The Finnish Environment Institute - Publications archive


The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) is both a research institute, and a centre for environmental expertise. SYKE's research focuses on changes in the environment, and seeks ways to control these changes. The repository contains publications of SYKE as well as the offices preceding it such as the National Board of Waters, The National Board of Waters and the Environment and the Finnish Institute of Marine Research. The repository consists of articles, professional and scientific series and monographs.  Further information: ;

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  • Puntila-Dodd, R.; Bekkevold, D.; Behrens, J. W. (Springer, 2021)
    Hydrobiologia 848: 2
    Species invasions often occur on coasts and estuaries where abiotic conditions vary, e.g. salinity, temperature, runoff etc. Successful establishment and dispersal of non-indigenous species in many such systems are poorly understood, partially since the species tend to show genetic and ecological plasticity at population level towards many abiotic conditions, including salinity tolerance. Plasticity may be driven by shifting expression of heat shock proteins such as Hsp70, which is widely recognized as indicator of physical stress. In this study, we developed a qPCR assay for expression of the hsp70 gene in the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and tested the expression response of fish collected from a brackish environment in the western Baltic Sea to three different salinities, 0, 10 and 30. hsp70 expression was highest in fresh water, indicating higher stress, and lower at brackish (ambient condition for the sampled population) and oceanic salinities, suggestive of low stress response to salinities above the population’s current distribution. The highest stress in fresh water was surprising since populations in fresh water exist, e.g. large European rivers and Laurentian Great Lakes. The results have implications to predictions for the species’ plasticity potential and possible range expansion of the species into other salinity regimes.
  • Asamoah, Benjamin O.; Salmi, Pauliina; Räty, Jukka; Ryymin, Kalle; Talvitie, Julia; Karjalainen, Anna K.; Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.; Roussey, Matthieu; Peiponen, Kai-Erik (MDPI, 2021)
    Polymers 13: 6
    The abundance of microplastics (MPs) in the atmosphere, on land, and especially in water bodies is well acknowledged. In this study, we establish an optical method based on three different techniques, namely, specular reflection to probe the medium, transmission spectroscopy measurements for the detection and identification, and a speckle pattern for monitoring the sedimentation of MPs filtrated from wastewater sludge and suspended in ethanol. We used first Raman measurements to estimate the presence and types of different MPs in wastewater sludge samples. We also used microscopy to identify the shapes of the main MPs. This allowed us to create a teaching set of samples to be characterized with our optical method. With the developed method, we clearly show that MPs from common plastics, such as polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene (PE), are present in wastewater sludge and can be identified. Additionally, the results also indicate that the density of the plastics, which influences the sedimentation, is an essential parameter to consider in optical detection of microplastics in complex natural environments. All of the methods are in good agreement, thus validating the optics-based solution.
  • Lonkila, Annika; Kaljonen, Minna (Springer Netherlands, 2021)
    Agriculture and Human Values 2021
    Increasing concerns for climate change call for radical changes in food systems. There is a need to pay more attention to the entangled changes in technological development, food production, as well as consumption and consumer demand. Consumer and market interest in alternative meat and milk products—such as plant based milk, plant protein products and cultured meat and milk—is increasing. At the same time, statistics do not show a decrease in meat consumption. Yet alternatives have been suggested to have great transitional potential, appealing to different consumer segments, diets, and identities. We review 123 social scientific journal articles on cell-based and plant-based meat and milk alternatives to understand how the positioning of alternatives as both same and different in relation to animal-based products influences their role within the protein transition. We position the existing literature into three themes: (1) promissory narratives and tensions on markets, (2) consumer preferences, attitudes, and behavioral change policies, (3) and the politics and ethics of the alternatives. Based on our analysis of the literature, we suggest that more research is needed to understand the broader ethical impacts of the re-imagination of the food system inherent in meat and milk alternatives. There is also a need to direct more attention to the impacts of meat and milk alternatives to the practices of agricultural practices and food production at the farm-level. A closer examination of these research gaps can contribute to a better understanding of the transformative potential of alternatives on a systemic level.
