The Finnish Environment Institute - Publications archive


The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) is both a research institute, and a centre for environmental expertise. SYKE's research focuses on changes in the environment, and seeks ways to control these changes. The repository contains publications of SYKE as well as the offices preceding it such as the National Board of Waters, The National Board of Waters and the Environment and the Finnish Institute of Marine Research. The repository consists of articles, professional and scientific series and monographs.  Further information: ;

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  • Haubrock, Phillip J.; Ahmed, Danish A.; Cuthbert, Ross N.; Stubbington, Rachel; Domisch, Sami; Marquez, Jaime R. G.; Beidas, Ayah; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kiesel, Jens; Shen, Longzhu Q.; Soto, Ismael; Angeler, David G.; Bonada, Núria; Cañedo‐Argüelles, Miguel; Csabai, Zoltán; Datry, Thibault; de Eyto, Elvira; Dohet, Alain; Drohan, Emma; England, Judy; Feio, Maria J.; Forio, Marie A. E.; Goethals, Peter; Graf, Wolfram; Heino, Jani; Hudgins, Emma J.; Jähnig, Sonja C.; Johnson, Richard K.; Larrañaga, Aitor; Leitner, Patrick; L'Hoste, Lionel; Lizee, Marie‐Helene; Maire, Anthony; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Schmidt‐Kloiber, Astrid; Vannevel, Rudy; Várbíró, Gábor; Wiberg‐Larsen, Peter; Haase, Peter (Wiley, 2022)
    Global Change Biology
    Globalization has led to the introduction of thousands of alien species worldwide. With growing impacts by invasive species, understanding the invasion process remains critical for predicting adverse effects and informing efficient management. Theoretically, invasion dynamics have been assumed to follow an “invasion curve” (S-shaped curve of available area invaded over time), but this dynamic has lacked empirical testing using large-scale data and neglects to consider invader abundances. We propose an “impact curve” describing the impacts generated by invasive species over time based on cumulative abundances. To test this curve's large-scale applicability, we used the data-rich New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one of the most damaging freshwater invaders that has invaded almost all of Europe. Using long-term (1979–2020) abundance and environmental data collected across 306 European sites, we observed that P. antipodarum abundance generally increased through time, with slower population growth at higher latitudes and with lower runoff depth. Fifty-nine percent of these populations followed the impact curve, characterized by first occurrence, exponential growth, then long-term saturation. This behaviour is consistent with boom-bust dynamics, as saturation occurs due to a rapid decline in abundance over time. Across sites, we estimated that impact peaked approximately two decades after first detection, but the rate of progression along the invasion process was influenced by local abiotic conditions. The S-shaped impact curve may be common among many invasive species that undergo complex invasion dynamics. This provides a potentially unifying approach to advance understanding of large-scale invasion dynamics and could inform timely management actions to mitigate impacts on ecosystems and economies.
  • Gunia, M.; Laine, M.; Malve, O.; Kallio, K.; Kervinen, M.; Anttila, S.; Kotamäki, N.; Siivola, E.; Kettunen, J.; Kauranne, T. (Elsevier, 2022)
    Environmental modelling and software
    Highlights •Operational data fusion system for coastal water quality monitoring was implemented. •Remote sensing and in-situ data sources are combined using ensemble Kalman smoother. •Result uncertainty is quantified to improve future data collection. •Simple process model captures relevant dynamics in presence of significant data gaps. Abstract We present an operational system for multi-sensor data fusion implemented at the Finnish Environment Institute. The system uses Ensemble Kalman filter and smoother algorithms, which are often used for probabilistic analysis of multi-sensor data. Uncertainty and spatial and temporal correlations present in the available observation data are accounted for to obtain accurate and realistic results. To test the data fusion system, daily chlorophyll-a concentration has been modelled across northern shoreline of Gulf of Finland over the period of August 1st – October 31st 2011. Chlorophyll-a data from routine monitoring stations, ferrybox measurements, and data derived from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite has been used as input. The data fusion system demonstrates the use of existing and well-known Ensemble Kalman filtering and smoothing methods for improving water quality monitoring programs and for ensuring compliance with ecological standards.
