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  • Sajantila, Antti (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract No abstract
  • Sajantila, Antti (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
  • Kurra, Venla; Vehmas, Tuija; Eräranta, Arttu; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Pirttiniemi, Päivi; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Tokola, Heikki; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Recent studies suggest a causal role for increased plasma uric acid in the progression of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). However, uric acid also functions as an antioxidant with possible beneficial effects. Methods We investigated the influence of hyperuricemia on mesenteric arterial tone (main and second order branch) and morphology in experimental CRI. Forty-four Sprague–Dawley rats were 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) or Sham-operated and fed 2.0% oxonic acid or control diet for 9 weeks. Results Oxonic acid feeding elevated plasma uric acid levels 2.4 and 3.6-fold in the NX and Sham groups, respectively. Plasma creatinine and urea were elevated 2-fold and blood pressure increased by 10 mmHg in NX rats, while hyperuricemia did not significantly influence these variables. Right and left ventricular weight, and atrial and B-type natriuretic peptide mRNA content were increased in NX rats, but were not affected by hyperuricemia. In the mesenteric artery, hyperuricemia did not influence vasoconstrictor responses in vitro to norepinephrine or potassium chloride. The small arteries of NX rats featured hypertrophic remodeling independent of uric acid levels: wall to lumen ratio, wall thickness and cross-sectional area were increased without changes in lumen diameter. In the main branch, vasorelaxations to acetylcholine were impaired in NX rats, but were not affected by hyperuricemia. In contrast, relaxations to the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel (BKCa) opener NS-1619 were reduced by oxonic acid feeding, whereas responses to nitroprusside were not affected. Conclusions Experimental hyperuricemia did not influence cardiac load or vascular remodeling, but impaired BKCa -mediated vasorelaxation in experimental CRI.
  • Kurra, Venla; Vehmas, Tuija; Eräranta, Arttu; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Pirttiniemi, Päivi; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Tokola, Heikki; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Recent studies suggest a causal role for increased plasma uric acid in the progression of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). However, uric acid also functions as an antioxidant with possible beneficial effects. Methods We investigated the influence of hyperuricemia on mesenteric arterial tone (main and second order branch) and morphology in experimental CRI. Forty-four Sprague–Dawley rats were 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) or Sham-operated and fed 2.0% oxonic acid or control diet for 9 weeks. Results Oxonic acid feeding elevated plasma uric acid levels 2.4 and 3.6-fold in the NX and Sham groups, respectively. Plasma creatinine and urea were elevated 2-fold and blood pressure increased by 10 mmHg in NX rats, while hyperuricemia did not significantly influence these variables. Right and left ventricular weight, and atrial and B-type natriuretic peptide mRNA content were increased in NX rats, but were not affected by hyperuricemia. In the mesenteric artery, hyperuricemia did not influence vasoconstrictor responses in vitro to norepinephrine or potassium chloride. The small arteries of NX rats featured hypertrophic remodeling independent of uric acid levels: wall to lumen ratio, wall thickness and cross-sectional area were increased without changes in lumen diameter. In the main branch, vasorelaxations to acetylcholine were impaired in NX rats, but were not affected by hyperuricemia. In contrast, relaxations to the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel (BKCa) opener NS-1619 were reduced by oxonic acid feeding, whereas responses to nitroprusside were not affected. Conclusions Experimental hyperuricemia did not influence cardiac load or vascular remodeling, but impaired BKCa -mediated vasorelaxation in experimental CRI.
