Articles from BioMed Central


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  • Kainulainen, Veera; Tang, Yurui; Spillmann, Thomas; Kilpinen, Susanne; Reunanen, Justus; Saris, Per EJ; Satokari, Reetta (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background For a good probiotic candidate, the abilities to adhere to intestinal epithelium and to fortify barrier function are considered to be crucial for colonization and functionality of the strain. The strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 was isolated from the jejunum of a healthy dog, where it was found to be the most pre-dominant lactobacilli. In this study, the adhesion ability of LAB20 to intestinal epithelial cell (IECs) lines, IECs isolated from canine intestinal biopsies, and to canine, porcine and human intestinal mucus was investigated. Further, we studied the ability of LAB20 to fortify the epithelial cell monolayer and to reduce LPS-induced interleukin (IL-8) release from enterocytes. Results We found that LAB20 presented higher adhesion to canine colonic mucus as compared to mucus isolated from porcine colon. LAB20 showed adhesion to HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines, and importantly also to canine IECs isolated from canine intestinal biopsies. In addition, LAB20 increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of enterocyte monolayers and thus strengthened the intestinal barrier function. The strain showed also anti-inflammatory capacity in being able to attenuate the LPS-induced IL-8 production of HT-29 cells. Conclusion In conclusion, canine indigenous strain LAB20 is a potential probiotic candidate for dogs adhering to the host epithelium and showing intestinal barrier fortifying and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Vered, Marilena; Lehtonen, Meri; Hotakainen, Lari; Pirilä, Emma; Teppo, Susanna; Nyberg, Pia; Sormunen, Raija; Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Salo, Tuula; Dayan, Dan (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background Caveolin-1 (CAV1) may be upregulated by hypoxia and acts in a tumor-dependent manner. We investigated CAV1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its association with clinical outcomes, and studied in vitro possible ways for CAV1 accumulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Methods TSCC cases (N = 64) were immunohistochemically stained for CAV1. Scores were separately assessed in the tumor and TME and plotted for association with recurrence and survival (univariate analysis with log-rank test). In vitro studies were performed on a 3D myoma organotypic model, a mimicker of TME. Prior to monoculturing HSC-3 tongue cancer cells, the model underwent modifications in oxygenation level (1%O2 hypoxia to upregulate CAV1) and/or in the amount of natural soluble factors [deleted by 14-day rinsing (rinsed myoma, RM), to allow only HSC-3-derived factors to act]. Controls included normoxia (21%O2) and naturally occurring soluble factors (intact myoma, IM). HSC-3 cells were also co-cultured with CaDEC12 cells (fibroblasts exposed to human tongue cancer). CAV1 expression and cellular distribution were examined in different cellular components in hypoxic and rinsed myoma assays. Twist served as a marker for the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Exosomes isolated from HSC-3 media were investigated for containing CAV1. Results Expression of CAV1 in TSCC had a higher score in TME than in the tumor cells and a negative impact on recurrence (p = 0.01) and survival (p = 0.003). Monocultures of HSC-3 revealed expression of CAV1 mainly in the TME-like myoma assay, similar to TSCC. CAV1+, alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) + and Twist + CAF-like cells were observed surrounding the invading HSC-3, possibly reflecting EMT. RM findings were similar to IM, inferring action of HSC-3 derived factors, and no differences were seen when hypoxia was induced. HSC-3-CaDEC12 co-cultures revealed CAV1+, αSMA+ and cytokeratin-negative CAF-like cells, raising the possibility of CaDEC12 cells gaining a CAF phenotype. HSC-3-derived exosomes were loaded with CAV1. Conclusions Accumulation of CAV1-TME in TSCC had a negative prognostic value. In vitro studies showed the presence of CAV1 in cancer cells undergoing EMT and in fibroblasts undergoing trans-differentiation to CAFs. CAV1 delivery to the TME involved cancer cell-derived exosomes.