  • Li, Zhengfei; Heino, Jani; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhenyuan; Meng, Xingliang; Jiang, Xiaoming; Ge, Yihao; Chen, Juanjuan; Xie, Zhicai (Elsevier Science Ireland, 2021)
    Ecological Indicators 121: 107188
    Metacommunity ecology highlights the importance of integrating simultaneously environmental filtering and spatial processes, such as mass effects and dispersal limitation, into investigation of community assembly. However, few studies to date have tried to examine mass effects and dispersal limitation as independent ecological mechanisms along with environmental filtering in shaping biological communities in river networks. We examined the relative importance of three factor groups, i.e., environmental variables, within-river spatial factors (indicative of mass effects) and basin identity (referring to dispersal limitation) on a macroinvertebrate metacommunity and nine trait-based deconstructed sub-metacommunities from seven subtropical rivers. We applied redundancy analysis and variance partitioning to reveal the pure and shared effects of the three groups of factors on community variation. Environmental filtering, mass effects and dispersal limitation were all significant mechanisms affecting variation in macroinvertebrate communities, but their relative importance depended on biological traits. Environmental filtering explained more of the variation in the whole metacommunity, tolerant taxa and macroinvertebrate groups with weak dispersal ability (i.e., aquatic dispersal, aerial passive dispersal and large body size). In contrast, mass effects accounted for more variation in the communities of intolerant taxa and macroinvertebrate groups with strong dispersal ability (i.e., aerial active dispersal mode and medium body size). Dispersal limitation was more influential for sub-communities of moderately tolerant taxa and large-sized taxa. Our study highlights that simultaneously accounting for different spatial processes and using a trait-based approach are essential to improve our understanding of community assembly in river networks.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Parviainen, Tuuli; Rahikainen, Mika; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehikoinen, Annukka (Wiley Periodicals LLC / Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC), 2020)
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 17: 1
    Human activities both depend upon and have consequences on the environment. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is a process of estimating the probability and consequences of the adverse effects of human activities and other stressors on the environment. Bayesian networks (BNs) can synthesize different types of knowledge and explicitly account for the probabilities of different scenarios, therefore offering a useful tool for ERA. Their use in formal ERA practice has not been evaluated, however, despite their increasing popularity in environmental modeling. This paper reviews the use of BNs in ERA based on peer-reviewed publications. Following a systematic mapping protocol, we identified studies in which BNs have been used in an environmental risk context and evaluated the scope, technical aspects, and use of the models and their results. The review shows that BNs have been applied in ERA, particularly in recent years, and that there is room to develop both the model implementation and participatory modeling practices. Based on this review and the authors’ experience, we outline general guidelines and development ideas for using BNs in ERA.