  • Heikkilä, Maria; Mutanen, Marko; Wahlberg, Niklas; Sihvonen, Pasi; Kaila, Lauri (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Ditrysia comprise close to 99 % of all butterflies and moths. The evolutionary relationships among the ditrysian superfamilies have received considerable attention in phylogenetic studies based on DNA and transcriptomic data, but the deepest divergences remain for large parts unresolved or contradictory. To obtain complementary insight into the evolutionary history of the clade, and to test previous hypotheses on the subdivision of Ditrysia based on morphology, we examine the morphology of larvae, pupae and adult males and females of 318 taxa representing nearly all ditrysian superfamilies and families. We present the most comprehensive morphological dataset on Ditrysia to date, consisting of over 500 morphological characters. The data are analyzed alone and combined with sequence data (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear protein-coding gene regions, sequenced from 422 taxa). The full dataset consists of 473 exemplar species. Analyses are performed using maximum likelihood methods, and parsimony methods for the morphological dataset. We explore whether combining morphological data and DNA-data can stabilize taxa that are unstable in phylogenetic studies based on genetic data only. Results Morphological characters are found phylogenetically informative in resolving apical nodes (superfamilies and families), but characters serving as evidence of relatedness of larger assemblages are few. Results include the recovery of a monophyletic Tineoidea, Sesioidea and Cossoidea, and a stable position for some unstable taxa (e.g. Epipyropidae, Cyclotornidae, Urodoidea + Schreckensteinioidea). Several such taxa, however, remain unstable even though morphological characters indicate a position in the tree (e.g. Immidae). Evidence supporting affinities between clades are suggested, e.g. a novel larval synapomorphy for Tineidae. We also propose the synonymy of Tineodidae with Alucitidae, syn. nov. Conclusions The large morphological dataset provides information on the diversity and distribution of morphological traits in Ditrysia, and can be used in future research on the evolution of these traits, in identification keys and in identification of fossil Lepidoptera. The “backbone” of the phylogeny for Ditrysia remains largely unresolved. As previously proposed as an explanation for the scarcity of molecular signal in resolving the deeper nodes, this may be due to the rapid radiation of Ditrysia in the Cretaceous.
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Ollilainen, Matti; Eklund, Marjut; Piiparinen, Heli; Gindonis, Veera; Junnila, Jouni; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Liimatainen, Riitta; Rantala, Merja (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in dogs. In 2012–2013 three dogs of the Guide Dog School of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired were found to be MRSP positive. Guide dogs have regular contact with each other during their first year of life and prolonged contact when in training. Since dogs are placed in different parts of Finland after training, there is a risk for national spread of MDR bacteria. In this study the prevalence of MRSP and MRSA, as well as the risk factors for MRSP were determined in the Finnish guide dog population. MRSP isolates were investigated using molecular methods and compared to the earlier isolates. Results Out of 132 tested dogs 4 were MRSP positive thus giving the prevalence estimate of 3% (95% CI: 1–8%) for MRSP in the target population. MRSA was not detected (prevalence estimate 0%, 95% CI: 0–3%). Risk factors associated with MRSP were being a breeding bitch (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 1.1–64.1, P = 0.012), the number of veterinary visits (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.0–1.5, P = 0.025) and number of antimicrobial courses (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.0–2.55; P = 0.035). Identified MRSP isolates belonged to five different sequence types (ST45, 71, 402, 403 and 404). All ST71 isolates carried SCCmec II-III, while the SCCmec type of the ST45 and ST402 (a single locus variant of ST45) isolates were non-typeable with the method used. Conclusions MRSP and MRSA had low prevalence in the studied dog population despite the close contact between dogs, and the MRSP population was heterogenic. Antimicrobial therapy and veterinary visits are risk factors for MRSP even among a small case group.
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Ollilainen, Matti; Eklund, Marjut; Piiparinen, Heli; Gindonis, Veera; Junnila, Jouni; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Liimatainen, Riitta; Rantala, Merja (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in dogs. In 2012–2013 three dogs of the Guide Dog School of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired were found to be MRSP positive. Guide dogs have regular contact with each other during their first year of life and prolonged contact when in training. Since dogs are placed in different parts of Finland after training, there is a risk for national spread of MDR bacteria. In this study the prevalence of MRSP and MRSA, as well as the risk factors for MRSP were determined in the Finnish guide dog population. MRSP isolates were investigated using molecular methods and compared to the earlier isolates. Results Out of 132 tested dogs 4 were MRSP positive thus giving the prevalence estimate of 3% (95% CI: 1–8%) for MRSP in the target population. MRSA was not detected (prevalence estimate 0%, 95% CI: 0–3%). Risk factors associated with MRSP were being a breeding bitch (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 1.1–64.1, P = 0.012), the number of veterinary visits (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.0–1.5, P = 0.025) and number of antimicrobial courses (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.0–2.55; P = 0.035). Identified MRSP isolates belonged to five different sequence types (ST45, 71, 402, 403 and 404). All ST71 isolates carried SCCmec II-III, while the SCCmec type of the ST45 and ST402 (a single locus variant of ST45) isolates were non-typeable with the method used. Conclusions MRSP and MRSA had low prevalence in the studied dog population despite the close contact between dogs, and the MRSP population was heterogenic. Antimicrobial therapy and veterinary visits are risk factors for MRSP even among a small case group.
