , D F , Santos , I S , Santos , J V , Milicevic , M M S , Jose , B P S , Sarker , A R , Sarmiento-Suarez , R , Sarrafzadegan , N , Sartorius , B , Sarvi , S , Sathian , B , Satpathy , M , Sawant , A R , Sawhney , M , Saxena , S , Sayyah , M , Schaeffher , E , Schmidt , M I , Schneider , I J C , Schottker , B , Schutte , A E , Schwebel , D C , Schwendicke , F , Scott , J G , Sekerija , M , Sepanlou , S G , Servan-Mori , E , Seyedmousavi , S , Shabaninejad , H , Shackelford , K A , Shafieesabet , A , Shahbazi , M , Shaheen , A A , Shaikh , M A , Shams-Beyranvand , M , Shamsi , M , Shamsizadeh , M , Sharafi , K , Sharif , M , Sharif-Alhoseini , M , Sharma , R , She , J , Sheikh , A , Shi , P , Shiferaw , M S , Shigematsu , M , Shiri , R , Shirkoohi , R , Shiue , I , Shokraneh , F , Shrine , M G , Si , S , Siabani , S , Siddiqi , T J , Sigfusdottir , I D , Sigurvinsdottir , R , Silberberg , D H , Silva , D A S , Silva , J P , Da Silva , N T , Silveira , D B A , Singh , J A , Singh , N P , Singh , P K , Singh , V , Sinha , D N , Sliwa , K , Smith , M , Sobaih , B H , Sobhani , S , Solangwi , E , Soneji , S S , Soofi , M , Sorensen , R J D , Soriano , J B , Soyiri , I N , Sposato , L A , Sreeramareddy , C F , Srinivasan , V , Stanaway , J D , Starodubov , V I , Stathopoulou , V , Stein , D J , Steiner , C , Stewart , L G , Stokes , M A , Subart , M L , Sudaryanto , A , Sufiyan , M B , Sur , P J , Sutradhar , I , Sykes , B L , Sylaja , P N , Sylte , D O , Szoeke , C E I , Tabares-Seisdedos , R , Tabuchi , T , Tadakamadla , S K , Takahashi , K , Tandon , N , Tassew , S G , Taveira , N , Tehrani-Banihashemi , A , Tekalign , T G , Tekle , M G , Temsah , M-H , Temsah , O , Terkawi , A S , Teshale , M Y , Tesserna , B , Tessema , G A , Thankappan , K R , Thirinavukkarasu , S , Thomas , N , Thrift , A G , Thurston , G D , Tilahun , B , To , Q G , Tobe-Gai , R , Tonellli , M , Topor-Madry , R , Torre , A E , Tortajada-Cirbes , M , Touvier , M , Tovani-Palone , M R , Bach Xuan Tran , N V , Khah Bao Tran , Tripathi , S , Troeger , C E , Truelsen , T C , Nu Thi Truong , Tsadik , A G , Tsoi , D , Car , L T , Tuzcu , E M , Tyrovolas , S , Ukwaja , K N , Whiff , I , Undurraga , E A , Updike , R L , Usman , M S , Uthman , O A , Uzun , S B , Vaduganathan , M , Vaezi , A , Vaidya , G , Valdez , P R , Varavikova , E , Vasankari , T J , Venketasubramanian , N , Villafaina , S , Violante , F S , Vladimirov , S K , Vlassov , V , Vollset , S E , Vos , T , Wagner , G R , Wagnew , F S , Waheed , Y , Wallin , M T , Watson , J L , Wang , Y , Wang , Y-P , Wassie , M M , Weiderpass , E , Weintraub , R G , Weldegebreal , E , Weldegwergs , K G , Werdecker , A , Werkneh , A A , West , T E , Westerman , R , Whiteford , H A , Widecka , J , Wilner , L B , Wilson , S , Winkler , A S , Wiysonge , C S , Wolfe , C D A , Wu , S , Wu , Y-C , Wyper , G M A , Xavier , D , Xu , G , Yadgir , S , Yadollahpour , A , Jabbari , S H Y , Yakob , B , Yan , L L , Yano , Y , Yaseri , M , Yasin , Y J , Yentur , G K , Yeshaneh , A , Yimer , E M , Yip , P , Yirsaw , B D , Yisma , E , Yonemoto , N , Yonga , G , Yoon , S-J , Yotebieng , M , Younis , M Z , Yousefifard , M , Yu , C , Zadnik , V , Zaidi , Z , Bin Zaman , S , Zamani , M , Zare , Z , Zeleke , A J , Zenebe , Z M , Zhang , A L , Zhang , K , Zhou , M , Zodpey , S , Zuhlke , L J , Naghavi , N & Murray , C J L 2018 , ' Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 ' , Lancet , vol. 392 , no. 10159 , pp. 1736-1788 . https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32203-7

Title: Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Author: Roth, Gregory A.; Collaborotors, G. B. D.Causes Death; Abate, Degu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abay, Solomon M.; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasi, Nooshin; Abbastabar, Hedayat; Abd-Allah, Load; Abdela, Jemal; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Abebe, Haftom Temesgen; Abebe, Molla; Abebe, Zegeye; Abejie, Ayenew Negesse; Abera, Semaw F.; Abil, Olifan Zewdie; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abrham, Aklilu Roba; Abu-Raddad, Laith Jamal; Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou; Acharya, Dilaram; Adamu, Abdu A.; Adebayo, Oladimeji; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adekanmbi, Victor; Adookunboh, Olatunii; Adhena, Beyene Meressa; Adib, Mina G.; Admasie, Aniha; Afshin, Ashkan; Agarwal, Gina; Agesa, Karelia M.; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Melidi; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Ahmed, Sayent; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Fddine; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Akinyeniti, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alandab, Fares; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Tahiya; Alebel, Animut; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alijanzadeh, Mehran; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Altirkawi, Khalid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Aminde, Leopold N.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampern; Anber, Nahla Hamed; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Androudi, Sofia; Animut, Megbaru Debalkie; Anjomshoa, Mina; Ansari, Hossein; Aniha, Mustafa Geleto; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Aremu, Olatunde; Arnlov, Johan; Arora, Amit; Arora, Monika; Artaman, Al; Aryal, Krishna K.; Asayesh, Hamid; Asfaw, Ephremi Tsegay; Ataro, Zerihun; Atique, Suleman; Atre, Sachin R.; Ausloos, Marcel; Avokpaho, Euripide F. G. A.; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintattilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Ayele, Yohanes; Ayer, Rakesh; Azzopardi, Peter S.; Babazadeh, Arefeh; Bacha, Umar; Badali, Hamid; Badawi, Alaa; Bali, Ayele Geleto; Ballesteros, Katherine E.; Banach, Maciej; Banerjee, Kajori; Bannick, Marlena S.; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barboza, Miguel A.