  • Shu, Song; Liu, Hongxing; Beck, Richard A.; Frappart, Frédéric; Korhonen, Johanna; Lan, Minxuan; Xu, Min; Yang, Bo; Huang, Yan (Copernicus Publications / European Geosciences Union, 2021)
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 25:3
    A total of 13 satellite missions have been launched since 1985, with different types of radar altimeters on board. This study intends to make a comprehensive evaluation of historic and currently operational satellite radar altimetry missions for lake water level retrieval over the same set of lakes and to develop a strategy for constructing consistent long-term water level records for inland lakes at global scale. The lake water level estimates produced by different retracking algorithms (retrackers) of the satellite missions were compared with the gauge measurements over 12 lakes in four countries. The performance of each retracker was assessed in terms of the data missing rate, the correlation coefficient r, the bias, and the root mean square error (RMSE) between the altimetry-derived lake water level estimates and the concurrent gauge measurements. The results show that the model-free retrackers (e.g., OCOG/Ice-1/Ice) outperform the model-based retrackers for most of the missions, particularly over small lakes. Among the satellite altimetry missions, Sentinel-3 gave the best results, followed by SARAL. ENVISAT has slightly better lake water level estimates than Jason-1 and Jason-2, but its data missing rate is higher. For small lakes, ERS-1 and ERS-2 missions provided more accurate lake water level estimates than the TOPEX/Poseidon mission. In contrast, for large lakes, TOPEX/Poseidon is a better option due to its lower data missing rate and shorter repeat cycle. GeoSat and GeoSat Follow-On (GFO) both have an extremely high data missing rate of lake water level estimates. Although several contemporary radar altimetry missions provide more accurate lake level estimates than GFO, GeoSat was the sole radar altimetry mission, between 1985 and 1990, that provided the lake water level estimates. With a full consideration of the performance and the operational duration, the best strategy for constructing long-term lake water level records should be a two-step bias correction and normalization procedure. In the first step, use Jason-2 as the initial reference to estimate the systematic biases with TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-3 and then normalize them to form a consistent TOPEX/Poseidon–Jason series. Then, use the TOPEX/Poseidon–Jason series as the reference to estimate and remove systematic biases with other radar altimetry missions to construct consistent long-term lake water level series for ungauged lakes.
  • Komonen, Atte; Puumala, Ilkka; Várkonyi, Gergely; Penttilä, Reijo (Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura, 2021)
    Silva Fennica 55: 1
    According to ecology theory, isolated habitat fragments cannot maintain populations of specialized species. Yet, empirical evidence based on monitoring of the same fragments over time is still limited. We studied the colonization–extinction dynamics of eight wood-decaying fungal species in 16 old-growth forest fragments (<14 ha) over a 20-year period (1997–2017). We observed 19 extinctions and 5 colonizations; yet, the distribution of extinctions and colonizations did not differ from the one expected by chance for any of the species. Twenty-six percent of the extinctions took place in two natural fragments amid large forest–peatland complexes. Phellinus nigrolimitatus (Romell) Bourdot and Galzin decreased and Phellinus ferrugineofuscus (P. Karst.) Bourdot increased in abundance (number of logs occupied). The volume of living spruce trees in the forest fragments correlated positively with the number of logs inhabited in five of the study species. Because fragment characteristics did not affect species turnover, it seems that stochastic processes governed colonizations and extinctions. Although the least abundant species in 1997 had declined, and the most abundant species had become more abundant, it appears that specialized wood-decaying fungi can persist for decades in isolated old-growth forest fragments, if suitable dead wood is continuously available.
  • Primmer, Eeva; Paavola, Jouni (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological economics 184: 107001
    The notion of insurance value of ecosystems has both conceptual and practical appeal. However, the operationalisation of the concept does not yet match the typical assumptions about the governance of ecosystems and ecosystem service provision. The articles in this special section provide the first comprehensive effort to address this challenge by offering conceptualizations and examples of metaphorical, analytical and operational applications of the concept of insurance value. Together with this introduction, the articles exemplify the varied uses of the concept of insurance value and the ways in which it is positioned in relation to governance. This introduction highlights that when designing governance solutions for the provision of insurance value from ecosystems, the state of the ecosystem and the activities through which its insurance value generation will be targeted should be clear. The introduction also highlights the importance of considering the assumptions and framings regarding how insurance value is generated in the ecosystems, through preservation, sustainable use or restoration, or through a combination of these strategies. Because of the distinct analytical and governance implications of these strategies, future research should specifically address the institutional conditions for applying any one of them.