  • Jupke, Jonathan F.; Birk, Sebastian; Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; Aroviita, Jukka; Barquín, José; Belmar, Oscar; Bonada, Núria; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Chiriac, Gabriel; Elexová, Emília Mišíková; Feld, Christian K.; Ferreira, M. Teresa; Haase, Peter; Huttunen, Kaisa-Leena; Lazaridou, Maria; Lešťáková, Margita; Miliša, Marko; Muotka, Timo; Paavola, Riku; Panek, Piotr; Pařil, Petr; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M.; Polášek, Marek; Sandin, Leonard; Schmera, Dénes; Straka, Michal; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Schäfer, Ralf B. (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Highlights •River typologies are indispensable for biomonitoring and ecological research. •River types should delineate distinct biotic communities. •We tested this for European river typologies using macroinvertebrates. •Communities were dissimilar between types; only marginally more similar within. •Our results support using typologies for studies of large-scale biodiversity trends Abstract Humans have severely altered freshwater ecosystems globally, causing a loss of biodiversity. Regulatory frameworks, like the Water Framework Directive, have been developed to support actions that halt and reverse this loss. These frameworks use typology systems that summarize freshwater ecosystems into environmentally delineated types. Within types, ecosystems that are minimally impacted by human activities, i.e., in reference conditions, are expected to be similar concerning physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. This assumption is critical when water quality assessments rely on comparisons to type-specific reference conditions. Lyche Solheim et al. (2019) developed a pan-European river typology system, the Broad River Types, that unifies the national Water Framework Directive typology systems and is gaining traction within the research community. However, it is unknown how similar biological communities are within these individual Broad River Types. We used analysis of similarities and classification strength analysis to examine if the Broad River Types delineate distinct macroinvertebrate communities across Europe and whether they outperform two ecoregional approaches: the European Biogeographical Regions and Illies' Freshwater Ecoregions. We determined indicator and typical taxa for the types of all three typology systems and evaluated their distinctiveness. All three typology systems captured more variation in macroinvertebrate communities than random combinations of sites. The results were similar among typology systems, but the Broad River Types always performed worse than either the Biogeographic Regions or Illies' Freshwater Ecoregions. Despite reaching statistical significance, the statistics of analysis of similarity and classification strength were low in all tests indicating substantial overlap among the macroinvertebrate communities of different types. We conclude that the Broad River Types do not represent an improvement upon existing freshwater typologies when used to delineate macroinvertebrate communities and we propose future avenues for advancement: regionally constrained types, better recognition of intermittent rivers, and consideration of biotic communities.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Asmala, Eero; Haavisto, Noora; Haraguchi, Lumi; Kraft, Kaisa; Lehto, Anne-Mari; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Norkko, Joanna; Piiparinen, Jonna; Seppälä, Jukka; Vanharanta, Mari; Vehmaa, Anu; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo (Elsevier, 2022)
    Science of the Total Environment
    Highlights •Modest brownification did not affect primary production, but increased bacterial production. •Concentration of inorganic nitrogen was the primary driver for the phytoplankton development. •Brownification benefitted picophytoplankton. Abstract Climate change is projected to cause brownification of some coastal seas due to increased runoff of terrestrially derived organic matter. We carried out a mesocosm experiment (15 d) to test the effect of this on the planktonic ecosystem expecting reduced primary production and shifts in the phytoplankton community composition. The experiment was set up in 2.2 m3 mesocosm bags using four treatments, each with three replicates: control (Contr) without any manipulation, organic carbon additive HuminFeed (Hum; 2 mg L−1), inorganic nutrients (Nutr; 5.7 μM NH4 and 0.65 μM PO4), and combined Nutr and Hum (Nutr + Hum) additions. Measured variables included organic and inorganic nutrient pools, chlorophyll a (Chla), primary and bacterial production and particle counts by flow cytometry. The bags with added inorganic nutrients developed a phytoplankton bloom that depleted inorganic N at day 6, followed by a rapid decline in Chla. Brownification did not reduce primary production at the tested concentration. Bacterial production was lowest in the Contr, but similar in the three treatments receiving additions likely due to increased carbon available for heterotrophic bacteria. Picoeukaryotes clearly benefited by brownification after inorganic N depletion, which could be due to more effective nutrient recycling, nutrient affinity, light absorption, or alternatively lower grazing pressure. In conclusion, brownification shifted the phytoplankton community composition towards smaller species with potential effects on carbon fluxes, such as sinking rates and export to the sea floor.
