Articles from BioMed Central


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  • Virtanen, Elina; Pietilä, Tuuli; Nieminen, Pekka; Qian, Kui; Auvinen, Eeva (Springer International Publishing, 2016)
    Abstract Using small RNA sequencing of libraries established from cervical samples and cervical cancer cell lines, we have previously reported identification of nine and validation of five putative microRNA species encoded by human papillomaviruses (HPV) including five microRNAs encoded by HPV 16. Here we have studied the expression of HPV 16 encoded microRNAs in cervical samples and in HPV 16 containing cell lines. Different sample matrices were collected for the study: 20 paraffin embedded cervical tissue samples, 16 liquid cytology samples, and 16 cervical cell samples from women attending colposcopy due to cervical abnormalities, as well as four HPV 16 containing cell lines. Total RNA was extracted, the samples were spiked with small synthetic control RNAs, and the expression of five HPV 16 encoded microRNAs was assessed by real-time PCR amplification. HPV encoded microRNAs could be frequently detected, albeit at high cycle counts. HPV16-miR-H1 was detected in 3.6 %, HPV16-miR-H3 in 23.6 %, HPV16-miR-H5 in 7.3 %, and HPV16-miR-H6 in 18.2 % of all valid samples. True positive signals for HPV16-miR-H2 could not be detected in any of the samples. Viral microRNAs were detected most frequently in paraffin-embedded samples: in one sample representing normal squamous epithelium, in one cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1, one CIN2, three CIN3, two squamous cell carcinoma, three adenocarcinoma in situ, and two adenocarcinoma samples. One liquid cytology sample from a patient with CIN3 as well as all four cell lines were positive for HPV16-miR-H3. In all cases HPV encoded microRNAs were expressed at low levels.
  • Hardisty, Alex R; Bacall, Finn; Beard, Niall; Balcázar-Vargas, Maria-Paula; Balech, Bachir; Barcza, Zoltán; Bourlat, Sarah J; De Giovanni, Renato; de Jong, Yde; De Leo, Francesca; Dobor, Laura; Donvito, Giacinto; Fellows, Donal; Guerra, Antonio F; Ferreira, Nuno; Fetyukova, Yuliya; Fosso, Bruno; Giddy, Jonathan; Goble, Carole; Güntsch, Anton; Haines, Robert; Ernst, Vera H; Hettling, Hannes; Hidy, Dóra; Horváth, Ferenc; Ittzés, Dóra; Ittzés, Péter; Jones, Andrew; Kottmann, Renzo; Kulawik, Robert; Leidenberger, Sonja; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Mathew, Cherian; Morrison, Norman; Nenadic, Aleksandra; de la Hidalga, Abraham N; Obst, Matthias; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Paymal, Elisabeth; Pesole, Graziano; Pinto, Salvatore; Poigné, Axel; Fernandez, Francisco Q; Santamaria, Monica; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Sipos, Gergely; Sylla, Karl-Heinz; Tähtinen, Marko; Vicario, Saverio; Vos, Rutger A; Williams, Alan R; Yilmaz, Pelin (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Making forecasts about biodiversity and giving support to policy relies increasingly on large collections of data held electronically, and on substantial computational capability and capacity to analyse, model, simulate and predict using such data. However, the physically distributed nature of data resources and of expertise in advanced analytical tools creates many challenges for the modern scientist. Across the wider biological sciences, presenting such capabilities on the Internet (as “Web services”) and using scientific workflow systems to compose them for particular tasks is a practical way to carry out robust “in silico” science. However, use of this approach in biodiversity science and ecology has thus far been quite limited. Results BioVeL is a virtual laboratory for data analysis and modelling in biodiversity science and ecology, freely accessible via the Internet. BioVeL includes functions for accessing and analysing data through curated Web services; for performing complex in silico analysis through exposure of R programs, workflows, and batch processing functions; for on-line collaboration through sharing of workflows and workflow runs; for experiment documentation through reproducibility and repeatability; and for computational support via seamless connections to supporting computing infrastructures. We developed and improved more than 60 Web services with significant potential in many different kinds of data analysis and modelling tasks. We composed reusable workflows using these Web services, also incorporating R programs. Deploying these tools into an easy-to-use and accessible ‘virtual laboratory’, free via the Internet, we applied the workflows in several diverse case studies. We opened the virtual laboratory for public use and through a programme of external engagement we actively encouraged scientists and third party application and tool developers to try out the services and contribute to the activity. Conclusions Our work shows we can deliver an operational, scalable and flexible Internet-based virtual laboratory to meet new demands for data processing and analysis in biodiversity science and ecology. In particular, we have successfully integrated existing and popular tools and practices from different scientific disciplines to be used in biodiversity and ecological research.