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyu; Barnighausen, Till Winfried; Barquera, Simon; Barrero, Lope; Bassat, Quique; Base, Sanjay; Baune, Bernhard T.; Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beth, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Mcysam; Bejot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Belacliew, Abate Bekele; Belay, Ezra; Belay, Yihalem Abebe; Bell, Michelle L.; Bello, Aminu K.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berman, Adam F.; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernstein, Robert S.; Bertolacci, Gregory J.; Beuran, Mircea; Beyranvand, Tina; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhattarai, Suraj; Bhaumik, Sounayadeeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgo, Belete; Biehl, Molly H.; Bijani, Ali; Bikbov, Boris; Bilano, Ver; Bililign, Nigus; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shandaat; Bisanzio, Donal; Biswas, Tuhin; Blacker, Brigitte F.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Borschmann, Rohan; Bosetti, Cristina; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Brady, Oliver J.; Brant, Luisa C.; Brayne, Carol; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briant, Paul Svitil; Britton, Gabrielle; Brugha, Traolach; Busse, Reinhard; Butt, Zahid A.; Callender, Charlton S. K. 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Dean; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian C.; Hsiao, Thomas; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Hussen, Mohammedaman Mama; Hutfless, Susan; Idrisov, Bulat; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Iqbal, Usman; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Islam, Nazrul; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahangiry, Leila; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Jakovlievic, Mihajlo; Jalu, Moti Tolera; James, Spencer L.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jenkins, Kathy J.; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jha, Vivekanand; Johnson, Catherine O.; Johnson, Sarah C.; Jonas, Jost B.; Joshi, Ankur; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalani, Rizwan; Karami, Manoochehr; Matin, Behzad Karami; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Dessalegn H.; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kaul, Anil; Kazemi, Zhila; Karyani, Ali Kazemi; Kazi, Dhruv Satish; Kefale, Adane Teshome; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Grant Rodgers; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaei, Behzad; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khajavi, Alireza; Khalid, Nauman; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Khang, Young-Ho; Khater, Mona M.; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kibret, Getiye D.; Kidanemariam, Zelalem Teklemariam; Kiirithio, Daniel N.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Kivimäki, Mika; Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo; Kocarnik, Jonathan M.; Kochhar, Sonali; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolola, Tufa; Kopec, Jacek A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael A.; Krishan, Kewal; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kinuk; Kumar, G. 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N.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mengistu, Getnet; Mensah, George A.; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meshovic, Tbmislav; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Millear, Anoushka I.; Miller, Ted R.; Katherine, Molly; Petrie, Miller; Mini, G. K.; Mirabi, Parvaneh; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirica, Andreea; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke Temesgen; Mitiku, Habtamu; Moazen, Babak; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammad, Moslem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohammed, A. Mohammed; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mokdad, Ali H.; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Velasquez, Ilais Moreno; Morgado-Da-Costa, Joana; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Moschos, Marilita M.; Mouodi, Simin; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Muchie, Kindie Eentahun; Mueller, Ulrich Otto; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Muller, Kate; Mumford, John Everett; Musa, Jonah; Musa, Kamand Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naheed, Aliya; Nahvijou, Azin; Naik, Gunidatta; Nair, Sanjeev; Najafi, Farid; Naldi, Luigi; Nam, Hae Sung; Nangia, Vinay; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Nascirnento, Bruno Ramos; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Nearnati, Nahid; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxcandra Irina; Nettpane, Subas; Newton, Charles R. J.; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Anh Quynh Nguyen,; Nguyen, Grant; Ha Thu Nguyen,; Luong Thanh Nguyen,; Long Hoang Nguyen,; Minh Nguyen,; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Nichols, Emma; Ningnun, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Nixon, Molly R.; Nolutshungu, Nomonde; Nomura, Shhhei; Norhelin, Ole F.; Noroozi, Mehdi; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Nouri, Hamid Reza; Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Nowroozi, Mohammad Reza; Nyasulu, Peter S.; Odell, Christopher M.; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olsen, Helen Elizabeth; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Ong, Kanyin L.; Ong, Sok King Sk; Oren, Eyal; Orpana, Heather M.; Ortiz, Alberto; Ortiz, Justin R.; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Overland, Simon; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; Ozdemir, Raziye; Mahesh, P. A.; Pacella, Rosana; Pakhale, Smita; Pakhare, Abhijit P.; Pakpour, Amir H.; Pana, Adrian; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Parisi, Andrea; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D. H.; Parsian, Hadi; Patel, Shanti; Pati, Sanghamitra; Patton, George C.; Paturi, Vishnupriya Rao; Paulson, Katherine R.; Pereira, Alexandre; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Piel, Frederic B.; Pigott, David M.; Pillay, Julian David; Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Pishgar, Farhad; Polinder, Suzanne; Postma, Maarten J.; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pujar, Ashwini; Prakash, Swayam; Prasad, Narayan; Purcell, Caroline A.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quintana, Hedley; Quistberg, D. 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S.; Robinson, Stephen R.; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rostami, Ali; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Rubagotti, Enrico; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saddik, Basema; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Safari, Hosein; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salam, Nasir; Salama, Joseph S.; Salamati, Payman; Saldanha, Raphael De Freitas; Saleem, Zikria; Salimi, Yahya; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Salz, Inbal; Sambala, Evanson Zondani; Samy, Abdatiah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores; Santomauro, Damian Francesco; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, Joao Vasco; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Jose, Bruno Piassi Sao; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sartorius, Benn; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Sathian, Brijesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawant, Arundhati R.; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Sayyah, Mehdi; Schaeffher, Elke; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schottker, Ben; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schwebel, David C.; Schwendicke, Falk; Scott, James G.; Sekerija, Mario; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Shackelford, Katya Anne; Shafieesabet, Azadeh; Shahbazi, Mehdi; Shaheen, Amira A.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsi, Mohammadbagher; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharafi, Kiomars; Sharif, Mehdi; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mandi; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikh, Aziz; Shi, Peilin; Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisav; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shiue, Ivy; Shokraneh, Farhad; Shrine, Mark G.; Si, Si; Siabani, Soraya; Siddiqi, Tariq J.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Joao Pedro; Da Silva, Natacha Torres; Silveira, Dayane Bride Alves; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Virendra; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Sliwa, Karen; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr Hasan; Sobhani, Soheila; Solangwi, Eugene; Soneji, Samir S.; Soofi, Moslem; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Soriano, Joan B.; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar F.; Srinivasan, Vinay; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Starodubov, Vladimir I.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Stewart, Leo G.; Stokes, Mark A.; Subart, Michelle L.; Sudaryanto, Agus; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sur, Patrick John; Sutradhar, Ipsita; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylaja, P. N.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. 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A.; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yadollahpour, Ali; Jabbari, Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yasin, Yasin Jemal; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yeshaneh, Alex; Yimer, Ebrahim M.; Yip, Paul; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yonga, Gerald; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yu, Chuanhua; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zare, Zohreh; Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Maigeng; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Naghavi, Ntishsen; Murray, Christopher J. L.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki, Clinicum
University of Helsinki, Clinicum
University of Helsinki, Clinicum
University of Helsinki, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (TTL)
University of Helsinki, Karolinska Institutet
Date: 2018-11-10
Language: eng
Number of pages: 53
Belongs to series: Lancet
ISSN: 0140-6736
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/273443
Abstract: Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODErn), to generate cause fractions and cause specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NC Ds) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73.4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72.5-74.1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 186% (17.9-19.6), and injuries 8.0% (7.7-8.2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22.7% (21.5-23.9), representing an additional 7.61 million (7. 20-8.01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7.9% (7.08.8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 222% (20.0-24.0) and the death rate by 31.8% (30.1-33.3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2.3% (0-5-4-0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13.7% (12.2-15.1) to 57.9 deaths (55.9-59.2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000-289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000-363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118.0% (88.8-148.6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36.4% (32.2-40.6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33.6% (31.2-36.1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respirator}, infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990 neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade. Copyright (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Subject: PUBLIC-HEALTH PROBLEM
UNITED-STATES
ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE
TRENDS
PREVALENCE
PREVENTION
DEMENTIA
REGISTRATION
INDIVIDUALS
BARRIERS
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
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