  • Evans, Luke Christopher; Melero, Yolanda; Schmucki, Reto; Boersch‐Supan, Philipp H.; Brotons, Lluís; Fontaine, Colin; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kuussaari, Mikko; Massimino, Dario; Robinson, Robert A.; Roy, David B.; Schweiger, Oliver; Settele, Josef; Stefanescu, Constanti; van Turnhout, Chris A. M.; Oliver, Tom Henry (Wiley, 2022)
    Global Ecology and Biogeography
    Aim: It is important to understand the factors affecting community stability because ecosystem function is increasingly at risk from biodiversity loss. Here, we evaluate how a key factor, the position of local environmental conditions within the thermal range of the species, influences the stability of butterfly communities at a continental scale. Location: Spain, UK and Finland. Time period: 1999–2017. Major taxa studied: Butterflies. Methods: We tested the following hypotheses about how species responses to temperature anomalies aggregate to influence stability: Hypothesis 1, species have contrasting responses to local temperature anomalies at opposing edges of their thermal range; hypothesis 2, communities with central thermal range positions have higher community stability; and the impacts of thermal range position on community stability are driven by hypothesis 3, population asynchrony, or hypothesis 4, additive population stability. Data were analysed at 876 sites for 157 species. Results: We found some support for hypothesis 1, because there were interactions between thermal range and response to temperature anomalies such that species at different range edges could provide weak compensatory dynamics. However, responses were nonlinear, suggesting strong declines with extreme anomalies, particularly at the hot range edge. Hypothesis 2 was supported in part, because community stability increased with central thermal range positions and declined at the edges, after accounting for species richness and community abundance. Thermal range position was weakly correlated with asynchrony (hypothesis 3) and population stability (hypothesis 4), although species richness and population abundance had larger impacts. Main conclusions: Future extreme heat events will be likely to impact species negatively across their thermal range, but might be particularly impactful on populations at the hottest end of the thermal range. Thermal range position influenced community stability because range edge communities were stable. However, the prediction of community stability from thermal range position is challenging because of nonlinear responses to temperature, with small temperature anomalies producing weak compensatory dynamics, but large extreme events synchronizing dynamics. KEYWORDS asynchrony, biodiversity, biogeography, community stability, diversity–stability, insects, integrated Laplace approximation, long-term monitoring, range positionis challenging because of nonlinear responses to temperature, with small temperature anomalies producing weak compensatory dynamics, but large extreme events synchronizing dynamics.
  • Ikkala, Lauri; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ilmonen, Jari; Similä, Maarit; Rehell, Sakari; Kumpula, Timo; Päkkilä, Lassi; Klöve, Björn; Marttila, Hannu (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Remote Sensing
    Peatland restoration aims to achieve pristine water pathway conditions to recover dispersed wetness, water quality, biodiversity and carbon sequestration. Restoration monitoring needs new methods for understanding the spatial effects of restoration in peatlands. We introduce an approach using high-resolution data produced with an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) and supported by the available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data to reveal the hydrological impacts of elevation changes in peatlands due to restoration. The impacts were assessed by analyzing flow accumulation and the SAGA Wetness Index (SWI). UAS campaigns were implemented at two boreal minerotrophic peatland sites in degraded and restored states. Simultaneously, the control campaigns mapped pristine sites to reveal the method sensitivity of external factors. The results revealed that the data accuracy is sufficient for describing the primary elevation changes caused by excavation. The cell-wise root mean square error in elevation was on average 48 mm when two pristine UAS campaigns were compared with each other, and 98 mm when each UAS campaign was compared with the LiDAR data. Furthermore, spatial patterns of more subtle peat swelling and subsidence were found. The restorations were assessed as successful, as dispersing the flows increased the mean wetness by 2.9–6.9%, while the absolute changes at the pristine sites were 0.4–2.4%. The wetness also became more evenly distributed as the standard deviation decreased by 13–15% (a 3.1–3.6% change for pristine). The total length of the main flow routes increased by 25–37% (a 3.1–8.1% change for pristine), representing the increased dispersion and convolution of flow. The validity of the method was supported by the field-determined soil water content (SWC), which showed a statistically significant correlation (R2 = 0.26–0.42) for the restoration sites but not for the control sites, possibly due to their upslope catchment areas being too small. Despite the uncertainties related to the heterogenic soil properties and complex groundwater interactions, we conclude the method to have potential for estimating changed flow paths and wetness following peatland restoration.
  • Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Yuzhou; García-Girón, Jorge; Tan, Kai; Wang, Lei; Ge, Yihao; Yan, Yunzhi (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Simple Summary Species interactions are one of the main factors affecting community assembly, yet the role of such interactions remains mostly unknown. Here, we investigated roles of potential species associations in fish community assembly in the Qiupu River, China. Our results suggested that potential species associations might have been underestimated in stream fish community assembly. The contribution of potential species associations to fish community assembly can be reflected by interaction network structures. Omnivorous species play an important role in maintaining network structure as they may have more associations with other species. This study highlights the importance of capturing species associations in river ecosystems across different geographical and environmental settings. Abstract Environmental filtering, spatial factors and species interactions are fundamental ecological mechanisms for community organisation, yet the role of such interactions across different environmental and spatial settings remains mostly unknown. In this study, we investigated fish community organisation scenarios and seasonal species-to-species associations potentially reflecting biotic associations along the Qiupu River (China). Based on a latent variable approach and a tree-based method, we compared the relative contribution of the abiotic environment, spatial covariates and potential species associations for variation in the community structure, and assessed whether different assembly scenarios were modulated by concomitant changes in the interaction network structure of fish communities across seasons. We found that potential species associations might have been underestimated in community-based assessments of stream fish. Omnivore species, since they have more associations with other species, were found to be key components sustaining fish interaction networks across different stream orders. Hence, we suggest that species interactions, such as predation and competition, likely played a key role in community structure. For instance, indices accounting for network structure, such as connectance and nestedness, were strongly correlated with the unexplained residuals from our latent variable approach, thereby re-emphasising that biotic signals, potentially reflecting species interactions, may be of primary importance in determining stream fish communities across seasons. Overall, our findings indicate that interaction network structures are a powerful tool to reflect the contribution of potential species associations to community assembly. From an applied perspective, this study should encourage freshwater ecologists to empirically capture and manage biotic constraints in stream ecosystems across different geographical and environmental settings, especially in the context of the ever-increasing impacts of human-induced local extinction debts and species invasions.