  • Koponen, Ismo T; Nousiainen, Maija (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016)
    Abstract Purpose In small cooperative and collaborative groups, patterns of interaction, discourse and dialogue are often strongly bidirectional; ties are reciprocal and reciprocated. This reciprocation of ties leads to the formation of interaction patterns that are reciprocated dyads (two individuals connected reciprocally) and triads (three individuals connected reciprocally). In this study, we use an agent-based model to explore how such reciprocated dyadic and triadic patterns emerge from self-reinforced appreciation between peers in a small group. Methods The model assumes that the agents’ decisions to interact depend on how their self-appreciation compares to their appreciations of their peers (peer-appreciation). These comparisons are competitive in that an agent seek to increase its appreciation in relation to its peers. As a consequence, agents change their self-appreciation and appreciation towards their peers depending on their sensitivity to the competitive comparison. Results When agents’ sensitivity to competitive comparisons is low, the most common patterns of appreciation are egalitarian triads (all three agents appreciate each other), while for moderate sensitivity, leadership-type patterns emerge (one agent connected strongly to two other unconnected agents). When sensitivity is high, strong reciprocally connected dyads emerge. The model thus predicts thus a transition from egalitarian triads to strong dyads as agents’ sensitivity to competitive comparisons increases. Conclusions The structural similarity between patterns emerging as model results and patterns reported in empirical research suggests that: (1) reciprocation based on appreciation is a strong candidate for explaining the formation of such patterns, and (2) individual sensitivity to competitive comparisons of appreciation may be a key factor that can be used to the tune dynamics of interaction in small groups.
  • Kankaanpää, Meri; Raitakari, Maria; Muukkonen, Leila; Gustafsson, Siv; Heitto, Merja; Palomäki, Ari; Suojanen, Kimmo; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background To assess whether the use of point-of-care testing (POCT) and early assessment team (EAT) model shortens emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS). Methods This prospective, observational study with comparison between three study periods was performed in three phases in a metropolitan ED with 57,000 annual visits. Data were collected from adult ambulatory patients who were discharged home. Phase 1 served as a control (n = 1559 in one month). In phase 2, a comprehensive POCT panel including complete blood count, sodium, potassium, glucose, C-reactive protein, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, amylase, and D-dimer was launched (n = 1442 in one month). In phase 3 (n = 3356 in subsequent two months), POCT approach continued. In addition, the working process was changed by establishing an EAT consisting of an emergency medicine resident and a nurse. The team operated from 12 noon to 10 p.m. was. The primary outcome was LOS (hh:mm) in the ED. Waiting times for patients requiring laboratory testing were analysed also, including time from admission to laboratory blood sampling (A2S interval), time from blood sampling to results ready (S2R interval) and time from results to discharge (R2D interval). Results Median LOS of patients requiring laboratory tests in phase 1 was 3:51 (95 % confidence interval 03:38–04:04). During phase 2, introduction of POCT reduced median LOS by 29 min to 03:22 (03:12–03:31, p = 0.000). In phase 3, the EAT model reduced median LOS further by 17 min to 03:05 (02:59–03:12, p = 0.033). Altogether, the process was expedited by 46 min compared with the phase 1. Surprisingly, A2S interval was unaffected by the interventions among all patients needing laboratory testing. In comparison to phase 1, shortening of S2R interval was observed in phase 2 and 3, and that of R2D interval in all patients with laboratory assessments in phase 3. Discussion The present study included adult ambulatory patients and is the first one to examine the impact of comprehensive POC test panel, first alone and then with additional process change. As a result, LOS was reduced significantly for patients needing laboratory tests. Considerable shortening in LOS came from introduction of POCT, and EAT process decreased the LOS further. We used a comprehensive POC test panel in order to maximise the patient population benefiting from the positive impacts of POC on laboratory turnaround time and length of stay. In EAT, diverse setups exist, and these differences affect the interpretation of results. The process changes in phase 3 were done by rearranging work shifts and no extra resources were added. Regarding to staffing the process improvement was thus cost neutral. Conclusions The advantage of POCT alone compared with central laboratory seemed to lie in shorter waiting times for results and earlier discharge home. Moreover, POCT and EAT model shorten LOS additively compared with conventional processes. However, a longer time is seemingly needed to adopt a new working process in the ED, and to establish its full benefit.