  • Tsering, Tenzin; Sillanpää, Mika; Sillanpää, Markus; Viitala, Mirka; Reinikainen, Satu-Pia (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 789: 147968
    Rivers act as temporary sinks of microplastics and a key medium allowing microplastics to enter the ocean. In this study, microplastics pollution in river shore sediment of the Indian Himalaya, including the Brahmaputra River and the Indus River was discussed. Sampling campaigns were performed in years 2018 and 2019. Sample pretreatment was performed using Na2WO4·2H2O for density separation and H2O2 for oxidation of organic material. Microplastics analysis was performed by using FTIR microscope. The smaller size of microplastics 20–150 μm were more abundant (531–3485 MP/kg in the Brahmaputra River and 525–1752 MP/kg in the Indus River) than microplastics in size range between 150 μm and 5 mm (20–240 MP/kg in the Brahmaputra River and 60–340 MP/kg in the Indus River). Microplastics were found in sediments of all sampling sites. Fragmented, secondary microplastics were dominant in the river shore sediment of the Indian Himalaya. This study contributes towards filling research gap of microplastics in India's freshwater source and highlights the importance of in-depth complete studies of microplastics in the rivers that act as pathways and sinks for microplastics.
  • Forsblom, Louise; Lindén, Andreas; Engström‐Öst, Jonna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Bonsdorff, Erik (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2021)
    Ecology and Evolution 11:9
    Benthic species and communities are linked to pelagic zooplankton through life-stages encompassing both benthic and pelagic habitats and through a mutual dependency on primary producers as a food source. Many zooplankton taxa contribute to the sedimentary system as benthic eggs. Our main aim was to investigate the nature of the population level biotic interactions between and within these two seemingly independent communities, both dependent on the pelagic primary production, while simultaneously accounting for environmental drivers (salinity, temperature, and oxygen conditions). To this end, we applied multivariate autoregressive state-space models to long (1966–2007) time series of annual abundance data, comparing models with and without interspecific interactions, and models with and without environmental variables included. We were not able to detect any direct coupling between sediment-dwelling benthic taxa and pelagic copepods and cladocerans on the annual scale, but the most parsimonious model indicated that interactions within the benthic community are important. There were also positive residual correlations between the copepods and cladocerans potentially reflecting the availability of a shared resource or similar seasonal dependence, whereas both groups tended to correlate negatively with the zoobenthic taxa. The most notable single interaction within the benthic community was a tendency for a negative effect of Limecola balthica on the amphipods Monoporeia affinis and Pontoporeia femorata which can help explain the observed decrease in amphipods due to increased competitive interference.
  • Viskari, Eeva-Liisa; Lehtoranta, Suvi; Malila, Riikka (Sanitation Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 2021)
    Sanitation Value Chain 5:1
  • Alahuhta, Janne; Lindholm, Marja; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; García-Girón, Jorge; Toivanen, Maija; Heino, Jani; Murphy, Kevin (Elsevier, 2021)
    Aquatic Botany 168: 103325
    Broad-scale studies of species distributions and diversity have contributed to the emergence of general macroecological rules. These rules are typically founded on research using well-known terrestrial taxa as models and it is thus uncertain whether aquatic macrophytes follow these macroecological rules. Our purpose is to draw together available information from broad-scale research on aquatic macrophytes growing in lakes, ponds, wetlands, rivers and streams. We summarize how different macroecological rules fit the patterns shown by freshwater plants at various spatial scales. Finally, we outline future actions which should be taken to advance macroecological research on freshwater plants. Our review suggested that some macroecological patterns are relatively well-evidenced for aquatic macrophytes, whereas little information exists for others. We found, for example, that the species richness-latitude relationship follows a unimodal pattern, and species turnover prevails over species nestedness, whereas higher nestedness-related richness differences are found in low beta diversity regions. Contrary to terrestrial plants, climate or history seem not to be dominant determinants explaining these broad-scale patterns; instead local explanatory variables (e.g., water quality, such as alkalinity and nutrients, and hydromorphology) are often important for freshwater plants. We identified several knowledge gaps related, for example, to a smaller number of studies in lotic habitats, compared with lentic habitats, lack of spatially-adequate aquatic plant studies, deficiency of comprehensive species traits databases for aquatic macrophytes, and absence of a true phylogeny comprising most freshwater plant lineages. We hope this review will encourage the undertaking of additional macroecological investigations on freshwater plants across broad spatial and temporal scales.