  • Stahl Olafsson, Anton; Purves, Ross S.; Wartmann, Flurina M.; Garcia-Martin, Maria; Fagerholm, Nora; Torralba, Mario; Albert, Christian; Verbrugge, Laura N.H.; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia; Kaaronen, Roope; Hartmann, Maximilian; Raymond, Christopher M. (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Landscape and Urban Planning
    Highlights •We compare the use of PPGIS and Flickr in landscape value assessments. •Landscape values and their spatial patterns are compared across sites. •We find more cross-site differences than similarities both in spatial patterns and value types. •PPGIS elicits a wider spectrum of values, while Flickr mainly elicits relationships to and with landscapes. •We recommend a complementary use in future landscape value studies. Abstract In this study, we bring together participatory mapping and analysis of geolocated social media content from the Flickr platform in an assessment of similarities and differences in their utility for landscape value elicitation. We do so in a Pan-European context comparing types of landscape values and their spatial patterns across 19 case sites in 11 European countries. Across these sites, we find great variety in volume, types and spatial patterns of landscape values elicited from participatory mapping by local people and opportunistic use of tags and image locations crowdsourced from Flickr. Most agreement in spatial patterns across the two data sets are found in densely populated landscapes; however, comparison of types of perceived landscape values is challenged by the differing assumptions of each value elicitation technique. We argue for the complementary potential of both approaches and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of using the two together in landscape research, planning and management. An integrated approach is likely to increase the inclusiveness of landscape value assessments.
  • Hurmekoski, Elias; Suuronen, Juulia; Ahlvik, Lassi; Kunttu, Janni; Myllyviita, Tanja (Wiley, 2022)
    Journal of Industrial Ecology
    Wood products may help to avoid fossil emissions when they substitute for more fossilintensive products. However, the estimates of avoided fossil emissions attributed to wood use tend to be based on incomplete market assumptions. Wood products are assumed to fully substitute for non-wood products, yet substitution rarely occurs 1:1 and wood products can also substitute for each other. This study outlines a systematic procedure grounded on economic theory for approximating the existence and rate of substitution between wood and non-wood products, and calculates the marginal avoided fossil emissions with both conventional assumptions and more realistic assumptions based on an expert survey, taking the case of textile markets. The results suggest that regenerated cellulosic fibers (RCFs) are not perfect substitutes for synthetic fibers, meaning that part of an additional RCF supply will replace established textile fibers while part of it merely adds to the overall textile supply, and thereby aggregate fossil emissions. Moreover, in the long term, RCFs are more likely to substitute for synthetics than for cotton, and in the short term, non-viscose RCFs are more likely to substitute for contemporary viscose than for polyester or cotton. In the specified case, the alteration of market assumptions leads to quadrupling the marginal substitution impacts of wood use. Besides the relatively high fossil intensity of con temporary viscose, this is partly explained by increased absolute aggregate fossil emissions. Producing a more realistic account of substitution processes in the forest products markets is central in directing investments that ensure a net reduction in fossil emissions.
  • Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Mattila, Tuomas J.; Joona, Juuso; Hydén, Tony; Känkänen, Hannu (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Cover crops (CCs) have aroused a great deal of interest as a multifunctional measure to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Understanding farmers’ views are important for future farm-scale implementation. A farmer survey was carried out in Finland in 2021 with the aims to gather farmers’ views on agronomic performance of CCs, their environmental impacts and contribution to climate smart agriculture, and understand how farmers’ views on CCs differed depending on farm/farmer characteristics. The farmers’ sample was conventional and organic farms that had selected CCs as a registered measure in 2020. 6493 farmers were invited to answer a questionnaire with 18 statements (a Likert scale, 5 answer choices), and 1130 responded (17.4%). A Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test was used to measure the strength of the association between ten characteristics of the respondents and 18 statements. Farmers considered CCs to have wide-ranging benefits for soil conditions. Only 21% of farmers agreed that CCs increase the need for nitrogen fertilizer use. 49% of farmers agreed that CCs reduce weed problems. Farmers mostly agreed (ca. 80%) that CCs reduce nutrient leaching and erosion. They were in general more uncertain about CCs’ contribution to climate change mitigation (53% agreed), adaptation (51%), and resilience (58%). In agri-environmental schemes subsidies for use of CCs should aim large-scale implementation with two important target groups: younger farmers (≤50 years) as they were slightly more skeptical than older ones and farmers with less diverse land use as they were more doubtful of benefits provided by CCs.
