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  • Kainulainen, Veera; Tang, Yurui; Spillmann, Thomas; Kilpinen, Susanne; Reunanen, Justus; Saris, Per E; Satokari, Reetta (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background For a good probiotic candidate, the abilities to adhere to intestinal epithelium and to fortify barrier function are considered to be crucial for colonization and functionality of the strain. The strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 was isolated from the jejunum of a healthy dog, where it was found to be the most pre-dominant lactobacilli. In this study, the adhesion ability of LAB20 to intestinal epithelial cell (IECs) lines, IECs isolated from canine intestinal biopsies, and to canine, porcine and human intestinal mucus was investigated. Further, we studied the ability of LAB20 to fortify the epithelial cell monolayer and to reduce LPS-induced interleukin (IL-8) release from enterocytes. Results We found that LAB20 presented higher adhesion to canine colonic mucus as compared to mucus isolated from porcine colon. LAB20 showed adhesion to HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines, and importantly also to canine IECs isolated from canine intestinal biopsies. In addition, LAB20 increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of enterocyte monolayers and thus strengthened the intestinal barrier function. The strain showed also anti-inflammatory capacity in being able to attenuate the LPS-induced IL-8 production of HT-29 cells. Conclusion In conclusion, canine indigenous strain LAB20 is a potential probiotic candidate for dogs adhering to the host epithelium and showing intestinal barrier fortifying and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Kainulainen, Veera; Tang, Yurui; Spillmann, Thomas; Kilpinen, Susanne; Reunanen, Justus; Saris, Per EJ; Satokari, Reetta (BioMed Central Ltd, 2015)
    Abstract Background For a good probiotic candidate, the abilities to adhere to intestinal epithelium and to fortify barrier function are considered to be crucial for colonization and functionality of the strain. The strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAB20 was isolated from the jejunum of a healthy dog, where it was found to be the most pre-dominant lactobacilli. In this study, the adhesion ability of LAB20 to intestinal epithelial cell (IECs) lines, IECs isolated from canine intestinal biopsies, and to canine, porcine and human intestinal mucus was investigated. Further, we studied the ability of LAB20 to fortify the epithelial cell monolayer and to reduce LPS-induced interleukin (IL-8) release from enterocytes. Results We found that LAB20 presented higher adhesion to canine colonic mucus as compared to mucus isolated from porcine colon. LAB20 showed adhesion to HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines, and importantly also to canine IECs isolated from canine intestinal biopsies. In addition, LAB20 increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of enterocyte monolayers and thus strengthened the intestinal barrier function. The strain showed also anti-inflammatory capacity in being able to attenuate the LPS-induced IL-8 production of HT-29 cells. Conclusion In conclusion, canine indigenous strain LAB20 is a potential probiotic candidate for dogs adhering to the host epithelium and showing intestinal barrier fortifying and anti-inflammatory effects.
  • van Raalte, Alyson A; Kunst, Anton E; Lundberg, Olle; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Artnik, Barbara; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Mackenbach, Johan P (BioMed Central Ltd, 2012)
    Abstract Background Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality consistently point to higher death rates in lower socioeconomic groups. Yet how these between-group differences relate to the total variation in mortality risk between individuals is unknown. Methods We used data assembled and harmonized as part of the Eurothine project, which includes census-based mortality data from 11 European countries. We matched this to national data from the Human Mortality Database and constructed life tables by gender and educational level. We measured variation in age at death using Theil's entropy index, and decomposed this measure into its between- and within-group components. Results The least-educated groups lived between three and 15 years fewer than the highest-educated groups, the latter having a more similar age at death in all countries. Differences between educational groups contributed between 0.6% and 2.7% to total variation in age at death between individuals in Western European countries and between 1.2% and 10.9% in Central and Eastern European countries. Variation in age at death is larger and differs more between countries among the least-educated groups. Conclusions At the individual level, many known and unknown factors are causing enormous variation in age at death, socioeconomic position being only one of them. Reducing variations in age at death among less-educated people by providing protection to the vulnerable may help to reduce inequalities in mortality between socioeconomic groups.