  • Siggberg, Linda; Ala-Mello, Sirpa; Linnankivi, Tarja; Avela, Kristiina; Scheinin, Ilari; Kristiansson, Kati; Lahermo, Päivi; Hietala, Marja; Metsähonkala, Liisa; Kuusinen, Esa; Laaksonen, Maarit; Saarela, Janna; Knuutila, Sakari (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract No abstract
  • Lappalainen, Anu K; Mäki, Katariina; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is a hereditary condition particularly common in Dachshunds. The breed is predisposed to early intervertebral disc degeneration and intervertebral disc calcification (IDC). When calcified, these severely degenerated discs are visible in spinal radiographs. Since the number of calcified discs (NCD) is associated with IDD, spinal radiography can be utilized in screening programmes in attempts to diminish the incidence of IDD in Dachshunds. Our aims were to estimate the heritability and genetic trend of NCD in Dachshunds in Finland and to explore the effect of age at the time of radiographic screening. Since the NCD has a highly skewed distribution, a log-transformed NCD (lnNCD) was also used as an analysed trait. The variance components for both traits were estimated, using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The fixed effects of breed variant, sex, as well as year of screening and the random effects of litter and animal were included in the model. The genetic trends in the NCD and lnNCD were assessed from the estimated breeding values (EBVs) of individual dogs by comparing the mean EBV of dogs born in different years. The breeding values were estimated, using the best linear unbiased prediction animal model. The pedigree in the genetic analyses included a total of 9027 dogs, of which 1567 showed results for NCDs. Results The heritability estimates of the NCD and lnNCD in Dachshunds were high (0.53 and 0.45, respectively). Small genetic improvements were seen as the mean EBVs increased from 100 to 104 and 105 over a 15-year period. The gain in the entire Dachshund population in Finland may differ from that observed, since less than 10 % of the Dachshunds registered have a screening result for NCD. Age at the time of the screening did not significantly affect the NCD or lnNCD. Conclusions We recommend systematic radiographic screening for IDC in Dachshunds and adopting EBVs as a tool for selecting breeding dogs. Age at the time of the radiographic screening may not be as important as previously suggested.
  • Walker, Logan C; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Wang, Xianshu; Tarrell, Robert; Pankratz, Vernon S; Lindor, Noralane M; Beesley, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Chen, Xiaoqing; kConFab; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Tirapo, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Delnatte, Capucine; GEMO Study Collaborators; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Schönbuchner, Ines; Deissler, Helmut; Meindl, Alfons; Hogervorst, Frans B; Verheus, Martijn; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans MW; Nelen, Marcel R; Ausems, Margreet GEM; Aalfs, Cora M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Gerrits, Monique M; Waisfisz, Quinten; HEBON; Szabo, Csilla I; ModSQuaD; Easton, Douglas F; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Harrington, Patricia; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Chu, Carol; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-Ren; Cook, Jackie; EMBRACE; Rebbeck, Tim; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Singer, Christian F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Pfeiler, Georg; Godwin, Andrew K; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Caligo, Maria A; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Liljegren, Annelie; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Melin, Beatrice; SWE-BRCA; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Couch, Fergus J (BioMed Central Ltd, 2010)
    Abstract Introduction Current attempts to identify genetic modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated risk have focused on a candidate gene approach, based on knowledge of gene functions, or the development of large genome-wide association studies. In this study, we evaluated 24 SNPs tagged to 14 candidate genes derived through a novel approach that analysed gene expression differences to prioritise candidate modifier genes for association studies. Methods We successfully genotyped 24 SNPs in a cohort of up to 4,724 BRCA1 and 2,693 BRCA2 female mutation carriers from 15 study groups and assessed whether these variants were associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results SNPs in five of the 14 candidate genes showed evidence of association with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers (P < 0.05). Notably, the minor alleles of two SNPs (rs7166081 and rs3825977) in high linkage disequilibrium (r 2 = 0.77), located at the SMAD3 locus (15q22), were each associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (relative risk = 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 1.45, P trend = 0.004; and relative risk = 1.20, 95% confidence interval = 1.03 to 1.40, P trend = 0.018). Conclusions This study provides evidence that the SMAD3 gene, which encodes a key regulatory protein in the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway and is known to interact directly with BRCA2, may contribute to increased risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This finding suggests that genes with expression associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status are enriched for the presence of common genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk in these populations.