  • Johnson, Nichola; Dudbridge, Frank; Orr, Nick; Gibson, Lorna; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Folkerd, Elizabeth J; Haynes, Ben P; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Dite, Gillian S; Apicella, Carmel; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van’t Veer, Laura J; Atsma, Femke; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Renner, Stefan P; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Cordina, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger; Zamora, M P; Arias Perez, Jose I; Benitez, Javier; Bernstein, Leslie; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke Dur, Christina; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Meindl, Alfons; Heil, Joerg; Bartram, Claus R; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; The GENICA (Gene Environment Interaction and Breast Cancer in Germany) Network; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Lindblom, Annika; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; kConFab Investigators; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group; Wu, Anna H; Van den Berg, David; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Pensotti, Valeria; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Haiman, Chris; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Teo, Soo; Yip, Cheng H; Phuah, Sze Y; Cornes, Belinda K; Kristensen, Vessela N; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna M; Devillee, Peter; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Hall, Per; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Oldenburg, Rogier A; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angie; Brock, Ian W; Reed, Malcolm WR; Cross, Simon S; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Pharoah, Paul DP; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Kang, Daehee; Noh, Dong-Young; Park, Sue K; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Y; Tang, Anthony; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans U; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Vachon, Celine; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; González-Neira, Anna; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Jean; Easton, Douglas F; García-Closas, Montserrat; Dowsett, Mitch; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Introduction We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. Methods We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (P trend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (P trend = 0.005) but not cases (P trend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (P het = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age ≥15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; P trend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age ≤11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; P trend = 0.29). Conclusions To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at menarche and a reduction in breast cancer risk. These associations are likely mediated via an effect on circulating hormone levels.
  • Lokki, A I; Järvelä, Irma; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Maiga, Bakary; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Meri, Seppo; Holmberg, Ville (BioMed Central Ltd, 2011)
    Abstract Background Fulani are a widely spread African ethnic group characterized by lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum, clinical malaria morbidity and higher rate of lactase persistence compared to sympatric tribes. Lactase non-persistence, often called lactose intolerance, is the normal condition where lactase activity in the intestinal wall declines after weaning. Lactase persistence, common in Europe, and in certain African people with traditions of raising cattle, is caused by polymorphisms in the enhancer region approximately 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene. Methods To evaluate the relationship between malaria and lactase persistence genotypes, a 400 bp region surrounding the main European C/T-13910 polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene was sequenced. DNA samples used in the study originated from 162 Fulani and 79 Dogon individuals from Mali. Results Among 79 Dogon only one heterozygote of the lactase enhancer polymorphism was detected, whereas all others were homozygous for the ancestral C allele. Among the Fulani, the main European polymorphism at locus C/T-13910 was by far the most common polymorphism, with an allele frequency of 37%. Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found with allele frequencies of 3.7%, 1.9% and 0.6% each. The novel DNA polymorphism T/C-13906 was seen in six heterozygous Fulani. Among the Fulani with lactase non-persistence CC genotypes at the C/T-13910 locus, 24% had malaria parasites detectable by microscopy compared to 18% for lactase persistent genotypes (P = 0.29). Pooling the lactase enhancer polymorphisms to a common presumptive genotype gave 28% microscopy positives for non-persistent and 17% for others (P = 0.11). Conclusions Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in asymptomatic Fulani is more common in individuals with lactase non-persistence genotypes, but this difference is not statistically significant. The potential immunoprotective properties of dietary cow milk as a reason for the partial malaria resistance of Fulani warrant further investigation.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Al-Biltagi, Mohammed; Baset, Ahmed A (BioMed Central Ltd, 2011)