  • Kaikkonen, Ritva; Niinistö, Kati; Lindholm, Tiina; Raekallio, Marja (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Ingestion of geosediment (further referred as sand) may cause weight loss, diarrhea and acute or recurrent colic in horses. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of three treatment protocols in clearing colonic sand accumulations in clinical patients. This retrospective clinical study consisted of 1097 horses and ponies, which were radiographed for the presence of colonic sand. Horses included to the study (n = 246) were displaying areas of sand in the radiographs of ≥75 cm2 and were treated medically monitoring the response with radiographs. The horses were assigned into three groups based on the given treatment: Group 1 was fed psyllium [1 g/kg body weight (BW)] daily at home for a minimum of 10 days (n = 57); Group 2 was treated once with psyllium or magnesium sulfate by nasogastric tubing followed by daily feeding of psyllium (1 g/kg BW) at home for a minimum of 10 days (n = 19), and Group 3 was treated by daily nasogastric tubing for 3–7 days with psyllium and/or magnesium sulfate (1 g of each/kg BW) (n = 170). Results The initial area of sand did not differ significantly between the treatments. Group 3 had significantly less residual sand than Groups 1 and 2, and the proportion of resolved horses was higher in Group 3 than in Groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Daily nasogastric tubing with psyllium and/or magnesium sulfate for 3–7 days removes large accumulations of sand from the colon in horses more effectively than feeding psyllium for at least 10 days.
  • Rajala, Kaisa; Lehto, Juho T; Saarinen, M.; Sutinen, E.; Saarto, T.; Myllärniemi, M. (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with median survival from 2 to 7 years. Palliative care is an important part of patients´ care as lung transplantation is not an option for the majority of patients. The aim of this study was to describe treatment practices, decision-making and symptoms during end-of-life care of IPF patients. Methods We identified 59 deceased patients from a national prospective IPF cohort study (FinnishIPF) and analyzed retrospectively their health care documentation during the 6 months that preceded death. Results Hospital was the place of death for 47 patients (80 %). A majority of the patients (93 %) were hospitalized for a mean of 30 days (range 1–96 days) during the last 6 months of their life. Altogether, patients spent 15 % of their last 6 months of life in a hospital. End-of-life decisions and do not resuscitate (DNR) orders were made for 19 (32 %) and 34 (57 %) of the patients, respectively, and 22 (42 %) of these decisions were made ≤ 3 days prior to death. During the final hospital stay, antibiotics were given to 79 % and non-invasive ventilation to 36 % of patients. During the last 24 h of life, radiologic imaging or laboratory tests were taken in 19 % and 53 % of the hospitalized patients, respectively. These tests and life prolonging therapies were more common in tertiary hospitals compared to other places of death. Dyspnea (66 %) and pain (31 %) were the most common symptoms recorded. Opioids were prescribed to 71 % of the patients during the last week before death. Conclusions The majority of IPF patients died in a hospital with ongoing life-prolonging procedures until death. The frequent use of opioids is an indicator of an intention to relieve symptoms, but end-of-life decisions were still made very late. Early integrated palliative care with advance care plan could improve the end-of-life care of dying IPF patients.