  • Herczeg, Gábor; Gonda, Abigél; Balázs, Gergely; Noreikiene, Kristina; Merilä, Juha (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain regions during early ontogeny is known from many vertebrate taxa, but less is known about plasticity in the brains of adults. In contrast to mammals and birds, most parts of a fish’s brain continue to undergo neurogenesis throughout adulthood, making lifelong plasticity in brain size possible. We tested whether maturing adult three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) reared in a stimulus-poor environment exhibited brain plasticity in response to environmental enrichment, and whether these responses were sex-specific, thus altering the degree of sexual size dimorphism in the brain. Results Relative sizes of total brain and bulbus olfactorius showed sex-specific responses to treatment: males developed larger brains but smaller bulbi olfactorii than females in the enriched treatment. Hence, the degree of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in relative brain size and the relative size of the bulbus olfactorius was found to be environment-dependent. Furthermore, the enriched treatment induced development of smaller tecta optica in both sexes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that adult fish can alter the size of their brain (or brain regions) in response to environmental stimuli, and these responses can be sex-specific. Hence, the degree of SSD in brain size can be environment-dependent, and our results hint at the possibility of a large plastic component to SSD in stickleback brains. Apart from contributing to our understanding of the processes shaping and explaining variation in brain size and the size of different brain regions in the wild, the results show that provision of structural complexity in captive environments can influence brain development. Assuming that the observed plasticity influences fish behaviour, these findings may also have relevance for fish stocking, both for economical and conservational purposes.
  • Lindh-Knuutila, Tiina; Honkela, Timo (Springer Singapore, 2015)
    Abstract Background In this article, automatically generated and manually crafted semantic representations are compared. The comparison takes place under the assumption that neither of these has a primary status over the other. While linguistic resources can be used to evaluate the results of automated processes, data-driven methods are useful in assessing the quality or improving the coverage of hand-created semantic resources. Methods We apply two unsupervised learning methods, Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and probabilistic topic model at word level using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to create semantic representations from a large text corpus. We further compare the obtained results to two semantically labeled dictionaries. In addition, we use the Self-Organizing Map to visualize the obtained representations. Results We show that both methods find a considerable amount of category information in an unsupervised way. Rather than only finding groups of similar words, they can automatically find a number of features that characterize words. The unsupervised methods are also used in exploration. They provide findings which go beyond the manually predefined label sets. In addition, we demonstrate how the Self-Organizing Map visualization can be used in exploration and further analysis. Conclusion This article compares unsupervised learning methods and semantically labeled dictionaries. We show that these methods are able to find categorical information. In addition, they can further be used in an exploratory analysis. In general, information theoretically motivated and probabilistic methods provide results that are at a comparable level. Moveover, the automatic methods and human classifications give an access to semantic categorization that complement each other. Data-driven methods can furthermore be cost effective and adapt to a particular domain through appropriate choice of data sets.