  • Häggman, Johanna; Junni, Reijo; Simojoki, Heli; Juga, Jarmo; Soveri, Timo (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to provide detailed herd level cost information about an outbreak of interdigital phlegmon (IP), which has been an emerging problem with enlarged loose house barns in Finland in recent years. During enlargement, the farmer’s financial situation is sensitive because of the large investments to the farm business and unexpected costs can risk the farm’s survival. Results The University of Helsinki research herd and three commercial herds having outbreaks of IP in 2012 or 2013 were visited to collect detailed information about the costs and economic impact of the outbreaks. The majority of the costs came from the discarded milk due to the antibiotic treatments. In Finland IP is usually treated with parental benzylpenicillin for 5 days which result in discarded milk for a total of 11 days. Third generation cephalosporins, widely used in other countries, have no milk withdrawal time. However, the use of these antibiotics is not recommended in Finland since these antimicrobials are critically important for human health. Herd-level costs varied between 4560 and 28,386 € depending on the herd size, the frequency of the infected cows, the antibiotics used and other costs involved. The average cost per infected cow was 489 €. Conclusions The outbreaks of IP cause severe economic losses to dairy farms and the costs are lower if cows are treated with antibiotics with no withdrawal time. However, other costs, such as involuntary culling, reduced production and fertility also produce substantial costs to the farms. Early detection of sick animals, rapid treatment and control measures to limit the outbreak of IP can lower the costs. Because of the high costs farms should concentrate on preventing the disease.
  • Fabritius, Henna; Rönkä, Katja; Ovaskainen, Otso (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Species movement responses to landscape structures have been studied using a variety of methods, but movement research is still in need of simple methods that help predicting and comparing movements across structurally different landscapes. We demonstrate how habitat-specific movement models can be used to disentangle causes of differentiated movement patterns in structurally different landscapes and to predict movement patterns in altered and artificial landscapes. In our case study, we studied the role of riparian landscapes to the persistence of the endangered false heath fritillary butterfly (Melitaea diamina) in its newly discovered coastal distribution region in Finland. We compared the movement parameters of the riparian population to two reference populations by using capture-recapture data and habitat-specific diffusion modelling, and analysed the role of the river and riverbank buffer zones in facilitating or hindering false heath fritillary movement with movement simulations. Results The riparian population of the false heath fritillary did not show major differences to reference populations in terms of movement parameters within breeding habitat, high-quality matrix and low-quality matrix. However, movement simulations showed that the habitat-specific movement parameters estimated for the false heath fritillary can lead into markedly different movement patterns in structurally different landscapes. An artificial riparian landscape mimicking those of the coastal distribution resulted into more directional, longitudinal movements both parallel and perpendicular to the river than a more mosaic-like landscape, but the existence of the river in the landscape reduced movements across the river. Conclusions Our study demonstrates how habitat-specific movement models enable comparisons of movement patterns across structurally different real, altered and artificial landscapes. As such, they can be used to compare movement parameters across populations, to study the effects of management interventions to endangered species and to identify areas that have high sensitivity to individual movement. In our case study, the river is shown to perform a dual role for the movements of the riparian false heath fritillary population. Whereas the river acts as a moderate movement barrier for the false heath fritillary, the longitudinal configuration of riverbank habitats provides a means especially for the male false heath fritillaries to move across the landscape.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background A previous meta-analysis found that high dose zinc acetate lozenges reduced the duration of common colds by 42%, whereas low zinc doses had no effect. Lozenges are dissolved in the pharyngeal region, thus there might be some difference in the effect of zinc lozenges on the duration of respiratory symptoms in the pharyngeal region compared with the nasal region. The objective of this study was to determine whether zinc acetate lozenges have different effects on the duration of common cold symptoms originating from different anatomical regions. Methods We analyzed three randomized trials on zinc acetate lozenges for the common cold administering zinc in doses of 80–92 mg/day. All three trials reported the effect of zinc on seven respiratory symptoms, and three systemic symptoms. We pooled the effects of zinc lozenges for each symptom and calculated point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Zinc acetate lozenges shortened the duration of nasal discharge by 34% (95% CI: 17% to 51%), nasal congestion by 37% (15% to 58%), sneezing by 22% (−1% to 45%), scratchy throat by 33% (8% to 59%), sore throat by 18% (−10% to 46%), hoarseness by 43% (3% to 83%), and cough by 46% (28% to 64%). Zinc lozenges shortened the duration of muscle ache by 54% (18% to 89%), but there was no difference in the duration of headache and fever. Conclusions The effect of zinc acetate lozenges on cold symptoms may be associated with the local availability of zinc from the lozenges, with the levels being highest in the pharyngeal region. However our findings indicate that the effects of zinc ions are not limited to the pharyngeal region. There is no indication that the effect of zinc lozenges on nasal symptoms is less than the effect on the symptoms of the pharyngeal region, which is more exposed to released zinc ions. Given that the adverse effects of zinc in the three trials were minor, zinc acetate lozenges releasing zinc ions at doses of about 80 mg/day may be a useful treatment for the common cold, started within 24 hours, for a time period of less than two weeks.