  • Graco‐Roza, Caio; Aarnio, Sonja; Abrego, Nerea; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Alahuhta, Janne; Altman, Jan; Angiolini, Claudia; Aroviita, Jukka; Attorre, Fabio; Baastrup‐Spohr, Lars; Barrera‐Alba, José J.; Belmaker, Jonathan; Biurrun, Idoia; Bonari, Gianmaria; Bruelheide, Helge; Burrascano, Sabina; Carboni, Marta; Cardoso, Pedro; Carvalho, José C.; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Christensen, Morten; Correa, Gilsineia; Dembicz, Iwona; Dengler, Jürgen; Dolezal, Jiri; Domingos, Patricia; Erös, Tibor; Ferreira, Carlos E. L.; Filibeck, Goffredo; Floeter, Sergio R.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Gammal, Johanna; Gavioli, Anna; Gossner, Martin M.; Granot, Itai; Guarino, Riccardo; Gustafsson, Camilla; Hayden, Brian; He, Siwen; Heilmann‐Clausen, Jacob; Heino, Jani; Hunter, John T.; Huszar, Vera L. M.; Janišová, Monika; Jyrkänkallio‐Mikkola, Jenny; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kemppinen, Julia; Kozub, Łukasz; Kruk, Carla; Kulbiki, Michel; Kuzemko, Anna; Christiaan le Roux, Peter; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Teixeira de Lima, Domênica; Lopez‐Urrutia, Angel; Lukács, Balázs A.; Luoto, Miska; Mammola, Stefano; Marinho, Marcelo M.; Menezes, Luciana S.; Milardi, Marco; Miranda, Marcela; Moser, Gleyci A. O.; Mueller, Joerg; Niittynen, Pekka; Norkko, Alf; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Ometto, Jean P.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Overbeck, Gerhard E.; Pacheco, Felipe S.; Pajunen, Virpi; Palpurina, Salza; Picazo, Félix; Prieto, Juan A. C.; Rodil, Iván F.; Sabatini, Francesco M.; Salingré, Shira; De Sanctis, Michele; Segura, Angel M.; da Silva, Lucia H. S.; Stevanovic, Zora D.; Swacha, Grzegorz; Teittinen, Anette; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Virta, Leena; Wang, Beixin; Wang, Jianjun; Weisser, Wolfgang; Xu, Yuan; Soininen, Janne (Wiley, 2022)
    Global Ecology and Biogeography
    Aim Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances (i.e., β-diversity) is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional variation in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distance. We provide the first global synthesis of taxonomic and functional distance decay along spatial and environmental distance by analysing 148 datasets comprising different types of organisms and environments. Location Global. Time period 1990 to present. Major taxa studied From diatoms to mammals. Method We measured the strength of the decay using ranked Mantel tests (Mantel r) and the rate of distance decay as the slope of an exponential fit using generalized linear models. We used null models to test whether functional similarity decays faster or slower than expected given the taxonomic decay along the spatial and environmental distance. We also unveiled the factors driving the rate of decay across the datasets, including latitude, spatial extent, realm and organismal features. Results Taxonomic distance decay was stronger than functional distance decay along both spatial and environmental distance. Functional distance decay was random given the taxonomic distance decay. The rate of taxonomic and functional spatial distance decay was fastest in the datasets from mid-latitudes. Overall, datasets covering larger spatial extents showed a lower rate of decay along spatial distance but a higher rate of decay along environmental distance. Marine ecosystems had the slowest rate of decay along environmental distances. Main conclusions In general, taxonomic distance decay is a useful tool for biogeographical research because it reflects dispersal-related factors in addition to species responses to climatic and environmental variables. Moreover, functional distance decay might be a cost-effective option for investigating community changes in heterogeneous environments.