  • Grote, Anne; Abbas, Mahmoud; Linder, Nina; Kreipe, Hans H; Lundin, Johan; Feuerhake, Friedrich (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Comprehensive spatial assessment of hormone receptor immunohistochemistry staining in digital whole slide images of breast cancer requires accurate detection of positive nuclei within biologically relevant regions of interest. Herein, we propose a combination of automated region labeling at low resolution and subsequent detailed tissue evaluation of subcellular structures in lobular structures adjacent to breast cancer, as a proof of concept for the approach to analyze estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the spatial context of surrounding tissue. Methods Routinely processed paraffin sections of hormone receptor-negative ductal invasive breast cancer were stained for estrogen and progesterone receptor by immunohistochemistry. Digital whole slides were analyzed using commercially available image analysis software for advanced object-based analysis, applying textural, relational, and geometrical features. Mammary gland lobules were targeted as regions of interest for analysis at subcellular level in relation to their distance from coherent tumor as neighboring relevant tissue compartment. Lobule detection quality was evaluated visually by a pathologist. Results After rule set optimization in an estrogen receptor-stained training set, independent test sets (progesterone and estrogen receptor) showed acceptable detection quality in 33% of cases. Presence of disrupted lobular structures, either by brisk inflammatory infiltrate, or diffuse tumor infiltration, was common in cases with lower detection accuracy. Hormone receptor detection tended towards higher percentage of positively stained nuclei in lobules distant from the tumor border as compared to areas adjacent to the tumor. After adaptations of image analysis, corresponding evaluations were also feasible in hormone receptor positive breast cancer, with some limitations of automated separation of mammary epithelial cells from hormone receptor-positive tumor cells. Conclusions As a proof of concept for object-oriented detection of steroid hormone receptors in their spatial context, we show that lobular structures can be classified based on texture-based image features, unless brisk inflammatory infiltration disrupts the normal morphological structure of the tubular gland epithelium. We consider this approach as prototypic for detection and spatial analysis of nuclear markers in defined regions of interest. We conclude that advanced image analysis at this level of complexity requires adaptation to the individual tumor phenotypes and morphological characteristics of the tumor environment.
  • Hovi, Tapani; Ollgren, Jukka; Haapakoski, Jaason; Amiryousefi, Ali; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Little is known about the quantitative relationships between a self-recognized exposure to people with symptoms of respiratory (RTI) or gastrointestinal tract infection (GTI) and subsequent occurrence of homologous symptoms in the exposed person. Methods Adult office employees, controls in an intervention trial, reported weekly own symptoms of RTI or GTI and exposures to other persons with similar symptoms. To ascertain the reliability of the self-reported data, the participants received both in-advance training and repeated instructions in the weekly Email requests for reports. The relationship of self-reported exposures to self-reported homologous symptoms during the same or the following week was analyzed including, in the statistical models, cluster effects and longitudinal aspects in the data, seasonality, and cluster-specific baseline values. Results Altogether 11,644 weekly reports were received from 230 participants during the 16-month duration of the study. The mean age of the reporters was 42.9 years (standard deviation 11.1 years), and the female/male ratio 157/68 (for 5 participants this information was not available). A reported exposure to RTI was associated with an almost 5-fold higher relative risk for a reported homologous infection during the same week (4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0 to 5.9), and with a 3-fold risk during the following week (3.3; CI 2.8 to 3.8). For GTI the corresponding figures were 15.1 (CI 10.4 to 21.8) and 4.3 (CI 3.1 to 5.8), respectively. On the other hand, for 24% of the designated RTI episodes, a homologous exposure had been reported during neither the same nor the preceding week. For GTI this figure was even greater (40%). For both RTI and GTI, weeks with a reported exposure were more frequent outside the workplace than only at the workplace (434 versus 262, and 109 versus 41, respectively). Conclusion A reported exposure to persons with obvious symptoms of RTI or GTI significantly increased the relative risk of reported homologous infection in the exposed adult persons. Yet, a substantial part of reported designated RTI and, especially, GTI episodes occurred without a reported exposure during the same or the previous week. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov with an identifier of NCT00821509 (12 March 2009).
  • Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Mehta, Roopa; Muñoz-Hernandez, Liliana; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Tusie-Luna, Maria T; Gomez-Perez, Francisco J; Pajukanta, Päivi; Matikainen, Niina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Alterations in postprandial metabolism have been described in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH); however, their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. We aimed to identify factors related to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia and apolipoprotein (apo) A-V levels in subjects with FCH. Methods FCH cases (n = 99) were studied using a standardized meal test. Abdominal obesity was assessed using the waist to hip ratio (WHR). A linear regression model was performed to investigate the variables associated with the triglycerides incremental area under the curve (iAUC). Independent associations between metabolic variables and apo A-V iAUC were also investigated in a randomly selected subgroup (n = 44). The study sample was classified according to the presence of fasting hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL) and abdominal obesity (WHR ≥0.92 in men and ≥0.85 in women) to explore differences in parameters. Results The fasting apo B-48 levels (r = 0.404), and the WHR (r = 0.359) were independent factors contributing to the triglycerides iAUC (r2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). The triglycerides iAUC was independently associated with the apo A-V iAUC (r2 = 0.54, P < 0.01). Patients with both hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity showed the most robust triglycerides and apo A-V postprandial responses. Conclusions In patients with FCH the fasting apo B-48 level is the main factor associated with postprandial lipemia. Abdominal obesity also contributes to the magnitude of the postprandial response.The triglycerides postprandial increment is the principal factor associated with the apo A-V postprandial response.
  • Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness.
  • Lehtovuori, Tuomo; Kauppila, Timo; Kallio, Jouko; Raina, Marko; Suominen, Lasse; Heikkinen, Anna M (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background In primary care, financial incentives have usually been directed to physicians because they are thought to make the key decisions in order to change the functions of a medical organization. There are no studies regarding the impact that directing these incentives to all disciplines of the care team (e.g. group bonuses for both nurses and doctors) may have, despite the low frequency with which diagnoses were being recorded for primary care visits to doctors. This study tested the effect of offering group bonuses to the care teams. Methods This was a retrospective quasi-experimental study with before-and-after settings and two control groups. In the intervention group, the mean percentage of visits to a doctor for which a diagnosis was recorded by each individual care team (mean team-based percentage of monthly visits to a doctor with recorded diagnoses) and simultaneously the same data was gathered from two different primary care settings where no team bonuses were applied. To study the sustainability of changes obtained with the group bonuses the respective data were derived from the electronic health record system for 2 years after the cessation of the intervention. The differences in the rate of marking diagnoses was analyzed with ANOVA and RM-ANOVA with appropriate post hoc tests, and the differences in the rate of change in marking diagnoses was analyzed with linear regression followed by t-test. Results The proportion of doctor visits having recorded diagnoses in the teams was about 55 % before starting to use group bonuses and 90 % after this intervention. There was no such increase in control units. The effect of the intervention weakened slightly after cessation of the group bonuses. Conclusion Group bonuses may provide a method to alter clinical practices in primary care. However, sustainability of these interventions may diminish after ceasing this type of financial incentive.
  • Savanheimo, Nora; Vehkalahti, Miira M (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Dental general anesthesia (DGA) is part of public dental care in Finland, but the intention is to return the patient to routine dental care. The aims of this study were to describe the details of treatments under DGA given to generally healthy children and to explore the outcome of their dental care during a 5-year follow-up, with special focus on preventive care. In particular, we examined the return of the patients to routine dental care, of which, to our knowledge, little is known. Methods Our prospective 5-year follow-up of generally healthy children (aged 0–13 years) treated under DGA by the Helsinki Public Dental Service in 2004 was based on official dental and general anesthesia documents. The statistical analyses employed chi-square tests, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r), Fisher’s transformation to test r ≠ 0, and logistic regression modeling. Results The most common reason for DGA was uncooperation (82%), followed by dental fear (56%). Filling therapy predominated in the treatments given under anesthesia, and the mean number of treatments per patients was 9.5 (SD = 4.2). Throughout the follow-up, 54% of the patients continued to have co-operation problems and 53% expressed dental fear; 11% of the patients received repeat DGA. The mean follow-up time was 48 (median 52) months. The postoperative review visit was actualized within 1.5 (SD = 0.8) months and the first visit to the home dental clinic of the patients in 12.0 (SD = 11.8) months for the 0–5-year-olds and in 7.2 (SD = 5.9) months for the 6–13-year-olds (p < 0.001). The mean time elapsed to the first need for treatment was 18.5 (SD = 14.1) months. During the follow-up, the mean number of treatments per patient was 5.3 (SD = 4.9); almost all patients (97%) received preventive treatment at one of two visits, but the control of dental fear remained rare. Conclusions To return to routine dental care after DGA, most of the generally healthy children in our study still needed special attention due to their uncooperation and dental fear, thus calling for a renewal of practices to treat these patients.
