Articles from BioMed Central

 

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  • Hannon, Eilis; Dempster, Emma; Viana, Joana; Burrage, Joe; Smith, Adam R; Macdonald, Ruby; St Clair, David; Mustard, Colette; Breen, Gerome; Therman, Sebastian; Kaprio, Jaakko; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Pol, Hilleke E H; Bohlken, Marc M; Kahn, Rene S; Nenadic, Igor; Hultman, Christina M; Murray, Robin M; Collier, David A; Bass, Nick; Gurling, Hugh; McQuillin, Andrew; Schalkwyk, Leonard; Mill, Jonathan (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by episodic psychosis and altered cognitive function. Despite success in identifying genetic variants associated with schizophrenia, there remains uncertainty about the causal genes involved in disease pathogenesis and how their function is regulated. Results We performed a multi-stage epigenome-wide association study, quantifying genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in a total of 1714 individuals from three independent sample cohorts. We have identified multiple differentially methylated positions and regions consistently associated with schizophrenia across the three cohorts; these effects are independent of important confounders such as smoking. We also show that epigenetic variation at multiple loci across the genome contributes to the polygenic nature of schizophrenia. Finally, we show how DNA methylation quantitative trait loci in combination with Bayesian co-localization analyses can be used to annotate extended genomic regions nominated by studies of schizophrenia, and to identify potential regulatory variation causally involved in disease. Conclusions This study represents the first systematic integrated analysis of genetic and epigenetic variation in schizophrenia, introducing a methodological approach that can be used to inform epigenome-wide association study analyses of other complex traits and diseases. We demonstrate the utility of using a polygenic risk score to identify molecular variation associated with etiological variation, and of using DNA methylation quantitative trait loci to refine the functional and regulatory variation associated with schizophrenia risk variants. Finally, we present strong evidence for the co-localization of genetic associations for schizophrenia and differential DNA methylation.
  • Barrouin-Melo, Stella M; Anturaniemi, Johanna; Sankari, Satu; Griinari, Mikko; Atroshi, Faik; Ounjaijean, Sakaewan; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of disease, and the antioxidant physiological effect of omega-3 from fish oil may lead to improvement of canine spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In this prospective randomized, controlled, double-blinded study, we assessed haematological and biochemical parameters in dogs with OA following supplementation with either a concentrated omega-3 deep sea fish oil product or corn oil. Blood samples from 77 client-owned dogs diagnosed as having OA were taken before (baseline) and 16 weeks after having orally ingested 0.2 ml/Kg bodyweight/day of deep sea fish oil or corn oil. Circulating malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), free carnitine (Free-Car), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), and serum fatty acids, haemograms and serum biochemistry were evaluated. Differences within and between groups from baseline to end, were analysed using repeated samples T-test or Wilcoxon rank test and independent samples T-test or a Mann-Whitney test. Results Supplementation with fish oil resulted in a significant reduction from day 0 to day 112 in MDA (from 3.41 ± 1.34 to 2.43 ± 0.92 μmol/L; P < 0.001) and an elevation in Free-Car (from 18.18 ± 9.78 to 21.19 ± 9.58 μmol/L; P = 0.004) concentrations, whereas dogs receiving corn oil presented a reduction in MDA (from 3.41 ± 1.34 to 2.41 ± 1.01 μmol/L; P = 0.001) and NTBI (from −1.25 ± 2.17 to −2.31 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.002). Both groups showed increased (albeit not significantly) GSH and 8-OH-dG blood values. Dogs supplemented with fish oil had a significant reduction in the proportions of monocytes (from 3.84 ± 2.50 to 1.77 ± 1.92 %; P = 0.030) and basophils (from 1.47 ± 1.22 to 0.62 ± 0.62 %; P = 0.012), whereas a significant reduction in platelets counts (from 316.13 ± 93.83 to 288.41 ± 101.68 × 109/L; P = 0.029), and an elevation in glucose (from 5.18 ± 0.37 to 5.32 ± 0.47 mmol/L; P = 0.041) and cholesterol (from 7.13 ± 1.62 to 7.73 ± 2.03 mmol/L; P = 0.011) measurements were observed in dogs receiving corn oil. Conclusions In canine OA, supplementation with deep sea fish oil improved diverse markers of oxidative status in the dogs studied. As corn oil also contributed to the reduction in certain oxidative markers, albeit to a lesser degree, there was no clear difference between the two oil groups. No clinical, haematological or biochemical evidence of side effects emerged related to supplementation of either oil. Although a shift in blood fatty acid values was apparent due to the type of nutraceutical product given to the dogs, corn oil seems not to be a good placebo.