  • Korhonen, Rami K; Koistinen, Arto; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Santavirta, Seppo S; Lappalainen, Reijo (BioMed Central, 2005)
    Abstract Background Contact pressure of UHMWPE acetabular cup has been shown to correlate with wear in total hip replacement (THR). The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that the cup geometry, abduction angle, thickness and clearance can modify the stresses in cemented polyethylene cups. Methods Acetabular cups with different geometries (Link®: IP and Lubinus eccentric) were tested cyclically in a simulator at 45° and 60° abduction angles. Finite element (FE) meshes were generated and two additional designs were reconstructed to test the effects of the cup clearance and thickness. Contact pressures at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces were calculated as a function of loading force at 45°, 60° and 80° abduction angles. Results At the cup-head interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures than the Lubinus eccentric at low loading forces. However, at higher loading forces, much higher contact pressures were produced on the surface of IP cup. An increase in the abduction angle increased contact pressure in the IP model, but this did not occur to any major extent with the Lubinus eccentric model. At the cup-cement interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures. Increased clearance between cup and head increased contact pressure both at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces, whereas a decreased thickness of polyethylene layer increased contact pressure only at the cup-cement interface. FE results were consistent with experimental tests and acetabular cup deformations. Conclusion FE analyses showed that geometrical design, thickness and abduction angle of the acetabular cup, as well as the clearance between the cup and head do change significantly the mechanical stresses experienced by a cemented UHMWPE acetabular cup. These factors should be taken into account in future development of THR prostheses. FE technique is a useful tool with which to address these issues.
  • Viitasaari, Elina; Raekallio, Marja; Valros, Anna; Peltoniemi, Olli; Hänninen, Laura; Heinonen, Mari (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract No research has been reported on the effect of intramuscular ketoprofen administration on the feeding behavior of tail-bitten pigs. In order to investigate this, a longitudinal, double blind, placebo-controlled field trial was conducted with a total of 77 pigs from a finishing herd. Pigs received either ketoprofen (KET) or a placebo (PLAC) intramuscularly for three days and procaine penicillin for five days after the tail was first observed to be damaged. Pigs were followed from day −2 to day 3 with respect to a noted tail wound. Only new incidence of tail biting was included. Nine to 11 pigs per pen were reared with a single automatic feeder. A transponder attached to the ear of each pig recorded times of entrance and exit to the feeder and feed consumed. To calculate average daily weight gain (ADG), pigs were weighed at days 0, 6 and 13. Time spent at the feeder by visit and on a daily basis, and mean daily intervals between feeder visits per pig were computed in minutes. Daily feeding rate (FR) was calculated from the feeder data (consumed feed (g) / time at the feeder (s)). Placebo pigs consumed more feed and spent more time at the feeder on day 1 than KET pigs (P < 0.05). For all pigs, FR increased from day 1 to day 3 (P < 0.05). Feeder visit intervals were longer and frequency lower on day 0 compared with other days (P < 0.05). Average feed consumption and time spent at the feeder per day decreased on day 0 and returned to the initial level on day 1 (P < 0.05 for both). No effect on ADG was recorded. Intramuscular administration of ketoprofen induced little change in feeding behavior and had no effect on weight gain. Placebo-treated pigs may have used feed as an analgesic and calming substance to some degree, leading to temporarily increased feed consumption.