  • Jalanka, Jonna; Mattila, Eero; Jouhten, Hanne; Hartman, Jorn; de Vos, Willem M; Arkkila, Perttu; Satokari, Reetta (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). It restores the disrupted intestinal microbiota and subsequently suppresses C. difficile. The long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota and the recovery of mucosal microbiota, both of which have not been previously studied, are assessed herein. Further, the specific bacteria behind the treatment efficacy are also investigated. Methods We performed a high-throughput microbiota profiling using a phylogenetic microarray analysis of 131 faecal and mucosal samples from 14 rCDI patients pre- and post-FMT during a 1-year follow-up and 23 samples from the three universal donors over the same period. Results The FMT treatment was successful in all patients. FMT reverted the patients’ bacterial community to become dominated by Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, the major anaerobic bacterial groups of the healthy gut. In the mucosa, the amount of facultative anaerobes decreased, whereas Bacteroidetes increased. Post-FMT, the patients’ microbiota profiles were more similar to their own donors than what is generally observed for unrelated subjects and this striking similarity was retained throughout the 1-year follow-up. Furthermore, the universal donor approach allowed us to identify bacteria commonly established in all CDI patients and revealed a commonly acquired core microbiota consisting of 24 bacterial taxa. Conclusions FMT induces profound microbiota changes, therefore explaining the high clinical efficacy for rCDI. The identification of commonly acquired bacteria could lead to effective bacteriotherapeutic formulations. FMT can affect microbiota in the long-term and offers a means to modify it relatively permanently for the treatment of microbiota-associated diseases.
  • Stefanowicz, Karolina; Lannoo, Nausicaä; Zhao, Yafei; Eggermont, Lore; Van Hove, Jonas; Al Atalah, Bassam; Van Damme, Els J M (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background A small group of F-box proteins consisting of a conserved F-box domain linked to a domain homologous to the glycan-binding protein has been identified within the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, the so-called F-box-Nictaba protein, encoded by the gene At2g02360, was shown to be a functional lectin which binds N-acetyllactosamine structures. Here, we present a detailed qRT-PCR expression analysis of F-box-Nictaba in Arabidopsis plants upon different stresses and hormone treatments. Results Expression of the F-box-Nictaba gene was enhanced after plant treatment with salicylic acid and after plant infection with the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000). β-glucuronidase histochemical staining of transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed preferential activity of the At2g02360 promoter in trichomes present on young rosette leaves. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed high expression of F-box-Nictaba in leaf trichomes. A. thaliana plants overexpressing the gene showed less disease symptoms after Pst DC3000 infection with reduced bacterial colonization compared to infected wild type and F-box-Nictaba knock-out plants. Conclusions Our data show that the Arabidopsis F-box-Nictaba gene is a stress-inducible gene responsive to SA, bacterial infection and heat stress, and is involved in salicylic acid related plant defense responses. This knowledge enriched our understanding of the physiological importance of F-box-Nictaba, and can be used to create plants with better performance in changing environmental conditions.
  • Muranen, Taru A; Blomqvist, Carl; Dörk, Thilo; Jakubowska, Anna; Heikkilä, Päivi; Fagerholm, Rainer; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Bojesen, Stig E; Shah, Mitul; Dunning, Alison M; Rhenius, Valerie; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Couch, Fergus J; Hart, Steven N; Figueroa, Jonine; García-Closas, Montserrat; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Andrulis, Irene L; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Lubinski, Jan; Dubrowinskaja, Natalia; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul D P; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Nevanlinna, Heli (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background P.I157T is a CHEK2 missense mutation associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk. Previously, another CHEK2 mutation, the protein truncating c.1100delC has been associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Here, we have investigated patient survival and characteristics of breast tumors of germ line p.I157T carriers. Methods We included in the analyses 26,801 European female breast cancer patients from 15 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We analyzed the association between p.I157T and the clinico-pathological breast cancer characteristics by comparing the p.I157T carrier tumors to non-carrier and c.1100delC carrier tumors. Similarly, we investigated the p.I157T associated risk of early death, breast cancer-associated death, distant metastasis, locoregional relapse and second breast cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. Additionally, we explored the p.I157T-associated genomic gene expression profile using data from breast tumors of 183 Finnish female breast cancer patients (ten p.I157T carriers) (GEO: GSE24450). Differential gene expression analysis was performed using a moderated t test. Functional enrichment was investigated using the DAVID functional annotation tool and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The tumors were classified into molecular subtypes according to the St Gallen 2013 criteria and the PAM50 gene expression signature. Results P.I157T was not associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer-associated death or distant metastasis relapse, and there was a significant difference in prognosis associated with the two CHEK2 mutations, p.I157T and c.1100delC. Furthermore, p.I157T was associated with lobular histological type and clinico-pathological markers of good prognosis, such as ER and PR expression, low TP53 expression and low grade. Gene expression analysis suggested luminal A to be the most common subtype for p.I157T carriers and CDH1 (cadherin 1) target genes to be significantly enriched among genes, whose expression differed between p.I157T and non-carrier tumors. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that there are fundamental differences in breast tumors of CHEK2:p.I157T and c.1100delC carriers. The poor prognosis associated with c.1100delC cannot be generalized to other CHEK2 mutations.