  • Morandin, Claire; Tin, Mandy M Y; Abril, Sílvia; Gómez, Crisanto; Pontieri, Luigi; Schiøtt, Morten; Sundstrom, Liselotte; Tsuji, Kazuki; Pedersen, Jes S; Helantera, Heikki; Mikheyev, Alexander S (BioMed Central, 2016)
  • Close, Ciara; Kouvonen, Anne; Bosqui, Tania; Patel, Kishan; O’Reilly, Dermot; Donnelly, Michael (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background First generation migrants are reportedly at higher risk of mental ill-health compared to the settled population. This paper systematically reviews and synthesizes all reviews on the mental health of first generation migrants in order to appraise the risk factors for, and explain differences in, the mental health of this population. Methods Scientific databases were searched for systematic reviews (inception-November 2015) which provided quantitative data on the mental ill-health of first generation migrants and associated risk factors. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and full text papers for their suitability against pre-specified criteria, methodological quality was assessed. Results One thousand eight hundred twenty articles were identified, eight met inclusion criteria, which were all moderate or low quality. Depression was mostly higher in first generation migrants in general, and in refugees/asylum seekers when analysed separately. However, for both groups there was wide variation in prevalence rates, from 5 to 44 % compared with prevalence rates of 8–12 % in the general population. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder prevalence was higher for both first generation migrants in general and for refugees/asylum seekers compared with the settled majority. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder prevalence in first generation migrants in general and refugees/ asylum seekers ranged from 9 to 36 % compared with reported prevalence rates of 1–2 % in the general population. Few studies presented anxiety prevalence rates in first generation migrants and there was wide variation in those that did. Prevalence ranged from 4 to 40 % compared with reported prevalence of 5 % in the general population. Two reviews assessed the psychotic disorder risk, reporting this was two to three times more likely in adult first generation migrants. However, one review on the risk of schizophrenia in refugees reported similar prevalence rates (2 %) to estimates of prevalence among the settled majority (3 %). Risk factors for mental ill-health included low Gross National Product in the host country, downward social mobility, country of origin, and host country. Conclusion First generation migrants may be at increased risk of mental illness and public health policy must account for this and influencing factors. High quality research in the area is urgently needed as is the use of culturally specific validated measurement tools for assessing migrant mental health.
  • Karppanen, Tiina; Kaartokallio, Tea; Klemetti, Miira M; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Staff, Anne C; Laivuori, Hannele (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a common and heterogeneous vascular syndrome of pregnancy. Its genetic risk profile is yet unknown and may vary between individuals and populations. The rs4606 3′ UTR polymorphism of the Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 gene (RGS2) in the mother has been implicated in preeclampsia as well as in the development of chronic hypertension after preeclampsia. The RGS2 protein acts as an inhibitor of physiological vasoconstrictive pathways, and a low RGS2 level is associated with hypertension and obesity, two conditions that predispose to preeclampsia. We genotyped the rs4606 polymorphism in 1339 preeclamptic patients and in 697 controls from the Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) cohort to study the association of the variant with preeclampsia. Results No association between rs4606 and preeclampsia was detected in the analysis including all women. However, the polymorphism was associated with preeclampsia in a subgroup of overweight women (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, and < 30 kg/m2) (dominant model; odds ratio, 1.64; 95 % confidence interval, 1.10–2.42). Conclusions Our results suggest that RGS2 might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia particularly in overweight women and contribute to their increased risk for hypertension and other types of cardiovascular disease later in life.
  • Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Judge, Ken; Lahelma, Eero; Costa, Giuseppe; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Between 1997 and 2010, the English government pursued an ambitious programme to reduce health inequalities, the explicit and sustained commitment of which was historically and internationally unique. Previous evaluations have produced mixed results. None of these evaluations have, however, compared the trends in health inequalities within England with those in other European countries. We carried out an innovative analysis to assess whether changes in trends in health inequalities observed in England after the implementation of its programme, have been more favourable than those in other countries without such a programme. Methods Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys carried out in England, Finland, the Netherlands and Italy for years around 1990, 2000 and 2010. A modified difference-in-difference approach was used to assess whether trends in health inequalities in 2000–2010 were more favourable as compared to the period 1990–2000 in England, and the changes in trends in inequalities after 2000 in England were then compared to those in the three comparison countries. Health outcomes were self-assessed health, long-standing health problems, smoking status and obesity. Education was used as indicator of socioeconomic position. Results After the implementation of the English strategy, more favourable trends in some health indicators were observed among low-educated people, but trends in health inequalities in 2000–2010 in England were not more favourable than those observed in the period 1990–2000. For most health indicators, changes in trends of health inequalities after 2000 in England were also not significantly different from those seen in the other countries. Conclusions In this rigorous analysis comparing trends in health inequalities in England both over time and between countries, we could not detect a favourable effect of the English strategy. Our analysis illustrates the usefulness of a modified difference-in-difference approach for assessing the impact of policies on population-level health inequalities.
  • Mikkonen, H. M; Salonen, Minna K; Häkkinen, Antti; Olkkola, Maarit; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. Methods We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Results Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95). They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Conclusion Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.
  • Skog, Maria S; Nystedt, Johanna; Korhonen, Matti; Anderson, Heidi; Lehti, Timo A; Pajunen, Maria I; Finne, Jukka (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background In order to develop novel clinical applications and to gain insights into possible therapeutic mechanisms, detailed molecular characterization of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) is needed. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, CD56) is a transmembrane glycoprotein modulating cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. An additional post-translational modification of NCAM is the α2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia). Because of its background, NCAM is often considered a marker of neural lineage commitment. Generally, hBM-MSCs are considered to be devoid of NCAM expression, but more rigorous characterization is needed. Methods We have studied NCAM and polySia expression in five hBM-MSC lines at mRNA and protein levels. Cell surface localization was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and expression frequency in the donor-specific lines by flow cytometry. For the detection of poorly immunogenic polySia, a fluorochrome-tagged catalytically defective enzyme was employed. Results All five known NCAM isoforms are expressed in these cells at mRNA level and the three main isoforms are present at protein level. Both polysialyltransferases, generally responsible for NCAM polysialylation, are expressed at mRNA level, but only very few cells express polySia at the cell surface. Conclusions Our results underline the need for a careful control of methods and conditions in the characterization of MSCs. This study shows that, against the generally held view, clinical-grade hBM-MSCs do express NCAM. In contrast, although both polysialyltransferase genes are transcribed in these cells, very few express polySia at the cell surface. NCAM and polySia represent new candidate molecules for influencing MSC interactions.
  • Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Sadeniemi, Minna; Kaila, Minna; Saarni, Samuli; Kontio, Raija; Pirkola, Sami; Joffe, Grigori; Oranta, Olli; Wahlbeck, Kristian (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background The diversity of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) available to service users is seen as an indicator of the quality of the service system. In most countries MHS are provided by a mix of public, private and third sector providers. In Finland, officially, the municipalities are responsible for organizing the services needed, but the real extent and roles of private and third sector service providers are not known. Our previous study showed that the catchment area population size was strongly associated with diversity of mental health services. It is not known whether this was due to some types of services or some provider types being more sensitive to the size effect than others. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between area population size and diversity of mental health services, i.e. which types of services and which service providers’ contributions are sensitive to population size. Methods To map and classify services, we used the ESMS-R. The diversity of services was defined as the count of main types of care. Providers were classified as public, private or third sectors. Results The diversity of outpatient, residential and voluntary services correlated positively with catchment area population size. The strongest positive correlation between the size of population and services available was found in third sector activities followed by public providers, but no correlation was found for diversity of private services. The third sector and public corporations each provided 44 % of the service units. Third sector providers produced all self-help services and most of the day care services. Third sector and private companies provided a significant part (59 %) of the residential care service units. Conclusions Significant positive correlations were found between size of catchment area population and diversity of residential, outpatient and voluntary services, indicating that these services concentrate on areas with larger population bases. The third sector seems to significantly complement the public sector in providing different services. Thus the third sector be needs to be functionally integrated with other MHS services to achieve a diversified and integrated service system.
  • Kallela, Jenni; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Kortelainen, Eija; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Laivuori, Hannele (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background The Finnish Pre-eclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) case-control cohort consisting of 1447 pre-eclamptic and 1068 non-pre-eclamptic women was recruited during 2008–2011 to study genetic background of pre-eclampsia and foetal growth. Pre-eclampsia was defined by hypertension and proteinuria according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 2002 classification. The ACOG Task Force Report on Hypertension in Pregnancy (2013) and The International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP) (2014) have published new classifications, in which proteinuria is not necessary for diagnosis when specific symptoms are present. For diagnoses based on proteinuria, the ISSHP 2014 criteria raised its threshold to 2+ on dipstick. We studied how the new classifications would affect pre-eclampsia diagnoses in the FINNPEC cohort. Methods We re-evaluated pre-eclampsia diagnosis using the ACOG 2013 and the ISSHP 2014 classifications in pre-eclamptic women whose proteinuria did not exceed 1+ on dipstick (n = 68), in women with gestational hypertension (n = 138) and in women with chronic hypertension (n = 66). Results The number of women with pre-eclampsia increased 0.8 % (1459/1447) according to the ACOG 2013 criteria and 0.6 % (1455/1447) according to the ISSHP 2014 criteria. All 68 women with the amount of proteinuria not exceeding 1+ on dipstick diagnosed originally pre-eclamptic met the ACOG 2013 criteria but only 20 women (29.4 %) met the ISSHP 2014 criteria. Seven (5.1 %) and 35 (25.4 %) women with gestational hypertension were diagnosed with pre-eclampsia according to the ACOG 2013 and the ISSHP 2014 criteria, respectively. Correspondingly five (7.6 %) and 21 (31.8 %) women with chronic hypertension were diagnosed with pre-eclampsia according to the ACOG 2 013 and the ISSHP 2014 criteria. Conclusions Only minor changes were observed in the total number of pre-eclamptic women in the FINNPEC cohort when comparing the ACOC 2002 classification with the ACOG 2013 and ISSHP 2014 classifications.
  • Kuuluvainen, Timo (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016)
    Abstract Background Conceptual models of forest dynamics are powerful cognitive tools, which are indispensable for communicating ecological ideas and knowledge, and in developing strategic approaches and setting targets for forest conservation, restoration and sustainable management. Forest development through time is conventionally described as a directional, or “linear”, and predictable sequence of stages from “bare ground” to old forest representing the “climax-state”. However, this simple view is incompatible with the current knowledge and understanding of intrinsic variability of forest dynamics. Hypothesis Overly simple conceptual models of forest dynamics easily become transformed into biased mental models of how forests naturally develop and what kind of structures they display. To be able to communicate the essential features and diversity of forest dynamics, comprehensive conceptual models are needed. For this end, Kuuluvainen (2009) suggested a relatively simple conceptual model of forest dynamics, which separates three major modes of forest dynamics, and incorporates state changes and transitions between the forest dynamics modes depending on changes in disturbance regime. Conclusions Conceptual models of forest dynamics should be comprehensive enough to incorporate both long-term directional change and short-term cyclic forest dynamics, as well as transitions from one dynamics mode to another depending on changes in the driving disturbance regime type. Models that capture such essential features of forest dynamics are indispensable for educational purposes, in setting reference conditions and in developing methods in forest conservation, restoration and ecosystem management.
  • Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Ropponen, Annina (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding. Methods This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945–1957 (59 % women), of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs. Data on leisure-time physical activity and multiple covariates was available from four surveys conducted in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011 (response rates 72 to 89 %). The association between years of education and leisure-time physical inactivity (<1.5 metabolic equivalent hours/day) was first analysed for each survey. Then, the role of education was investigated for 15-year and 35-year inactivity periods in the longitudinal analyses. The co-twin control design was used to analyse the potential familial confounding of the effects. All analyses were conducted with and without multiple covariates. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic and conditional (fixed-effects) regression models. Results Each additional year of education was associated with less inactivity (OR 0.94 to 0.95, 95 % CI 0.92, 0.99) in the cross-sectional age- and sex-adjusted analyses. The associations of education with inactivity in the 15- and 35-year follow-ups showed a similar trend: OR 0.97 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.00) and OR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.98), respectively. In all co-twin control analyses, each year of higher education was associated with a reduced likelihood of inactivity suggesting direct effect (i.e. independent from familial confounding) of education on inactivity. However, the point estimates were lower than in the individual-level analyses. Adjustment for multiple covariates did not change these associations. Conclusions Higher education is associated with lower odds of leisure-time physical inactivity during the three-decade follow-up. The association was found after adjusting for several confounders, including familial factors. Hence, the results point to the conclusion that education has an independent role in the development of long-term physical inactivity and tailored efforts to promote physical activity among lower educated people would be needed throughout adulthood.
  • Kylväjä, Riikka; Ojalehto, Tuomas; Kainulainen, Veera; Virkola, Ritva; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen expressing a number of virulence-associated adhesive molecules. In a previous study, we generated in a secretion-competent Escherichia coli strain a library of random FLAG-tag positive (FTP) polypeptides of S. aureus. To identify adhesive proteins and gain additional knowledge on putative virulence factors of S. aureus, we here screened the FTP library against human serum proteins. Findings Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325-4, origin of the FTP library, adhered to immobilized plasminogen in vitro. In an enzyme-linked immunoassay a C-terminal part of penicillin binding protein 3 (PBP3), included in the FTP library, bound to immobilized plasminogen. We expressed and purified full-length PBP3 and its C-terminal fragments as recombinant proteins. In a time-resolved fluorometry—based assay the PBP3 polypeptides bound to immobilized plasminogen. The polypeptides enhanced formation of plasmin from plasminogen as analyzed by cleavage of a chromogenic plasmin substrate. Conclusions The present findings, although preliminary, demonstrate reliably that S. aureus NCTC 8325-4 adheres to immobilized plasminogen in vitro and that the adhesion may be mediated by a C-terminal fragment of the PBP3 protein. The full length PBP3 and the penicillin binding C-terminal domain of PBP3 expressed as recombinant proteins bound plasminogen and activated plasminogen to plasmin. These phenomena were inhibited by the lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid suggesting that the binding is mediated by lysine residues. A detailed molecular description of surface molecules enhancing the virulence of S. aureus will aid in understanding of its pathogenicity and help in design of antibacterial drugs in the future.