  • Viitasaari, Elina; Raekallio, Marja; Valros, Anna; Peltoniemi, Olli; Hänninen, Laura; Heinonen, Mari (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract No research has been reported on the effect of intramuscular ketoprofen administration on the feeding behavior of tail-bitten pigs. In order to investigate this, a longitudinal, double blind, placebo-controlled field trial was conducted with a total of 77 pigs from a finishing herd. Pigs received either ketoprofen (KET) or a placebo (PLAC) intramuscularly for three days and procaine penicillin for five days after the tail was first observed to be damaged. Pigs were followed from day −2 to day 3 with respect to a noted tail wound. Only new incidence of tail biting was included. Nine to 11 pigs per pen were reared with a single automatic feeder. A transponder attached to the ear of each pig recorded times of entrance and exit to the feeder and feed consumed. To calculate average daily weight gain (ADG), pigs were weighed at days 0, 6 and 13. Time spent at the feeder by visit and on a daily basis, and mean daily intervals between feeder visits per pig were computed in minutes. Daily feeding rate (FR) was calculated from the feeder data (consumed feed (g) / time at the feeder (s)). Placebo pigs consumed more feed and spent more time at the feeder on day 1 than KET pigs (P < 0.05). For all pigs, FR increased from day 1 to day 3 (P < 0.05). Feeder visit intervals were longer and frequency lower on day 0 compared with other days (P < 0.05). Average feed consumption and time spent at the feeder per day decreased on day 0 and returned to the initial level on day 1 (P < 0.05 for both). No effect on ADG was recorded. Intramuscular administration of ketoprofen induced little change in feeding behavior and had no effect on weight gain. Placebo-treated pigs may have used feed as an analgesic and calming substance to some degree, leading to temporarily increased feed consumption.
  • Hemilä, Harri (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Physical activity increases oxidative stress and therefore the antioxidant effects of vitamin C administration might become evident in people undertaking vigorous exercise. Vitamin C is involved in the metabolism of histamine, prostaglandins, and cysteinyl leukotrienes, all of which appear to be mediators in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Three studies assessing the effect of vitamin C on patients with EIB were subjected to a meta-analysis and revealed that vitamin C reduced postexercise FEV1 decline by 48% (95% CI: 33% to 64%). The correlation between postexercise FEV1 decline and respiratory symptoms associated with exercise is poor, yet symptoms are the most relevant to patients. Five other studies examined subjects who were under short-term, heavy physical stress and revealed that vitamin C reduced the incidence of respiratory symptoms by 52% (95% CI: 36% to 65%). Another trial reported that vitamin C halved the duration of the respiratory symptoms in male adolescent competitive swimmers. Although FEV1 is the standard outcome for assessing EIB, other outcomes may provide additional information. In particular, the mean postexercise decline of FEF50 is twice the decline of FEV1. Schachter and Schlesinger (1982) reported the effect of vitamin C on exercise-induced FEF60 levels in 12 patients suffering from EIB and their data are analyzed in this paper. The postexercise FEF60 decline was greater than 60% for five participants and such a dramatic decline indicates that the absolute postexercise FEF60 level becomes an important outcome in its own right. Vitamin C increased postexercise FEF60 levels by 50% to 150% in those five participants, but had no significant effect in the other seven participants. Thus, future research on the effects of vitamin C on EIB should not be restricted to measuring only FEV1. Vitamin C is inexpensive and safe, and further study on those people who have EIB or respiratory symptoms associated with exercise is warranted.
  • Hemilä, Harri (BioMed Central, 2014)
    Abstract Physical activity increases oxidative stress and therefore the antioxidant effects of vitamin C administration might become evident in people undertaking vigorous exercise. Vitamin C is involved in the metabolism of histamine, prostaglandins, and cysteinyl leukotrienes, all of which appear to be mediators in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Three studies assessing the effect of vitamin C on patients with EIB were subjected to a meta-analysis and revealed that vitamin C reduced postexercise FEV1 decline by 48% (95% CI: 33% to 64%). The correlation between postexercise FEV1 decline and respiratory symptoms associated with exercise is poor, yet symptoms are the most relevant to patients. Five other studies examined subjects who were under short-term, heavy physical stress and revealed that vitamin C reduced the incidence of respiratory symptoms by 52% (95% CI: 36% to 65%). Another trial reported that vitamin C halved the duration of the respiratory symptoms in male adolescent competitive swimmers. Although FEV1 is the standard outcome for assessing EIB, other outcomes may provide additional information. In particular, the mean postexercise decline of FEF50 is twice the decline of FEV1. Schachter and Schlesinger (1982) reported the effect of vitamin C on exercise-induced FEF60 levels in 12 patients suffering from EIB and their data are analyzed in this paper. The postexercise FEF60 decline was greater than 60% for five participants and such a dramatic decline indicates that the absolute postexercise FEF60 level becomes an important outcome in its own right. Vitamin C increased postexercise FEF60 levels by 50% to 150% in those five participants, but had no significant effect in the other seven participants. Thus, future research on the effects of vitamin C on EIB should not be restricted to measuring only FEV1. Vitamin C is inexpensive and safe, and further study on those people who have EIB or respiratory symptoms associated with exercise is warranted.