  • Miljand, Matilda; Bjärstig, Therese; Eckerberg, Katarina; Primmer, Eeva; Sandström, Camilla (Elsevier, 2021)
    Forest Policy and Economics 128: 102457
    There is increasing political interest in the use of voluntary agreements (VA) as a policy instrument. The attraction has grown also in environmental policy, VAs are expected to be less costly, more effective and more cost-efficient than regulation. Using a realist review methodology, our analysis focuses on the effect of contextual factors and mechanisms on private forest owners' willingness to enter into formal voluntary nature conservation agreements. The framework we use to analyse the effects includes: forest owner characteristics, forest attributes, institutional context and process, advisors and other forest owners, and contract design, for contextual factors – and economic attitudes, environmental attitudes, sense of autonomy, sense of justice and fairness, trust as well as knowledge, for mechanisms. The analysis allowed merging findings from different types of VAs in varying contexts in a systematized way, and consolidating evidence of how the mechanisms influence the programme implementation process, and its outcome. 43 reviewed articles, from an originally retrieved set of 2231 papers, provide evidence for environmental attitudes supporting willingness to enter into an agreement. Environmental attitudes are strengthened by forest owners' wishes to protect a heritage, suggesting considerable influence through personal, emotional attachment to the forest. This finding shows the central role played by sense of autonomy, with economic compensation also importantly affecting the willingness to enter a VA. Along with these results, the developed comprehensive analytical framework shows how VAs can become more effective if tailored for different contexts and types of forest owners.
  • Unknown author (2020)
  • Unknown author (2020)
  • Ala-Aho, P; Autio, A; Bhattacharjee, J; Isokangas, E; Kujala, K; Marttila, H; Menberu, M; Meriö, L-J; Postila, H; Rauhala, A; Ronkanen, A-K; Rossi, P. M.; Saari, M; Torabi Haghighi, A; Kløve, B (Institute of Physics and IOP Publishing, 2021)
    Research Letters 16: 043008
    The influence of seasonally frozen ground (SFG) on water, energy, and solute fluxes is important in cold climate regions. The hydrological role of permafrost is now being actively researched, but the influence of SFG has received less attention. Intuitively, SFG restricts (snowmelt) infiltration, thereby enhancing surface runoff and decreasing soil water replenishment and groundwater recharge. However, the reported hydrological effects of SFG remain contradictory and appear to be highly site- and event-specific. There is a clear knowledge gap concerning under what physiographical and climate conditions SFG is more likely to influence hydrological fluxes. We addressed this knowledge gap by systematically reviewing published work examining the role of SFG in hydrological partitioning. We collected data on environmental variables influencing the SFG regime across different climates, land covers, and measurement scales, along with the main conclusion about the SFG influence on the studied hydrological flux. The compiled dataset allowed us to draw conclusions that extended beyond individual site investigations. Our key findings were: (a) an obvious hydrological influence of SFG at small-scale, but a more variable hydrological response with increasing scale of measurement, and (b) indication that cold climate with deep snow and forest land cover may be related to reduced importance of SFG in hydrological partitioning. It is thus increasingly important to understand the hydrological repercussions of SFG in a warming climate, where permafrost is transitioning to seasonally frozen conditions.