  • Mönkkönen, Mikko; Aakala, Tuomas; Blattert, Clemens; Burgas, Daniel; Duflot, Remí; Eyvindson, Kyle; Kouki, Jari; Laaksonen, Toni; Punttila, Pekka (Societas pro fauna et flora Fennica, 2022)
    Memoranda Societatis pro fauna et flora Fennica
    National forest inventories (NFI) in Finland provide empirical evidence for a marked increase in tree growth, total forest area, and total timber volume over the past century. Meanwhile, the assessments of threatened forest species and habitats indicate continuous degradation of biodiversity in Finnish forests. To shed light on this seeming paradox, we summarized the temporal patterns of forest characteristics (indicators) that have major influence on biodiversity, comparing the structure of current Finnish forests with natural and historical references. Using a variety of data sources, we estimated the proportion of area of old-growth forest and of deciduous-dominated forests, the density of large trees, and the amount of dead wood in Finnish forests under natural reference conditions, in the 1750s, 1920s (NFI1), and 2010s (NFI12). Our results show that levels of the forest structures essential to maintain ecologically diverse forests are below those that likely prevailed in Finland under natural reference conditions and in the 1750s. This scarcity is particularly pronounced for dead wood volumes and old forest area. The marked increase in the volume of living trees during the last century did not translate into improved biodiversity indicators and has not been effective for turning the tide of biodiversity loss in Finnish forests. We discuss actions that are necessary to safeguard forest biodiversity in Finland both in terms of protected areas and management in production forest.
  • Saastamoinen, Uula; Vikström, Suvi; Helminen, Ville; Lyytimäki, Jari; Nurmio, Kimmo; Nyberg, Elina; Rantala, Salla (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Land Use Policy
    Highlights •Sense-making within spatial data practices is studied. •A methodology for classifying an urban-rural continuum is analysed as a case study. •Uses of the classification are difficult, yet important to anticipate. •Communicative and social considerations cannot be disentangled from information systems. Abstract In order to formulate relevant understanding of key sustainability challenges, evidence-based decision-making relies on comprehensive data. While the complexity of producing and processing spatial data and the potential for biases are well recognised, the social process of making sense of data and its implications for societal uses is less analysed. In this article, insights of critical data studies are applied to study the production of, as well as uses and misuses of, the Finnish urban-rural classification. The classification structures Finland into three urban classes and four rural classes and offers an alternative to classifications that utilise administrative, municipal, and regional boundaries. The classification acts as a boundary object, functioning as a common reference for parties with varying information needs and interests. Using document analysis, as well as an insider action research methodology and our own experiences as data producers, this article aims to understand the processes of sense-making of data in the context of urban-rural classification and identify ways of improving related information systems and data practices. Intended and realised uses of the classification are analysed in order to identify different ways in which data producers and users make sense of data and justify the utilisation of the classification. The process of sense-making starts from the planning of data production and shapes how data and eventually information system are formulated throughout the data cycle. Communication about the limitations of the classification remains an issue and highlights the nature of sense-making as a collective process wherein users are actively shaping data practices as they translate information systems into their own contexts. This also draws attention to the nature of information systems as inherently unneutral, inevitably affected by negotiations shaped by the various information needs.
  • Munck af Rosenschöld, Johan; Vihma, Peeter (Elsevier Science, 2022)
    Environmental science and policy
    Highlights •Socio-ecological fit is a widely debated topic in environmental governance. •A critical analysis of the role of projects in social-ecological fit is currently lacking. •We explore social-ecological fit of Estonian EU LIFE projects. •The interconnectedness between different forms of fit needs to be addressed. •Pursuing socio-ecological fit is a multi-scale and multi-level effort. Abstract Social-ecological fit has been a popular approach to assessing the connectedness between social and ecological systems in environmental governance. However, the role of projects in social-ecological fit has yet to be explicitly problematized and conceptualized. Given the centrality of projects - i.e. temporally limited organizations that bring various actors into collaboration to pursue clearly defined goals and tasks - in environmental governance, this is a serious shortcoming in the literature. In this paper, we fill this gap by drawing on the hitherto unconnected literatures on projectified environmental governance and social-ecological fit. We then assess the extent to which fit can be achieved in projectified environmental governance. To do this, we develop a novel framework for assessing the vertical and horizontal dimensions of social, spatial, and temporal fit and conduct an empirical study of the European Union’s LIFE Program and environmental projects funded by the program in Estonia. Our results suggest that the spatial and temporal fit of projects is contingent on social fit, i.e., the alignment of interests and needs of project-related actors. Frictions between various levels of decision-making also condition the possibilities of achieving fit horizontally across stakeholder groups and ecological systems as well as of sustaining project results over time.