  • Puurunen, Jenni; Sulkama, Sini; Tiira, Katriina; Araujo, Cesar; Lehtonen, Marko; Hanhineva, Kati; Lohi, Hannes (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically relevant model for human ADHD. As a part of our ongoing study to understand the molecular etiology of canine anxiety traits, this study was aimed to pilot an approach to identify metabolic biomarkers in canine ADHD-like behaviours for research, diagnostics and treatment purposes. Methods We collected fresh plasma samples from 22 German Shepherds with varying ADHD-like behaviours. All dogs were on the same controlled diet for 2 weeks prior to sampling. A liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC–MS)-based non-targeted metabolite profiling was performed to identify plasma metabolites correlating with the ADHD-like behaviour of the dogs. Results 649 molecular features correlated with ADHD-like behavioural scores (praw < 0.05), and three of them [sn-1 LysoPC(18:3), PC(18:3/18:2) and sn-1 LysoPE(18:2)] had significant correlations also after FDR correction (pFDR < 0.05). Phospholipids were found to negatively correlate with ADHD-like behavioural scores, whereas tryptophan metabolites 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) had negative and positive correlations with ADHD-like behavioural scores, respectively. Conclusions Our study identified associations between canine ADHD-like behaviours and metabolites that are involved in lipid and tryptophan metabolisms. The identified metabolites share similarity with earlier findings in human and rodent ADHD models. However, a larger replication study is warranted to validate the discoveries prior to further studies to understand the biological role of the identified metabolites in canine ADHD-like behaviours.
  • Roselli, Marianna; Finamore, Alberto; Hynönen, Ulla; Palva, Airi; Mengheri, Elena (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background The role of Lactobacillus cell wall components in the protection against pathogen infection in the gut is still largely unexplored. We have previously shown that L. amylovorus DSM 16698T is able to reduce the enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesion and prevent the pathogen-induced membrane barrier disruption through the regulation of IL-10 and IL-8 expression in intestinal cells. We have also demonstrated that L. amylovorus DSM 16698T protects host cells through the inhibition of NF-kB signaling. In the present study, we investigated the role of L. amylovorus DSM 16698T cell wall components in the protection against F4+ETEC infection using the intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Methods Purified cell wall fragments (CWF) from L. amylovorus DSM 16698T were used either as such (uncoated, U-CWF) or coated with S-layer proteins (S-CWF). Differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells on Transwell filters were infected with F4+ETEC, treated with S-CWF or U-CWF, co-treated with S-CWF or U-CWF and F4+ETEC for 2.5 h, or pre-treated with S-CWF or U-CWF for 1 h before F4+ETEC addition. Tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Membrane permeability was determined by phenol red passage. Phosphorylated p65-NF-kB was measured by Western blot. Results We showed that both the pre-treatment with S-CWF and the co- treatment of S-CWF with the pathogen protected the cells from F4+ETEC induced TJ and AJ injury, increased membrane permeability and activation of NF-kB expression. Moreover, the U-CWF pre-treatment, but not the co-treatment with F4+ETEC, inhibited membrane damage and prevented NF-kB activation. Conclusions The results indicate that the various components of L. amylovorus DSM 16698T cell wall may counteract the damage caused by F4+ETEC through different mechanisms. S-layer proteins are essential for maintaining membrane barrier function and for mounting an anti-inflammatory response against F4+ETEC infection. U-CWF are not able to defend the cells when they are infected with F4+ETEC but may activate protective mechanisms before pathogen infection.
  • Jäppinen, Luke; Jalkanen, Tero; Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Heinonen, Markku; Kukk, Edwin; Radevici, Ivan; Paturi, Petriina; Peurla, Markus; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Santos, Hélder A; Boukherroub, Rabah; Santos, Hellen; Lastusaari, Mika; Salonen, Jarno (Springer US, 2016)
    Abstract Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were manufactured using the aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method, and the effect of thermal acetylene treatment on their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties was investigated. Changes in the elemental content of the treated rods were found to be different than in previous reports, possibly due to the different defect concentrations in the samples, highlighting the importance of synthesis method selection for the process. Acetylene treatment resulted in a significant improvement of the ultraviolet photoluminescence of the rods. The greatest increase in emission intensity was recorded on ZnO rods treated at the temperature of 825 °C. The findings imply that the changes brought on by the treatment are limited to the surface of the ZnO rods.