    Abstract Background We previously found a significant benefit of vitamin C supplementation in asthmatic children. Purpose To test whether the effect of vitamin C on asthma is heterogeneous over the participant population. Methods Egyptian asthmatic children between 7 and 10 years of age (n = 60) were included in the cross-over trial. They were administered 0.2 grams per day of vitamin C and placebo for separate 6-week periods. The variation in the vitamin C effect on two clinically relevant outcomes was analyzed: the childhood asthma control test (C-ACT), which measures the severity of asthma symptoms (the scale ranges from 0 to 27 points, < 20 points indicating unsatisfactory asthma control), and FEV1. We used linear modeling to examine the variation of the vitamin C effect in the subgroups. Results The effect of vitamin C on the C-ACT was significantly modified by age and baseline C-ACT levels. In the children aged 7.0-8.2 years with a baseline C-ACT of 18 to 19 points, vitamin C increased the C-ACT score by 4.2 points (95% CI: 3.3-5.3); whereas in the children aged 8.3-10 years who had a baseline C-ACT of 14 to 15 points, vitamin C increased the C-ACT score by only 1.3 points (95% CI: 0.1-2.5). The effect of vitamin C on the FEV1 levels was significantly modified by age and exposure to dampness. In the children aged 7.0-8.2 years with no exposure to dampness, vitamin C increased the FEV1 level by 37% (95% CI: 34-40%), whereas in the children aged 8.3-10 years with exposure to dampness or mold in their bedroom more than one year prior to the study, vitamin C increased the FEV1 level by only 21% (95% CI: 18-25%). Conclusions We found strong evidence that the effect of vitamin C on asthmatic children is heterogeneous. Further research is needed to confirm our findings and identify the groups of children who would receive the greatest benefit from vitamin C supplementation.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Al-Biltagi, Mohammed; Baset, Ahmed A (BioMed Central Ltd, 2012)
    AbstractWe reported that the effect of vitamin C on asthma in Egyptian children was modified by age, exposure to dampness and the severity of asthma, Clinical & Translational Allergy 2011, 1:9. After our paper was published, we found out severe problems in the data set. There were 60 children in the study. The ages were by accident duplicated between the upper and lower halves of the database. Thus, the ages for the first 30 children in the data set were identical and in the same order with the ages for the second set of 30 children. Similar duplication was also found for C-ACT and FEV1 measurements after vitamin C supplementation and for exposure to dampness. This duplication thus directly invalidates the second part of the data set, and thus the reported outcome. We have not been able to sort out the reason for this duplication. The files with the original data are not available any more, making it impossible to reconstruct a valid data set for reanalysis. Therefore we have to retract our paper. The authors deeply regret the inconvenience this has caused to the journal and the scientific community.
  • Krogius-Kurikka, Lotta; Lyra, Anna; Malinen, Erja; Aarnikunnas, Johannes; Tuimala, Jarno; Paulin, Lars; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Kajander, Kajsa; Palva, Airi (BioMed Central Ltd, 2009)
    Abstract Background A growing amount of scientific evidence suggests that microbes are involved in the aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota of individuals suffering from diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is distinguishable from other IBS-subtypes. In our study, the GI microbiota of IBS-D patients was evaluated and compared with healthy controls (HC) by using a high-resolution sequencing method. The method allowed microbial community analysis on all levels of microbial genomic guanine plus cytosine (G+C) content, including high G+C bacteria. Methods The collective faecal microbiota composition of ten IBS-D patients was analysed by examining sequences obtained using percent G+C (%G+C) -based profiling and fractioning combined with 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing of 3267 clones. The IBS-D library was compared with an analogous healthy-control library of 23 subjects. Real-time PCR analysis was used to identify phylotypes belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria and the order Coriobacteriales. Results Significant differences were found between clone libraries of IBS-D patients and controls. The microbial communities of IBS-D patients were enriched in Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, but reduced in the number of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes compared to control. In particular, 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae within the phylum Firmicutes were in greater abundance in the IBS-D clone library. Conclusions In the microbiota of IBS-D sufferers, notable differences were detected among the prominent bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria) localized within the GI tract.