  • Antão, Laura H.; Weigel, Benjamin; Strona, Giovanni; Hällfors, Maria; Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Dallas, Tad; Opedal, Øystein H.; Heliölä, Janne; Henttonen, Heikki; Huitu, Otso; Korpimäki, Erkki; Kuussaari, Mikko; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Leinonen, Reima; Lindén, Andreas; Merilä, Päivi; Pietiäinen, Hannu; Pöyry, Juha; Salemaa, Maija; Tonteri, Tiina; Vuorio, Kristiina; Ovaskainen, Otso; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Vanhatalo, Jarno; Roslin, Tomas; Laine, Anna-Liisa (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Nature Climate Change
    Climate change is a pervasive threat to biodiversity. While range shifts are a known consequence of climate warming contribut ing to regional community change, less is known about how species’ positions shift within their climatic niches. Furthermore, whether the relative importance of different climatic variables prompting such shifts varies with changing climate remains unclear. Here we analysed four decades of data for 1,478 species of birds, mammals, butterflies, moths, plants and phytoplank ton along a 1,200 km high latitudinal gradient. The relative importance of climatic drivers varied non-uniformly with progress ing climate change. While species turnover among decades was limited, the relative position of species within their climatic niche shifted substantially. A greater proportion of species responded to climatic change at higher latitudes, where changes were stronger. These diverging climate imprints restructure a full biome, making it difficult to generalize biodiversity responses and raising concerns about ecosystem integrity in the face of accelerating climate change.
  • Immonen, Anne; Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria (2022)
    The EU has several directives aiming toward carbon neutrality and is attempting to promote and encourage individual electricity consumers to participate in this endeavor. The key idea behind consumer awakening and activation is to push consumers to become aware of their electricity consumption behavior. The purpose of this paper was to examine the current consumption behavior of Finnish electricity consumers and their intention to support the goals of carbon neutrality through energy efficient consumption. The aim was to reveal how far the consumption behavior of people was from the intention to tackle climate change. To reach this goal, a qualitative research method was applied to evaluate the consumer awareness and intentions. A consumer survey was conducted to enable standardized and consistent data collection. The research utilized a key performance indicator (KPI) approach to evaluate the results: the social KPIs connected with qualitative values provide a comprehensive approach. According to the results, the awareness of consumers of their consumption behavior was not very high, and some data needs can be identified. In addition, clear intentions can be detected among the residents to support the environment and to save energy. However, the consumers did not seem to be aware of the available data and existing services that could help them to improve their energy efficiency. Therefore, more motivation and communication is still required to affect the electricity consumption behavior.
  • Marttila, H.; Laudon, H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; Jaramillo, F.; Alfredsen, K.; Ronkanen, A.-K.; Kronvang, B.; Lotsari, E.; Kämäri, M.; Ala-Aho, P.; Nousu, J.; Silander, J.; Koivusalo, H.; Kløve, B. (IWA Publishing, 2022)
    Hydrology Research
    HIGHLIGHTS • In this commentary, we highlight new possibilities and suggest vital steps forward for the scientific discipline within the Nordic hydrological research. • By providing a common direction, we hope to increase the awareness, and thus not only accelerate progress in the hydrological community but also emphasize the importance of hydrological knowledge for serving other fields of science and society. Abstract The 21st century has brought new challenges and opportunities and has also increased demands on the Nordic hydrological community. Our hydrological science focus and approaches need rethinking and adaptation to the changing requirements of society in response to climate change and human interventions, in search of more comprehensive and cross-disciplinary solutions. This commentary highlights new possibilities and suggests vital steps forward for the scientific discipline within Nordic hydrological research. By providing a common direction, we hope to increase awareness, accelerate progress in the hydrological community, and emphasize the importance of hydrological knowledge for serving other fields of science and society at large. We hope that our vision and the opportunities we identify will raise awareness of the scientific discipline and assist in the long-term development of the Nordic hydrological frontier in the 21st century.
  • Toivonen, Marjaana; Huusela, Erja; Hyvönen, Terho; Marjamäki, Paula; Järvinen, Ari; Kuussaari, Mikko (2022)
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment
    Highlights •Diversity of multiple taxa was compared between crop types and production methods. •Insect-pollinated crops and fallows attracted the highest numbers of pollinators. •Predatory arthropods were most abundant in winter cereals and perennials. •Multidiversity was highest in fallows and lowest in oat, ley and cabbage fields. •Organic production increased plant species richness across crop types. Abstract Crop choice affects biodiversity within fields due to crop-specific characteristics and management practices. However, there is a lack of studies systematically comparing the biodiversity value of different crops across multiple taxa. This study empirically compared the diversity of plants, pollinators, predatory arthropods, and multi-taxa diversity between seven crop types and long-term environmental fallows in boreal farmland. The effects of crop production method (organic vs. conventional) on biodiversity were also examined. Biodiversity data were collected in 78 fields in Southern Finland. The studied species groups differed in their preferences for crop types and fallows, but none of them was particularly associated to spring cereal (oat), the dominant arable crop in the boreal farmland. Environmental fallows had the highest plant species richness and butterfly abundance, whereas faba bean and oilseed crop fields attracted high numbers of bumblebees. Carabid beetles were most abundant in winter cereal (rye) fields, and spiders in perennial crop types. Multi-taxa diversity was highest in fallows and lowest in spring cereal (oat), ley and cabbage fields. Organic production increased plant species richness across crop types. Hoverflies responded to the interaction of production method and crop type, being most abundant in organically managed faba bean fields. The other species groups and multi-taxa diversity were not affected by the production method. High arable land cover in the surrounding landscape had negative effect on butterflies, solitary bees and carabid beetles within fields. Our results suggest that diversifying cropping systems to include more insect-pollinated crops, winter cereals and pastures, and increasing the area of environmental fallows while maintaining landscape heterogeneity would enhance resource provision for a variety of organism groups in boreal agricultural landscapes.