  • Canals, Miquel; Pham, Christopher K.; Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Hanke, Georg; van Sebille, Erik; Angiolillo, Michela; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Cau, Alessando; Ioakeimidis, Christos; Kammann, Ulrike; Lundsten, Lonny; Papatheodorou, George; Purser, Autun; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Schulz, Marcus; Vinci, Matteo; Chiba, Sanae; Langenkämper, Daniel; Möller, Tiia; Nattkemper, Tim W.; Ruiz, Marta; Suikkanen, Sanna; Woodall, Lucy; Fakiris, Elias; Eugenia, Maria; Jack, Molina; Giorgetti, Alessandra (IOP Publishing, 2021)
    Environmental Research Letters 16: 023001
    The seafloor covers some 70% of the Earth’s surface and has been recognised as a major sink for marine litter. Still, litter on the seafloor is the least investigated fraction of marine litter, which is not surprising as most of it lies in the deep sea, i.e. the least explored ecosystem. Although marine litter is considered a major threat for the oceans, monitoring frameworks are still being set up. This paper reviews current knowledge and methods, identifies existing needs, and points to future developments that are required to address the estimation of seafloor macrolitter. It provides background knowledge and conveys the views and thoughts of scientific experts on seafloor marine litter offering a review of monitoring and ocean modelling techniques. Knowledge gaps that need to be tackled, data needs for modelling, and data comparability and harmonisation are also discussed. In addition, it shows how research on seafloor macrolitter can inform international protection and conservation frameworks to prioritise efforts and measures against marine litter and its deleterious impacts.
  • Sorvari, Jaana; Heinonen, Tero (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2021)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 32/2021
    Muovien aiheuttamat ympäristövaikutukset ja etenkin meriin päätyvä muoviroska ovat globaali ongelma, jota pyritään ratkaisemaan useiden ohjauskeinojen avulla. EU:n kertakäyttömuovidirektiivi eli ns. SUP-direktiivi (2019/904/EU) pyrkii rajoittamaan eräiden kertakäyttömuovituotteiden markkinointia ja kulutusta. SUP-direktiivin 4 artikla edellyttää jäsenmaita ottamaan käyttöön toimia, joilla saadaan aikaan elintarvikkeiden pakkauksissa käytettyjen muovituotteiden kuten juomamukien (ml. korkit ja kannet) ja välittömästi syötäväksi tarkoitettujen elintarvikkeiden pakkausten ”kunnianhimoinen ja pysyvä kulutuksen väheneminen”. Jäsenmaat voivat itse määritellä tarvittavat toimet. Tässä raportissa esitetään tulokset hankkeesta, jossa tunnistettiin ja arvioitiin toimia, jotka voitaisiin toteuttaa Suomessa. Hanke toteutettiin kolmivaiheisena. Ensimmäisessä vaiheessa tiedusteltiin sähköpostitse eräiden EU-maiden toteuttamista ja suunnitelluista toimista 4 artiklan toimeenpanemiseksi. Tietoa mahdollisista kulutuksen vähentämistoimista etsittiin myös kirjallisuudesta. Vaiheessa 2 selvitettiin Webropol-kyselyllä kotimaisten sidosryhmien näkemyksiä tunnistetuista ohjauskeinoista ja kerättiin kirjallisuudesta ja internetistä tietoa vaihtoehtoisista materiaaleista ja tuotteista. Vaiheessa 3 tehtiin täydentäviä asiantuntijahaastatteluja. Näiden, Webropol-kyselyjen vastausten, tieteellisten artikkelien ja raporttien (etenkin elinkaariarviointien) sekä lainsäädännön vaikutusarviointia varten annettujen ohjeiden perusteella arvioitiin vähentämistoimien vaikuttavuutta SUP-direktiivin tavoitteiden ja mm. ruoan elinkaaren aikaisen hävikin minimoinnin kannalta sekä vaikutuksia (ympäristö, kustannukset, muut) ja toteuttamiskelpoisuutta. Työvaiheessa 3 tarkasteltiin myös mahdollisuutta asettaa kansallisesti määrällinen, Plastics Pact- sitoumuksen mukainen 20 prosentin kulutuksen vähenemistavoite. Arvioinnin perusteella kielto, myyjään kohdistuva ensisijaisuusvelvoite