  • Watson, Rod; Morris, James; Isitt, John; Barrio, Pablo; Ortega, Lluisa; Gual, Antoni; Conner, Kenneth; Stecker, Tracy; Maisto, Stephen; Paroz, Sophie; Graap, Caroline; Grazioli, Véronique S; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Collins, Susan E; Bertholet, Nicolas; McNeely, Jennifer; Kushnir, Vlad; Cunningham, John A; Crombie, Iain K; Cunningham, Kathryn B; Irvine, Linda; Williams, Brian; Sniehotta, Falko F; Norrie, John; Melson, Ambrose; Jones, Claire; Briggs, Andrew; Rice, Peter; Achison, Marcus; McKenzie, Andrew; Dimova, Elena; Slane, Peter W; Grazioli, Véronique S; Collins, Susan E; Paroz, Sophie; Graap, Caroline; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard; Magill, Molly; Grazioli, Véronique S; Tait, Robert J; Teoh, Lucinda; Kelty, Erin; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Mountain, David; Hulse, Gary K; Renko, Elina; Mitchell, Shannon G; Lounsbury, David; Li, Zhi; Schwartz, Robert P; Gryczynski, Jan; Kirk, Arethusa S; Oros, Marla; Hosler, Colleen; Dusek, Kristi; Brown, Barry S; Finnell, Deborah S; Holloway, Aisha; Wu, Li-Tzy; Subramaniam, Geetha; Sharma, Gaurav; Wallhed Finn, Sara; Andreasson, Sven; Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M; Harris, Sion K; Sherritt, Lon; Copelas, Sarah; Knight, John R; Mdege, Noreen D; McCambridge, Jim; Bischof, Gallus; Bischof, Anja; Freyer-Adam, Jennis; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen; Fitzgerald, Niamh; Schölin, Lisa; Toner, Paul; Böhnke, Jan R; Veach, Laura J; Currin, Olivia; Dongre, Leigh Z; Miller, Preston R; White, Elizabeth; Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Bobb, Jennifer J; Rubinsky, Anna D; Catz, Sheryl L; Shortreed, Susan; Bensley, Kara M; Bradley, Katharine A; Milward, Joanna; Deluca, Paolo; Khadjesari, Zarnie; Watson, Rod; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Drummond, Colin; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; Baumann, Sophie; Haberecht, Katja; Schnuerer, Inga; Meyer, Christian; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Gaertner, Beate; Barrault-Couchouron, Marion; Béracochéa, Marion; Allafort, Vincent; Barthélémy, Valérie; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Bussières, Emmanuel; Garguil, Véronique; Auriacombe, Marc; Saint-Jacques, Marianne; Dorval, Michel; M’Bailara, Katia; Segura-Garcia, Lidia; Ibañez-Martinez, Nuria; Mendive-Arbeloa, Juan M; Anoro-Perminger, Manel; Diaz-Gallego, Pako; Piñar-Mateos, Mª A; Colom-Farran, Joan; Deligianni, Marianthi; Yersin, Bertrand; Adam, Angeline; Weisner, Constance; Chi, Felicia; Lu, Wendy; Sterling, Stacy; Kraemer, Kevin L; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Fiellin, David A; Skanderson, Melissa; Gordon, Adam J; Robbins, Jonathan; Zickmund, Susan; Korthuis, P. T; Edelman, E. J; Hansen, Nathan B; Cutter, Christopher J; Dziura, James; Fiellin, Lynn E; O’Connor, Patrick G; Maisto, Stephen A; Bedimo, Roger; Gilbert, Cynthia; Marconi, Vincent C; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Simberkoff, Michael; Justice, Amy C; Bryant, Kendall J; Berman, Anne H; Shorter, Gillian W; Bray, Jeremy W; Barbosa, Carolina; Johansson, Magnus; Hester, Reid; Campbell, William; Souza Formigoni, Maria L O; Andrade, André L M; Sartes, Laisa M A; Sundström, Christopher; Eék, Niels; Kraepelien, Martin; Kaldo, Viktor; Fahlke, Claudia; Hernandez, Lynn; Becker, Sara J; Jones, Richard N; Graves, Hannah R; Spirito, Anthony; Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer; Gaume, Jacques; Grazioli, Véronique; Fortini, Cristiana; Malan, Zelra; Mash, Bob; Everett-Murphy, Katherine; Grazioli, Véronique S; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Bertholet, Nicolas; Gmel, Gerhard; Doi, Lawrence; Cheyne, Helen; Jepson, Ruth; Luna, Vanesa; Echeverria, Leticia; Morales, Silvia; Barroso, Teresa; Abreu, Ângela; Aguiar, Cosma; Stewart, Duncan; Abreu, Angela; Brites, Riany M; Jomar, Rafael; Marinho, Gerson; Parreira, Pedro; Seale, J. P; Johnson, J. A; Henry, Dena; Chalmers, Sharon; Payne, Freida; Tuck, Linda; Morris, Akula; Gonçalves, Cátia; Besser, Bettina; Casajuana, Cristina; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Balcells, María M; Teixidó, Lídia; Miquel, Laia; Colom, Joan; Hepner, Kimberly A; Hoggatt, Katherine. J; Bogart, Andy; Paddock, Susan. M; Hardoon, Sarah L; Petersen, Irene; Hamilton, Fiona L; Nazareth, Irwin; White, Ian R; Marston, Louise; Wallace, Paul; Godfrey, Christine; Murray, Elizabeth; Sovinová, Hana; Csémy, Ladislav (BioMed Central, 2016)