  • Demina, Tatiana A.; Luhtanen, Anne-Mari; Roux, Simon; Oksanen, Hanna M. (American Society for Microbiology, 2022)
    ABSTRACT Although we know the generally appreciated significant roles of microbes in sea ice and polar waters, detailed studies of virus-host systems from such environments have been so far limited by only a few available isolates. Here, we investigated infectivity under various conditions, infection cycles, and genetic diversity of the following Antarctic sea ice bacteriophages: Paraglaciecola Antarctic GD virus 1 (PANV1), Paraglaciecola Antarctic JLT virus 2 (PANV2), Octadecabacter Antarctic BD virus 1 (OANV1), and Octadecabacter Antarctic DB virus 2 (OANV2). The phages infect common sea ice bacteria belonging to the genera Paraglaciecola or Octadecabacter. Although the phages are marine and cold-active, replicating at 0°C to 5°C, they all survived temporal incubations at $30°C and remained infectious without any salts or supplemented only with magnesium, suggesting a robust virion assembly maintaining integrity under a wide range of conditions. Host recognition in the cold proved to be effective, and the release of progeny viruses occurred as a result of cell lysis. The analysis of viral genome sequences showed that nearly one-half of the gene products of each virus are unique, highlighting that sea ice harbors unexplored virus diversity. Based on predicted genes typical for tailed double-stranded DNA phages, we suggest placing the four studied viruses in the class Caudoviricetes. Searching against viral sequences from metagenomic assemblies, we revealed that related viruses are not restricted to Antarctica but are also found in distant marine environments. IMPORTANCE Very little is known about sea ice microbes despite the significant role played by sea ice in the global oceans as well as microbial input into biogeochemical cycling. Studies on the sea ice viruses have been typically limited to -omics-based approaches and microscopic examinations of sea ice samples. To date, only four cultivable viruses have been isolated from Antarctic sea ice. Our study of these unique isolates advances the understanding of the genetic diversity of viruses in sea ice environments, their interactions with host microbes, and possible links to other biomes. Such information contributes to more accurate future sea ice biogeochemical models.
  • Jiang, Xiaoming; Sun, Xing; Alahuhta, Janne; Heino, Jani; Xie, Zhicai (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Environmental Pollution
    Highlights •We examined how eutrophication affects macroinvertebrate biodiversity in 33 lakes. •Three facets of alpha diversity declined with increasing of eutrophication. •Functional diversity indices performed best in portraying anthropogenic disturbances. •Environmental filtering dominated over spatial factors in explaining multifaceted alpha diversity. Abstract The accelerated eutrophication of freshwater lakes has become an environmental problem worldwide. Increasing numbers of studies highlight the need to incorporate functional and phylogenetic information of species into bioassessment programms, but it is still poorly understood how eutrophication affects multiple diversity facets of freshwater communities. Here, we assessed the responses of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates to water eutrophication in 33 lakes in the Yangtze River floodplain in China. Our results showed that macroinvertebrate assemblage structure was significantly different among four lake groups (river-connected, macrophyte-dominated, macrophyte-algae transition, and algae-dominated). Three taxonomic, two phylogenetic and two functional diversity indices were significantly different among the lake groups. Except for the increasing trend of Lambda+, these metrics showed a clear decreasing trend with increasing levels of eutrophication, with highest values detected in river-connected and macrophyte-dominated lakes, followed by macrophyte-algae transition lakes and algal-dominated lakes. Although differing in the number and identity of key environmental and spatial variables among the explanatory models of different diversity indices, environmental factors (eutrophication-related water quality variables) played more important role than spatial factors in structuring all three facets of alpha diversity. The predominant role of environmental filtering can be attributed to the strong eutrophication gradient across the studied lakes. Among the three diversity facets, functional diversity indices performed best in portraying anthropogenic disturbances, with variations in these indices being solely explained by environmental factors. Spatial factors were mostly weak or negligible in accounting for the variation in functional diversity indices, implying that trait-based indices are robust in portraying anthropogenic eutrophication in floodplain lakes. However, variation in some taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity indices were also affected by spatial factors, indicating that conservation practitioners and environmental managers should use these metrics with caution when providing solutions for addressing eutrophication in floodplain lakes.

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