ja ecodesign osoittautuivat vaikuttavuudeltaan parhaimmiksi keinoiksi vähentää kertakäyttömuovituotteiden kulutusta. Vaikutusten kannalta parhaita vaihtoehtoja olisivat kaksi viime mainittua ja ympäristömerkintä, ja toteuttamiskelpoisimpia julkisten hankintojen kriteeristö, ympäristömerkintä ja ensisijaisuusvelvoite. Ensisijaisuusvelvoite nousi kaikki arviointikriteerit huomioiden parhaimmaksi vaihtoehdoksi. Tarkastellun 20 prosentin kulutuksen vähenemisen arvioitiin toteutuvan ainakin noutoruokaa myyvissä anniskelupaikoissa, kun rajoitettaisiin kertakäyttöpakkausten käyttö vain mukaan otettaviin aterioihin ja juomiin. Muovisten kertakäyttöpakkausten kulutusta voidaan käytännössä vähentää korvaamalla ne muista materiaaleista valmistetuilla kertakäyttötuotteilla tai kestotuotteilla. Raaka-aineiden ohella myös tuotteiden valmistusprosessit ovat erilaisia. Tiedossa ei ollut, minkälaisilla tuotteilla kertakäyttöiset muovituotteet käytännössä korvattaisiin. Lisäksi ympäristövaikutusten arvioinnissa aineistona käytettyjen elinkaariarviointien menetelmät, rajaukset ja lähtötiedot vaihtelivat, eivätkä tarkastellut tuotteetkaan olleet täysin samanlaisia. Elinkaariarviointien tulokset eivät siten ole keskenään suoraan vertailukelpoisia. Nämä seikat aiheuttivat epävarmuutta vähentämistoimien arvioinnin tuloksiin. Suurin epävarmuustekijä oli epäselvyys siitä, mitkä tuotteet ylipäätään katsotaan kuuluviksi SUP-direktiivin 4 artiklan piiriin. Suomessa ei ole tietoa muovia sisältävien kertakäyttötuotteiden tai niiden sisältämän muovin määristä. Nämä tiedot ovat avainasemassa vähentämistoimien vaikutusten ja vaikuttavuuden arvioinnissa. Määrätietoja tarvitaan myös kulutuksen vähenemisen lähtötason määrittelyssä ja sen toteutumisen seurannassa, ja niitä voitaisiin kerätä jätejakeiden tutkimuksista, tukkuliikkeiltä, valmistajilta ja maahantuojilta, kuluttajakyselyillä tai tuottajavastuun mukaisen raportoinnin yhteydessä. Komissio tulee kuitenkin määrittelemään käytettävät seurantamenetelmät.
  • Primmer, Eeva; Varumo, Liisa; Krause, Torsten; Orsi, Francesco; Geneletti, Davide; Brogaard, Sara; Aukes, Ewert; Ciolli, Marco; Grossman, Carol; Hernández-Morcillo, Mónica; Kister, Jutta; Kluvánková, Tatiana; Loft, Lasse; Maier, Carolin; Meyer, Claas; Schleyer, Christian; Spacek, Martin; Mann, Carsten (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecosystem Services 47: 101225
    There has been a strong quest for mapping and assessing ecosystem services (ES) to support governance. Yet, the institutional landscape that governs ES provision across multiple contexts has received less attention. We fill this research gap by developing and operationalising a framework for the analysis of policy documents that address European forest ES provision. By coding and analysing references to forest ES as well as innovations and governance mechanisms addressing these ES in national strategies on forest, biodiversity and bioeconomy, we map the institutional landscape of forest ES provision in Europe. We further analyse how biophysical supply of forest ES is connected to policies paying attention to ES and identifying innovations and governance for their provision. Innovations identified in policies centre around value chains of wood and bioenergy or biodiversity conservation, while non-wood forest products, cultural heritage, and recreation receive little attention. Biophysical supply of provisioning ES is connected to policies emphasising many innovations, while little supply of regulating ES could trigger service innovations and several new governance mechanisms. As forest ecosystems have received much attention in global, European and national sustainability policies, our institutional mapping illustrates that there is room for more use of innovations in promoting ES provision.

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