Role of GDNF and its Cross-Talk with Other Growth Factors in the Dopaminergic System

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-10-7587-2
Title: Role of GDNF and its Cross-Talk with Other Growth Factors in the Dopaminergic System
Author: Planken, Anu
Contributor organization: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine
University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology
Helsingin yliopisto, lääketieteellinen tiedekunta, biolääketieteen laitos
Helsingfors universitet, medicinska fakulteten, biomedicinska institutionen
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2012-01-19
Language: eng
Belongs to series: URN:ISSN:1799-7372
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-10-7587-2
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/29047
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Abstract: Parkinson´s Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder resulting from loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra (SN). Possible causative treatment strategies for PD include neurotrophic factors, which protect and in some cases restore the function of dopaminergic neurons. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of neurotrophic factors have been to date the most promising candidates for treatment of PD, demonstrating both neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties. We have investigated the role of GDNF in the rodent dopaminergic system and its possible crosstalk with other growth factors. We characterized the GDNF-induced gene expression changes by DNA microarray analysis in different neuronal systems, including in vitro cultured Neuro2A cells treated with GDNF, as well as midbrains from GDNF heterozygous (Hz) knockout mice. These microarray experiments, resulted in the identification of GDNF-induced genes, which were also confirmed by other methods. Further analysis of the dopaminergic system of GDNF Hz mice demonstrated about 40% reduction in GDNF levels, revealed increased intracellular dopamine concentrations and FosB/DeltaFosB expression in striatal areas. These animals did not show any significant changes in behavioural analysis of acute and repeated cocaine administration on locomotor activity, nor did they exhibit any changes in dopamine output following treatment with acute cocaine. We further analysed the significance of GDNF receptor RET signalling in dopaminergic system of MEN2B knock-in animals with constitutively active Ret. The MEN2B animals showed a robust increase in extracellular dopamine and its metabolite levels in striatum, increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) protein levels by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting, as well as increased Th mRNA levels in SN. MEN2B mice had increased number of DA neurons in SN by about 25% and they also exhibited increased sensitivity to the stimulatory effects of cocaine. We also developed a semi-throughput in vitro micro-island assay for the quantification of neuronal survival and TH levels by computer-assisted methodology from limited amounts of tissue. This assay can be applied for the initial screening for dopaminotrophic molecules, as well as chemical drug library screening. It is applicable to any neuronal system for the screening of neurotrophic molecules. Since our microarray experiments revealed possible GDNF-VEGF-C crosstalk we further concentrated on studying the neurotrophic effects of VEGF-C. We showed that VEGF-C acts as a neurotrophic molecule for the DA neurons both in vitro and in vivo, however without additive effect when used together with GDNF. The neuroprotective effect for VEGF-C in vivo in rat 6-OHDA model of PD was demonstrated. The possible signalling mechanisms of VEGF-C in the nervous system were investigated - infusion of VEGF-C to rat brain induced ERK activation, however no direct activation of RET signalling in vitro was found. VEGF-C treatment of rat striatum lead to up-regulation of VEGFR-1-3, indicating that VEGF-C can regulate the expression level of its own receptor. VEGF-C dopaminotrophic activity in vivo was further supported by increased vascular tissue in the neuroprotection experiments.Ei saatavilla
Subject: neurotieteet
Rights: Julkaisu on tekijänoikeussäännösten alainen. Teosta voi lukea ja tulostaa henkilökohtaista käyttöä varten. Käyttö kaupallisiin tarkoituksiin on kielletty.


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