  • Andreevskaya, Margarita; Johansson, Per; Jääskeläinen, Elina; Rämö, Tanja; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Björkroth, Johanna; Auvinen, Petri (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Lactobacillus oligofermentans has been mostly isolated from cold-stored packaged meat products in connection with their spoilage, but its precise role in meat spoilage is unknown. It belongs to the L. vaccinostercus group of obligate heterofermentative lactobacilli that generally ferment pentoses (e.g. xylose and ribose) more efficiently than hexoses (e.g. glucose). However, more efficient hexose utilization can be induced. The regulation mechanisms of the carbohydrate catabolism in such bacteria have been scarcely studied. To address this question, we provided the complete genome sequence of L. oligofermentans LMG 22743T and generated time course transcriptomes during its growth on glucose, ribose and xylose. Results The genome was manually annotated and its main functional features were examined. L. oligofermentans was confirmed to be able to efficiently utilize several hexoses and maltose, which is, presumably, induced by its repeated cultivation with glucose in vitro. Unexpectedly, in the beginning of the exponential growth phase, glucose- and xylose-induced transcriptome responses were more similar, whereas toward the end of the growth phase xylose and ribose transcriptomes became more alike. The promoter regions of genes simultaneously upregulated both on glucose and xylose in comparison with ribose (particularly, hexose and xylose utilization genes) were found to be enriched in the CcpA- binding site. Transcriptionally, no glucose-induced carbon catabolite repression was detected. The catabolism of glucose, which requires initial oxidation, led to significant overexpression of the NAD(P)H re-oxidation genes, the upstream regions of which were found to contain a motif, which was highly similar to a Rex repressor binding site. Conclusions This paper presents the second complete genome and the first study of carbohydrate catabolism-dependent transcriptome response for a member of the L. vaccinostercus group. The transcriptomic changes detected in L. oligofermentans for growth with different carbohydrates differ significantly from those of facultative heterofermentative lactobacilli. The mechanism of CcpA regulation, putatively contributing to the observed similarities between glucose- and xylose-induced transcriptome responses and the absence of stringent carbon catabolite control, requires further studies. Finally, the cell redox balance maintenance, in terms of the NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H ratio, was predicted to be regulated by the Rex transcriptional regulator, supporting the previously made inference of Rex-regulons for members of the Lactobacillaceae family.
  • Meinilä, Jelena; Valkama, Anita; Koivusalo, Saila B; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Lindström, Jaana; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background The aim was to develop and validate a food-based diet quality index for measuring adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) in a pregnant population with high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods This study is a part of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL), a lifestyle intervention conducted between 2008 and 2014. The 443 pregnant participants (61 % of those invited), were either obese or had a history of GDM. Food frequency questionnaires collected at 1st trimester served for composing the HFII; a sum of 11 food groups (available score range 0–17) with higher scores reflecting higher adherence to the NNR. Results The average HFII of the participants was 10.2 (SD 2.8, range 2–17). Factor analysis for the HFII component matrix revealed three factors that explained most of the distribution (59 %) of the HFII. As an evidence of the component relevance 9 out of 11 of the HFII components independently contributed to the total score (item-rest correlation coefficients <0.31). Saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, sucrose, and fiber intakes (among other nutrients) showed linearity across the HFII categories (P ≤ 0.030 for all nutrients tested); the higher the HFII, the closer the nutrient intake to the recommended intake level. Educational attainment (P = 0.0045), BMI (P = 0.0098), smoking (P = 0.007), and leisure time physical exercise (P = 0.038) showed linearity across the HFII categories. Intra-class correlation coefficient for the HFII was 0.85 (CI 0.79, 0.90). Conclusions The HFII components reflect the food guidelines of the NNR, intakes of relevant nutrients, and characteristics known to vary with diet quality. It largely ignores energy intake, its components have independent contribution to the HFII, and it exhibits reproducibility. The main shortcomings are absence of red and processed meat component, and the validation in a selected study population. It is suitable for ranking participants according to the adherence to the NNR in pregnant women at high risk of GDM.