  • Jönsson, Göran; Staaf, Johan; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Ringnér, Markus; Holm, Karolina; Hegardt, Cecilia; Gunnarsson, Haukur; Fagerholm, Rainer; Strand, Carina; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Kilpivaara, Outi; Luts, Lena; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Loman, Niklas; Malmström, Per; Olsson, Håkan; Th Johannsson, Oskar; Arason, Adalgeir; Nevanlinna, Heli; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Borg, Åke (BioMed Central Ltd, 2010)
    Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is a profoundly heterogeneous disease with respect to biologic and clinical behavior. Gene-expression profiling has been used to dissect this complexity and to stratify tumors into intrinsic gene-expression subtypes, associated with distinct biology, patient outcome, and genomic alterations. Additionally, breast tumors occurring in individuals with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations typically fall into distinct subtypes. Methods We applied global DNA copy number and gene-expression profiling in 359 breast tumors. All tumors were classified according to intrinsic gene-expression subtypes and included cases from genetically predisposed women. The Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm was used to identify significant DNA copy-number aberrations and genomic subgroups of breast cancer. Results We identified 31 genomic regions that were highly amplified in > 1% of the 359 breast tumors. Several amplicons were found to co-occur, the 8p12 and 11q13.3 regions being the most frequent combination besides amplicons on the same chromosomal arm. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with 133 significant GISTIC regions revealed six genomic subtypes, termed 17q12, basal-complex, luminal-simple, luminal-complex, amplifier, and mixed subtypes. Four of them had striking similarity to intrinsic gene-expression subtypes and showed associations to conventional tumor biomarkers and clinical outcome. However, luminal A-classified tumors were distributed in two main genomic subtypes, luminal-simple and luminal-complex, the former group having a better prognosis, whereas the latter group included also luminal B and the majority of BRCA2-mutated tumors. The basal-complex subtype displayed extensive genomic homogeneity and harbored the majority of BRCA1-mutated tumors. The 17q12 subtype comprised mostly HER2-amplified and HER2-enriched subtype tumors and had the worst prognosis. The amplifier and mixed subtypes contained tumors from all gene-expression subtypes, the former being enriched for 8p12-amplified cases, whereas the mixed subtype included many tumors with predominantly DNA copy-number losses and poor prognosis. Conclusions Global DNA copy-number analysis integrated with gene-expression data can be used to dissect the complexity of breast cancer. This revealed six genomic subtypes with different clinical behavior and a striking concordance to the intrinsic subtypes. These genomic subtypes may prove useful for understanding the mechanisms of tumor development and for prognostic and treatment prediction purposes.
  • Arason, Adalgeir; Gunnarsson, Haukur; Johannesdottir, Gudrun; Jonasson, Kristjan; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Jönsson, Göran; Pylkäs, Katri; Mustonen, Aki; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Melin, Beatrice; Johannsson, Oskar TH; Møller, Pål; Winqvist, Robert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Borg, Åke; Barkardottir, Rosa B (BioMed Central Ltd, 2010)
    Abstract Introduction: A significant proportion of high-risk breast cancer families are not explained by mutations in known genes. Recent genome-wide searches (GWS) have not revealed any single major locus reminiscent of BRCA1 and BRCA2, indicating that still unidentified genes may explain relatively few families each or interact in a way obscure to linkage analyses. This has drawn attention to possible benefits of studying populations where genetic heterogeneity might be reduced. We thus performed a GWS for linkage on nine Icelandic multiple-case non-BRCA1/2 families of desirable size for mapping highly penetrant loci. To follow up suggestive loci, an additional 13 families from other Nordic countries were genotyped for selected markers. Methods: GWS was performed using 811 microsatellite markers providing about five centiMorgan (cM) resolution. Multipoint logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated using parametric and nonparametric methods. For selected markers and cases, tumour tissue was compared to normal tissue to look for allelic loss indicative of a tumour suppressor gene. Results: The three highest signals were located at chromosomes 6q, 2p and 14q. One family contributed suggestive LOD scores (LOD 2.63 to 3.03, dominant model) at all these regions, without consistent evidence of a tumour suppressor gene. Haplotypes in nine affected family members mapped the loci to 2p23.2 to p21, 6q14.2 to q23.2 and 14q21.3 to q24.3. No evidence of a highly penetrant locus was found among the remaining families. The heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) at the 6q, 2p and 14q loci in all families was 3.27, 1.66 and 1.24, respectively. The subset of 13 Nordic families showed supportive HLODs at chromosome 6q (ranging from 0.34 to 1.37 by country subset). The 2p and 14q loci overlap with regions indicated by large families in previous GWS studies of breast cancer. Conclusions: Chromosomes 2p, 6q and 14q are candidate sites for genes contributing together to high breast cancer risk. A polygenic model is supported, suggesting the joint effect of genes in contributing to breast cancer risk to be rather common in non-BRCA1/2 families. For genetic counselling it would seem important to resolve the mode of genetic interaction.