  • Paassilta, Marita; Kuusela, Elina; Korppi, Matti; Lemponen, Riina; Kaila, Minna; Nikkari, Seppo T (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Elevated serum Mead acid as a proportion of total fatty acids is an indirect marker of a deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA). The aim of the study was to evaluate the symptoms and nutrition of food-allergic children with elevated or normal serum Mead acid. Methods Serum fatty acid compositions from 400 children were studied by clinical indications, mostly by suspicion of deficiency of EFA due to inadequate nutrition. A Mead acid level exceeding 0.21% (percentage of total fatty acids) was considered to be a specific sign of an insufficient EFA supply. From a total of 31 children with elevated Mead acid (MEADplus group), 23 (74%) had food allergy. The symptoms and dietary restrictions of this MEADplus group of food allergic children were compared to 54 age-and sex-matched controls with food allergy but normal Mead acid proportions (MEADminus group) before and 6 months after the serum fatty acid determination. Results At the beginning of the 6-month follow-up, 44% of the food allergic children in both MEADplus and MEADminus groups were on an elimination diet. These diets did not differ between the two groups and we were not able to document an association between the severity of elimination diet and elevated Mead acid proportion. However, the MEADplus children were on average more symptomatic than MEADminus children. In the MEADplus group, food allergy presented with skin symptoms in 100% (vs. 70% in the MEADminus group, p < 0.001) and with vomiting or diarrhea in 70% (vs. 44% in the MEADminus group, p < 0.05). Clinical suspicion of malnutrition resulted in increase in the use of vegetable oil and milk-free margarine in both groups from <50% to 65-74% during the follow-up. After 6 months, 64% of the MEADplus children with food allergy had been sent to a control serum fatty acid analysis. Of these children, Mead acid had declined to normal level in 69%, and remained elevated in 31%. Conclusions Severe symptoms of food allergy combined with elimination diets in children may lead to insufficient nutrition presenting with elevated serum Mead acid. Adding of supplementary polyunsaturated fat to the diet should be considered in these children.
  • Hynönen, Ulla; Kant, Ravi; Lähteinen, Tanja; Pietilä, Taija E; Beganović, Jasna; Smidt, Hauke; Uroić, Ksenija; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi (BioMed Central, 2014)
    Abstract Background Adhesiveness to intestinal epithelium, beneficial immunomodulating effects and the production of pathogen-inhibitory compounds are generally considered as beneficial characteristics of probiotic organisms. We showed the potential health-promoting properties and the mechanisms of probiotic action of seven swine intestinal Lactobacillus amylovorus isolates plus the type strain (DSM 20531T) by investigating their adherence to porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-1) and mucus as well as the capacities of the strains to i) inhibit the adherence of Escherichia coli to IPEC-1 cells, ii) to produce soluble inhibitors against intestinal pathogens and iii) to induce immune signaling in dendritic cells (DCs). Moreover, the role of the L. amylovorus surface (S) –layers - symmetric, porous arrays of identical protein subunits present as the outermost layer of the cell envelope - in adherence to IPEC-1 cells was assessed using a novel approach which utilized purified cell wall fragments of the strains as carriers for the recombinantly produced S-layer proteins. Results Three of the L. amylovorus strains studied adhered to IPEC-1 cells, while four strains inhibited the adherence of E. coli, indicating additional mechanisms other than competition for binding sites being involved in the inhibition. None of the strains bound to porcine mucus. The culture supernatants of all of the strains exerted inhibitory effects on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Yersinia, and a variable, strain-dependent induction was observed of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human DCs. L. amylovorus DSM 16698 was shown to carry two S-layer-like proteins on its surface in addition to the major S-layer protein SlpA. In contrast to expectations, none of the major S-layer proteins of the IPEC-1 -adhering strains mediated bacterial adherence. Conclusions We demonstrated adhesive and significant pathogen inhibitory efficacies among the swine intestinal L. amylovorus strains studied, pointing to their potential use as probiotic feed supplements, but no independent role could be demonstrated for the major S-layer proteins in adherence to epithelial cells. The results indicate that many intestinal bacteria may coexist with and confer benefits to the host by mechanisms not attributable to adhesion to epithelial cells or mucus.