  • Tenorio-Laranga, Jofre; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Ahabrach, Hanan; García-Horsman, J. A; Felipo, Vicente (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Liver failure in experimental animals or in human cirrhosis elicits neuroinflammation. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) has been implicated in neuroinflammatory events in neurodegenerative diseases: PREP protein levels are increased in brain glial cells upon neuroinflammatory insults, but the circulating PREP activity levels are decreased in multiple sclerosis patients in a process probably mediated by bioactive peptides. In this work, we studied the variation of PREP levels upon liver failure and correlated it with several inflammatory markers to conclude on the relation of PREP with systemic and/or neuroinflammation. Methods PREP enzymatic activity and protein levels measured with immunological techniques were determined in the brain and plasma of rats with portacaval shunt (PCS) and after treatment with ibuprofen. Those results were compared with the levels of PREP measured in plasma from cirrhotic patients with or without minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and those of NO/cGMP homeostasis metabolites were measured in PCS rats and cirrhotic patients to conclude on the role of PREP in inflammation. Results In PCA rats, we found that PREP levels are significantly increased in the hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum, that in the cerebellum the PREP increase was significantly found in the extracellular space and that the levels were restored to those measured in control rats after administration of an anti-inflammatory agent, ibuprofen. In cirrhotic patients, circulatory PREP activity was found to correlate to systemic and neuroinflammatory markers and had a negative correlation with the severity of the disease, although no clear relation to MHE. Conclusions These results support the idea that PREP levels could be used as indicators of cirrhosis severity in humans, and using other markers, it might contribute to assessing the level of neuroinflammation in those patients. This work reports, for the first time, that PREP is secreted to the extracellular space in the cerebellum most probably due to glial activation and supports the role of the peptidase in the inflammatory response.
  • Tenorio-Laranga, Jofre; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Ahabrach, Hanan; García-Horsman, J. A; Felipo, Vicente (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background Liver failure in experimental animals or in human cirrhosis elicits neuroinflammation. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) has been implicated in neuroinflammatory events in neurodegenerative diseases: PREP protein levels are increased in brain glial cells upon neuroinflammatory insults, but the circulating PREP activity levels are decreased in multiple sclerosis patients in a process probably mediated by bioactive peptides. In this work, we studied the variation of PREP levels upon liver failure and correlated it with several inflammatory markers to conclude on the relation of PREP with systemic and/or neuroinflammation. Methods PREP enzymatic activity and protein levels measured with immunological techniques were determined in the brain and plasma of rats with portacaval shunt (PCS) and after treatment with ibuprofen. Those results were compared with the levels of PREP measured in plasma from cirrhotic patients with or without minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and those of NO/cGMP homeostasis metabolites were measured in PCS rats and cirrhotic patients to conclude on the role of PREP in inflammation. Results In PCA rats, we found that PREP levels are significantly increased in the hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum, that in the cerebellum the PREP increase was significantly found in the extracellular space and that the levels were restored to those measured in control rats after administration of an anti-inflammatory agent, ibuprofen. In cirrhotic patients, circulatory PREP activity was found to correlate to systemic and neuroinflammatory markers and had a negative correlation with the severity of the disease, although no clear relation to MHE. Conclusions These results support the idea that PREP levels could be used as indicators of cirrhosis severity in humans, and using other markers, it might contribute to assessing the level of neuroinflammation in those patients. This work reports, for the first time, that PREP is secreted to the extracellular space in the cerebellum most probably due to glial activation and supports the role of the peptidase in the inflammatory response.