  • Rodger, Marc A; Langlois, Nicole J; de Vries, Johanna IP; Rey, Évelyne; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Martinelli, Ida; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Ramsay, Timothy; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Skidmore, Becky; Middeldorp, Saskia; Bates, Shannon; Petroff, David; Bezemer, Dick; van Hoorn, Marion E; Abheiden, Carolien NH; Perna, Annalisa; de Jong, Paulien; Kaaja, Risto (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications include pre-eclampsia, late pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and the small-for-gestational age newborn. They are leading causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developed nations. Women who have experienced these complications are at an elevated risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. However, despite decades of research no effective strategies to prevent recurrence have been identified, until recently. We completed a pooled summary-based meta-analysis that strongly suggests that low-molecular-weight heparin reduces the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated complications. The proposed individual patient data meta-analysis builds on this successful collaboration. The project is called AFFIRM, An individual patient data meta-analysis oF low-molecular-weight heparin For prevention of placenta-medIated pRegnancy coMplications. Methods/Design We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials with a low-molecular-weight heparin intervention for the prevention of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. Investigators and statisticians representing eight trials met to discuss the outcomes and analysis plan for an individual patient data meta-analysis. An additional trial has since been added for a total of nine eligible trials. The primary analyses from the original trials will be replicated for quality assurance prior to recoding the data from each trial and combining it into a common dataset for analysis. Using the anonymized combined data we will conduct logistic regression and subgroup analyses aimed at identifying which women with previous pregnancy complications benefit most from treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin during pregnancy. Discussion The goal of the proposed individual patient data meta-analysis is a thorough estimation of treatment effects in patients with prior individual placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and exploration of which complications are specifically prevented by low-molecular-weight heparin. Systematic review registration PROSPERO (International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews) 23 December 2013, CRD42013006249
  • Walker, Logan C; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Wang, Xianshu; Tarrell, Robert; Pankratz, Vernon S; Lindor, Noralane M; Beesley, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Chen, Xiaoqing; kConFab; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Tirapo, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Delnatte, Capucine; GEMO Study Collaborators; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Schönbuchner, Ines; Deissler, Helmut; Meindl, Alfons; Hogervorst, Frans B; Verheus, Martijn; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans MW; Nelen, Marcel R; Ausems, Margreet GEM; Aalfs, Cora M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Gerrits, Monique M; Waisfisz, Quinten; HEBON; Szabo, Csilla I; ModSQuaD; Easton, Douglas F; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Harrington, Patricia; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Chu, Carol; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-Ren; Cook, Jackie; EMBRACE; Rebbeck, Tim; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Singer, Christian F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Pfeiler, Georg; Godwin, Andrew K; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Caligo, Maria A; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Liljegren, Annelie; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Melin, Beatrice; SWE-BRCA; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Couch, Fergus J (BioMed Central Ltd, 2010)
    Abstract Introduction Current attempts to identify genetic modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated risk have focused on a candidate gene approach, based on knowledge of gene functions, or the development of large genome-wide association studies. In this study, we evaluated 24 SNPs tagged to 14 candidate genes derived through a novel approach that analysed gene expression differences to prioritise candidate modifier genes for association studies. Methods We successfully genotyped 24 SNPs in a cohort of up to 4,724 BRCA1 and 2,693 BRCA2 female mutation carriers from 15 study groups and assessed whether these variants were associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results SNPs in five of the 14 candidate genes showed evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers (P < 0.05). Notably, the minor alleles of two SNPs (rs7166081 and rs3825977) in high linkage disequilibrium (r 2 = 0.77), located at the SMAD3 locus (15q22), were each associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (relative risk = 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 1.45, P trend = 0.004; and relative risk = 1.20, 95% confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.40, P trend = 0.018). Conclusions This study provides evidence that the SMAD3 gene, which encodes a key regulatory protein in the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway and is known to interact directly with BRCA2, may contribute to increased risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This finding suggests that genes with expression associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status are enriched for the presence of common genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk in these populations.
