Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 281-300 of 2948
  • Carter, Timothy R.; Jylhä, Kirsti; Perrels, Adriaan; Fronzek, Stefan; Kankaanpää, Susanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2005)
    A set of three scenarios of environmental and socio-economic conditions in Finland during the 21st century is presented. The scenarios were developed to provide a contextual framework for research into adaptation to climate change in the FINADAPT project. They have similarities to the IPCC SRES global scenarios, but they also differ from SRES because they are national in scope and they account for climate policy. The scenarios are labelled: Global Markets, assuming low greenhouse gas levels, high economic growth with rapid technological development (related to SRES A1T); Sustainability, assuming low greenhouse gas levels, sustainability goals with slower economic growth than Global Markets and rapid technological development (related to SRES B1); and Retrenchment, assuming high global greenhouse gas emissions, a world in blocs with unbalanced wealth, rapid population growth and obstacles to technological proliferation and trade (related to SRES A2). The scenarios span four time frames (climatological averaging periods in brackets): present-day (1971-2000), near-term (1991-2020), mid-term (2021-2050), and long-term (2071-2100), and the requirements for adaptation are then treated as if they apply in 2005 (present-day), 2020, 2050 and 2100. Quantitative scenario information on socio-economic development, climate, CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition and land use change has been provided, with detailed data available from the FINADAPT web site or from relevant partner institutes.
  • Tohka, Antti; Karvosenoja, Niko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
  • Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the atmosphere have been associated with severe human health effects. This report explores future emissions of primary PM2.5, their reduction potential and related reduction costs in Finland. One activity pathway of 2020 of the Finnish Climate Strategy was studied with two different PM emission control utilization scenarios: (1) "Baseline" which involves PM control technology utilization complying with current legislation, and (2) "Reduction" which assumes the use of maximum technically and economically feasible emission reduction measures. The studied sectors included stationary combustion and industrial activities. The work was performed using the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model of Finnish environment institute (SYKE). Total emission reduction potential below "Baseline" was estimated at 6.7 Gg(PM2.5) a-1, or 22% of the total emissions. The biggest relatively cost-efficient reductions (marginal cost below 5000 € Mg-1) can be achieved by the use of small electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in domestic wood log boilers, 2.0 Gg a-1. In large-scale combustion installations in power plants and industry the reduction of 1.2 Gg a-1 is possible by fabric filter installations instead of ESPs. A comparable reduction with slightly higher costs can be achieved in small (below 5 MWth) industrial boilers by the introduction of ESPs. For industrial processes potential occurs in few individual plants. The uncertainties in emission reduction and cost estimates are biggest for domestic combustion and industrial processes. This report presents cost-efficiency estimates of future emission reductions per mass of PM2.5 reduced. However, the magnitude of health benefits gained from emission reductions are different for different emission sources, depending on e.g. the altitude of emission release, the emission location in relation to the location of population etc. The results of this study are used in the integrated assessment modeling framework developed in the KOPRA project in order to link the information of emission reductions and costs, atmospheric dispersion and induced health impacts.
  • Lindholm, Arto (Ministry of the Environment, 2002)
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Heikkilä, Raimo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    Finland - Land of mires is a textbook on mires and their ecology in Finland. Totally 27 separate articles of different topics are included in the book. The items dealt with in the book are the following: 1. Unsettled weather and climate of Finland. 2. Climate of Finland and its effect on mires. 3. Bedrock in Finland and its infl uence on vegetation. 4. The landforms of Finland. 5. Glacial and postglacial history of the Baltic Sea and Finland. 6. Postglacial history of Finnish inland waters. 7. Lake and river systems in Finland. 8. Interglacial and interstadial organic deposits in Finland. 9. Mire development history in Finland. 10. Regional distribution of peat increment in Finland. 11. