Characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1) and HISV-like viruses-The representatives of genus Hartmanivirus, family Arenaviridae

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Hepojoki , J , Hepojoki , S , Smura , T , Szirovicza , L , Dervas , E , Prahauser , B , Nufer , L , Schraner , E M , Vapalahti , O , Kipar , A & Hetzel , U 2018 , ' Characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1) and HISV-like viruses-The representatives of genus Hartmanivirus, family Arenaviridae ' , PLoS Pathogens , vol. 14 , no. 11 , 1007415 . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007415

Title: Characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1) and HISV-like viruses-The representatives of genus Hartmanivirus, family Arenaviridae
Author: Hepojoki, Jussi; Hepojoki, Satu; Smura, Teemu; Szirovicza, Leonora; Dervas, Eva; Prahauser, Barbara; Nufer, Lisbeth; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Vapalahti, Olli; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo
Contributor organization: Viral Zoonosis Research Unit
Department of Virology
Medicum
Faculty of Medicine
Klaus Hedman / Principal Investigator
Veterinary Microbiology and Epidemiology
Veterinary Biosciences
Olli Pekka Vapalahti / Principal Investigator
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Clinicum
Date: 2018-11
Language: eng
Number of pages: 29
Belongs to series: PLoS Pathogens
ISSN: 1553-7366
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007415
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/275495
Abstract: The family Arenaviridae comprises three genera, Mammarenavirus, Reptarenavirus and the most recently added Hartmanivirus. Arenaviruses have a bisegmented genome with ambisense coding strategy. For mammarenaviruses and reptarenaviruses the L segment encodes the Z protein (ZP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the S segment encodes the glycoprotein precursor and the nucleoprotein. Herein we report the full length genome and characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1), the putative type species of hartmaniviruses. The L segment of HISV-1 lacks an open-reading frame for ZP, and our analysis of purified HISV-1 particles by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy further support the lack of ZP. Since we originally identified HISV-1 in co-infection with a reptarenavirus, one could hypothesize that co-infecting reptarenavirus provides the ZP to complement HISV-1. However, we observed that co-infection does not markedly affect the amount of hartmanivirus or reptarenavirus RNA released from infected cells in vitro, indicating that HISV-1 does not benefit from reptarenavirus ZP. Furthermore, we succeeded in generating a pure HISV-1 isolate showing the virus to replicate without ZP. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies demonstrate that, unlike reptarenaviruses, HISV-1 does not produce the intracellular inclusion bodies typical for the reptarenavirus-induced boid inclusion body disease (BIBD). While we observed HISV-1 to be slightly cytopathic for cultured boid cells, the histological and immunohistological investigation of HISV-positive snakes showed no evidence of a pathological effect. The histological analyses also revealed that hartmaniviruses, unlike reptarenaviruses, have a limited tissue tropism. By nucleic acid sequencing, de novo genome assembly, and phylogenetic analyses we identified additional four hartmanivirus species. Finally, we screened 71 individuals from a collection of snakes with BIBD by RT-PCR and found 44 to carry hartmaniviruses. These findings suggest that harmaniviruses are common in captive snake populations, but their relevance and pathogenic potential needs yet to be revealed.
Subject: INCLUSION-BODY DISEASE
UPDATED PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS
FINGER PROTEIN
RNA SYNTHESIS
BOID SNAKES
WEB
REPLICATION
INHIBITION
PROMOTER
1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology
3111 Biomedicine
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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