  • Mulligan, Anna M; Couch, Fergus J; Barrowdale, Daniel; Domchek, Susan M; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Spurdle, Amanda B; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Lee, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Janavicius, Ramunas; Hansen, Thomas vO; Nielsen, Finn C; Ejlertsen, Bent; Osorio, Ana; Muñoz-Repeto, Iván; Durán, Mercedes; Godino, Javier; Pertesi, Maroulio; Benítez, Javier; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Pasini, Barbara; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Savarese, Antonella; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Verheus, Martijn; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne EJ; Wijnen, Juul; Gómez García, Encarna B; Nelen, Marcel R; Kets, C Marleen; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine MA; van der Luijt, Rob B; Os, Theo; Rookus, Matti; Frost, Debra; Jones, J Louise; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cook, Jackie; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Gregory, Helen; Eason, Jacqueline; Houghton, Catherine; Barwell, Julian; Side, Lucy E; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Kast, Karin; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Schäfer, Dieter; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Cornelis, François; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Isaacs, Claudine; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Soucy, Penny; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; D'Andrea, Emma; Fox, Stephen; Yan, Max; Rebbeck, Tim; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Lynch, Henry T; Ganz, Patricia A; Tomlinson, Gail E; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Lindor, Noralane M; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia; Bhatia, Jasmine; Kauff, Noah; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Mai, Phuong L; Greene, Mark H; Imyanitov, Evgeny; O'Malley, Frances P; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gordon; Toland, Amanda E; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe B; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A; Soller, Maria; Henriksson, Karin; Wachenfeldt, von Anna; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Karlsson, Per; Ding, Yuan C; Neuhausen, Susan L; Beattie, Mary; Pharoah, Paul DP; Moysich, Kirsten B; Nathanson, Katherine L; Karlan, Beth Y; Gross, Jenny; John, Esther M; Daly, Mary B; Buys, Saundra M; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Terry, Mary B; Chung, Wendy; Miron, Alexander F; Goldgar, David; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Andrulis, Irene L; Antoniou, Antonis C; Breast Cancer Family Registry; EMBRACE; GEMO Study Collaborators; HEBON; kConFab Investigators; Ontario Cancer Genetics Network; SWE-BRCA; CIMBA (BioMed Central Ltd, 2011)
    Abstract Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour. Methods We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. Results The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. Conclusions The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models may improve clinical management for mutation carriers.
  • Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Caligo, Maria A; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Rosenquist, Richard; Karlsson, Per; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Rebbeck, Tim; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowowcka-Perłowska, Elżbieta; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Andrés, Raquel; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B; van Os , Theo A; Verhoef, Senno; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne EJ; Wijnen, Juul; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Kriege, Mieke; Collée, J Margriet; Ausems, Margreet GEM; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Godwin, Andrew K; Bove, Betsy; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Houdayer, Claude; Buecher, Bruno; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Calender, Alain; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac- de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Sobol, Hagay; Frenay, Marc; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra F; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alexander; Terry, Mary B; Hopper, John L; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Kaulich, Daphne G; Hansen, Thomas VO; Nielsen, Finn C; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Gaudet, Mia; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Joseph, Vijai; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Kirk, Judy; Cohn, David; Hurteau, Jean; Byron, John; Fiorica, James; Toland, Amanda E; Montagna, Marco; Oliani, Cristina; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Teulé, Alex; Valle, J Del; Gayther, Simon A; Odunsi, Kunle; Gross, Jenny; Karlan, Beth Y; Olah, Edith; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A; Beattie, Mary S; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Lespérance, Bernard; Spurdle, Amanda B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan C; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Lindor, Noralane M; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H; Loud, Jennifer T; Andrulis, Irene L; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna M; Glendon, Gord; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Uffe B; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F; CIMBA, SWE-BRCA; HEBON; EMBRACE; GEMO Collaborators Study; kConFab Investigators (BioMed Central Ltd, 2012)
    Abstract Introduction Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 (ZNF365), rs704010 (ZMIZ1), rs2380205 (10p15), rs614367 (11q13), rs1292011 (12q24), rs10771399 (12p11 near PTHLH) and rs865686 (9q31.2). Methods To evaluate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 mutation carriers and analysed the associations with breast cancer risk within a retrospective likelihood framework. Results Only SNP rs10771399 near PTHLH was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.94, P-trend = 3 × 10-4). The association was restricted to mutations proven or predicted to lead to absence of protein expression (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 3.1 × 10-5, P-difference = 0.03). Four SNPs were associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs10995190, P-trend = 0.015; rs1011970, P-trend = 0.048; rs865686, 2df-P = 0.007; rs1292011 2df-P = 0.03. rs10771399 (PTHLH) was predominantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90, P-trend = 4 × 10-5) and there was marginal evidence of association with ER-negative breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.00, P-trend = 0.049). Conclusions The present findings, in combination with previously identified modifiers of risk, will ultimately lead to more accurate risk prediction and an improved understanding of the disease etiology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Viale, Pierluigi; Koike, Kaoru; Pea, Federico; Tumietto, Fabio; van Goor, Harry; Guercioni, Gianluca; Nespoli, Angelo; Tranà, Cristian; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Leppaniemi, Ari; Biffl, Walter; Moore, Frederick A; Poggetti, Renato; Pinna, Antonio D; Moore, Ernest E (BioMed Central Ltd, 2011)
    Abstract Intra-abdominal infections are still associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients with intra-abdominal infections may be an important factor in the quality of care. The presence of a team of health professionals from various disciplines, working in concert, may improve efficiency, outcome, and the cost of care. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bologna on July 2010, during the 1st congress of the WSES, involving surgeons, infectious disease specialists, pharmacologists, radiologists and intensivists with the goal of defining recommendations for the early management of intra-abdominal infections. This document represents the executive summary of the final guidelines approved by the consensus conference.
  • Karkamo, Veera; Kaistinen, Anu; Näreaho, Anu; Dillard, Kati; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Vidgrén, Gabriele; Tuoresmäki, Niina; Anttila, Marjukka (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoans that infect humans and other mammals such as dogs. The most significant causative species in dogs is L. infantum. In dogs, leishmaniosis is a potentially progressive, chronic disease with varying clinical outcomes. Autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis have not previously been reported in the Nordic countries. Results In this report we describe the first diagnosed autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis in Finland, in which transmission via a suitable arthropod vector was absent. Two Finnish boxers that had never been in endemic areas of Leishmania spp., had never received blood transfusions, nor were infested by ectoparasites were diagnosed with leishmaniosis. Another dog was found with elevated Leishmania antibodies. A fourth boxer dog that had been in Spain was considered to be the source of these infections. Transmission occurred through biting wounds and semen, however, transplacental infection in one of the dogs could not be ruled out. Two of the infected dogs developed a serious disease and were euthanized and sent for necropsy. The first one suffered from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and the second one had a chronic systemic disease. Leishmania sp. was detected from tissues by PCR and/or IHC in both dogs. The third infected dog was serologically positive for Leishmania sp. but remained free of clinical signs. Conclusions This case report shows that imported Leishmania-infected dogs may pose a risk for domestic dogs, even without suitable local arthropod vectors.