  • Nokireki, Tiina; Nevalainen, Martti; Sihvonen, Liisa; Gadd, Tuija (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Oral rabies vaccination of wildlife has effectively reduced the incidence of rabies in wildlife and has led to the elimination of rabies in large areas of Europe. The safety of oral rabies vaccines has been assessed in both target (red fox and raccoon dog) and several non-target species. Case presentation Since 2011, the competent authority in Finland has received a few reports of dogs experiencing adverse reactions that have been assumed to be caused by the consumption of baits containing oral rabies vaccine. The dogs usually exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, inappetence, constipation or diarrhoea) or behavioral symptoms (restlessness, listlessness and unwillingness to continue hunting). Conclusions Nevertheless, these adverse reactions are transient and non-life threatening. Even though the adverse reactions are unpleasant to individual dogs and their owners, the benefits of oral rabies vaccination clearly outweigh the risks.
  • Lahti, Jouni; Holstila, Ansku; Mänty, Minna; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Disability retirement is an economic, public health and work life issue causing costs for employees, workplaces and society. Adopting physical activity at middle-age has been associated with reduced risk of sickness absence and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine how changes over time in leisure time physical activity are associated with subsequent disability retirement among midlife employees. Methods The Helsinki Health Study cohort baseline (phase 1) mail questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among 40–60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. A phase 2 survey was conducted in 2007 (N = 3943). Respondents were classified into three groups: 1. low-active (<14 MET-hours/week), 2. moderately active (> = 14 MET-hours/week in moderate-intensity physical activity) and 3. vigorously active (> = 14 MET-hours/week including vigorous physical activity) at both phases. This yielded nine groups for describing stability and change of leisure time physical activity. Disability retirement data were derived from the registry of the Finnish Centre for Pensions until the end of 2013. A Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for covariates. Results During the follow-up, 264 (6.7 %) participants retired due to disability. Compared with those who were persistently low-active, those who increased their physical activity from low to vigorous had a lower risk of subsequent disability retirement (HR = 0.38, 95 % CI = 0.15–0.97) when adjusting for age, gender, occupational social class, strenuousness of work, smoking and binge drinking. Similarly, compared with those who were persistently moderately active, those increasing from moderate to vigorous (HR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.28–0.86) had a reduced risk. In contrast, those decreasing their physical activity from vigorous to low (HR = 2.42, 95 % CI = 1.32–4.41) or moderate (HR = 1.70, 95 % CI = 1.03–2.82) had an increased risk, compared with those who were persistently vigorously active. Adjusting for BMI, limiting longstanding illness and prior sickness absence somewhat attenuated the associations. Conclusions Adopting vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of disability retirement. Promoting vigorous physical activity among midlife employees may help prevent disability retirement.