  • Piisilä, Maria; Keceli, Mehmet A; Brader, Günter; Jakobson, Liina; Jõesaar, Indrek; Sipari, Nina; Kollist, Hannes; Palva, E T; Kariola, Tarja (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) has previously been characterized for its role in plant development. MAX2 appears essential for the perception of the newly characterized phytohormone strigolactone, a negative regulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Results A reverse genetic screen for F-box protein mutants altered in their stress responses identified MAX2 as a component of plant defense. Here we show that MAX2 contributes to plant resistance against pathogenic bacteria. Interestingly, max2 mutant plants showed increased susceptibility to the bacterial necrotroph Pectobacterium carotovorum as well as to the hemi-biotroph Pseudomonas syringae but not to the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea. max2 mutant phenotype was associated with constitutively increased stomatal conductance and decreased tolerance to apoplastic ROS but also with alterations in hormonal balance. Conclusions Our results suggest that MAX2 previously characterized for its role in regulation of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis, and thus plant development also significantly influences plant disease resistance. We conclude that the increased susceptibility to P. syringae and P. carotovorum is due to increased stomatal conductance in max2 mutants promoting pathogen entry into the plant apoplast. Additional factors contributing to pathogen susceptibility in max2 plants include decreased tolerance to pathogen-triggered apoplastic ROS and alterations in hormonal signaling.
  • Karkamo, Veera; Kaistinen, Anu; Näreaho, Anu; Dillard, Kati; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Vidgrén, Gabriele; Tuoresmäki, Niina; Anttila, Marjukka (BioMed Central Ltd, 2014)
    Abstract Background Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoans that infect humans and other mammals such as dogs. The most significant causative species in dogs is L. infantum. In dogs, leishmaniosis is a potentially progressive, chronic disease with varying clinical outcomes. Autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis have not previously been reported in the Nordic countries. Results In this report we describe the first diagnosed autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniosis in Finland, in which transmission via a suitable arthropod vector was absent. Two Finnish boxers that had never been in endemic areas of Leishmania spp., had never received blood transfusions, nor were infested by ectoparasites were diagnosed with leishmaniosis. Another dog was found with elevated Leishmania antibodies. A fourth boxer dog that had been in Spain was considered to be the source of these infections. Transmission occurred through biting wounds and semen, however, transplacental infection in one of the dogs could not be ruled out. Two of the infected dogs developed a serious disease and were euthanized and sent for necropsy. The first one suffered from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and the second one had a chronic systemic disease. Leishmania sp. was detected from tissues by PCR and/or IHC in both dogs. The third infected dog was serologically positive for Leishmania sp. but remained free of clinical signs. Conclusions This case report shows that imported Leishmania-infected dogs may pose a risk for domestic dogs, even without suitable local arthropod vectors.
  • Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Li, Tiaoying; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Swastika, Kadek I; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Davvajav, Abmed; Davaasuren, Anu; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Mekonnen, Sissay M; Negasi, Zerihun H; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Lavikainen, Antti J; Nkouawa, Agathe; Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh (BioMed Central, 2011)
    Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.
  • Tripathi, Sushil; Flobak, Åsmund; Chawla, Konika; Baudot, Anaïs; Bruland, Torunn; Thommesen, Liv; Kuiper, Martin; Lægreid, Astrid (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background The gastrointestinal peptide hormones cholecystokinin and gastrin exert their biological functions via cholecystokinin receptors CCK1R and CCK2R respectively. Gastrin, a central regulator of gastric acid secretion, is involved in growth and differentiation of gastric and colonic mucosa, and there is evidence that it is pro-carcinogenic. Cholecystokinin is implicated in digestion, appetite control and body weight regulation, and may play a role in several digestive disorders. Results We performed a detailed analysis of the literature reporting experimental evidence on signaling pathways triggered by CCK1R and CCK2R, in order to create a comprehensive map of gastrin and cholecystokinin-mediated intracellular signaling cascades. The resulting signaling map captures 413 reactions involving 530 molecular species, and incorporates the currently available knowledge into one integrated signaling network. The decomposition of the signaling map into sub-networks revealed 18 modules that represent higher-level structures of the signaling map. These modules allow a more compact mapping of intracellular signaling reactions to known cell behavioral outcomes such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. The integration of large-scale protein-protein interaction data to this literature-based signaling map in combination with topological analyses allowed us to identify 70 proteins able to increase the compactness of the map. These proteins represent experimentally testable hypotheses for gaining new knowledge on gastrin- and cholecystokinin receptor signaling. The CCKR map is freely available both in a downloadable, machine-readable SBML-compatible format and as a web resource through PAYAO ( http://sblab.celldesigner.org:18080/Payao11/bin/ ). Conclusion We have demonstrated how a literature-based CCKR signaling map together with its protein interaction extensions can be analyzed to generate new hypotheses on molecular mechanisms involved in gastrin- and cholecystokinin-mediated regulation of cellular processes.
  • Tripathi, Sushil; Flobak, Åsmund; Chawla, Konika; Baudot, Anaïs; Bruland, Torunn; Thommesen, Liv; Kuiper, Martin; Lægreid, Astrid (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract Background The gastrointestinal peptide hormones cholecystokinin and gastrin exert their biological functions via cholecystokinin receptors CCK1R and CCK2R respectively. Gastrin, a central regulator of gastric acid secretion, is involved in growth and differentiation of gastric and colonic mucosa, and there is evidence that it is pro-carcinogenic. Cholecystokinin is implicated in digestion, appetite control and body weight regulation, and may play a role in several digestive disorders. Results We performed a detailed analysis of the literature reporting experimental evidence on signaling pathways triggered by CCK1R and CCK2R, in order to create a comprehensive map of gastrin and cholecystokinin-mediated intracellular signaling cascades. The resulting signaling map captures 413 reactions involving 530 molecular species, and incorporates the currently available knowledge into one integrated signaling network. The decomposition of the signaling map into sub-networks revealed 18 modules that represent higher-level structures of the signaling map. These modules allow a more compact mapping of intracellular signaling reactions to known cell behavioral outcomes such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. The integration of large-scale protein-protein interaction data to this literature-based signaling map in combination with topological analyses allowed us to identify 70 proteins able to increase the compactness of the map. These proteins represent experimentally testable hypotheses for gaining new knowledge on gastrin- and cholecystokinin receptor signaling. The CCKR map is freely available both in a downloadable, machine-readable SBML-compatible format and as a web resource through PAYAO ( http://sblab.celldesigner.org:18080/Payao11/bin/ ). Conclusion We have demonstrated how a literature-based CCKR signaling map together with its protein interaction extensions can be analyzed to generate new hypotheses on molecular mechanisms involved in gastrin- and cholecystokinin-mediated regulation of cellular processes.
  • Aho, Velma T E; Pereira, Pedro A B; Haahtela, Tari; Pawankar, Ruby; Auvinen, Petri; Koskinen, Kaisa (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract For a long time, the human lower airways were considered a sterile environment where the presence of microorganisms, typically revealed by culturing, was interpreted as an abnormal health state. More recently, high-throughput sequencing-based studies have led to a shift in this perception towards the notion that even in healthy conditions the lower airways show either transient presence or even permanent colonization by microorganisms. However, challenges related to low biomass and contamination in samples still remain, and the composition, structure and dynamics of such putative microbial communities are unclear. Here, we review the evidence for the presence of microbial communities in the human lower airways, in healthy subjects and within the context of medical conditions of interest. We also provide an overview of the methodology pertinent to high-throughput sequencing studies, specifically those based on amplicon sequencing, including a discussion of good practices and common pitfalls.
  • Aho, Velma T E; Pereira, Pedro A B; Haahtela, Tari; Pawankar, Ruby; Auvinen, Petri; Koskinen, Kaisa (BioMed Central, 2015)
    Abstract For a long time, the human lower airways were considered a sterile environment where the presence of microorganisms, typically revealed by culturing, was interpreted as an abnormal health state. More recently, high-throughput sequencing-based studies have led to a shift in this perception towards the notion that even in healthy conditions the lower airways show either transient presence or even permanent colonization by microorganisms. However, challenges related to low biomass and contamination in samples still remain, and the composition, structure and dynamics of such putative microbial communities are unclear. Here, we review the evidence for the presence of microbial communities in the human lower airways, in healthy subjects and within the context of medical conditions of interest. We also provide an overview of the methodology pertinent to high-throughput sequencing studies, specifically those based on amplicon sequencing, including a discussion of good practices and common pitfalls.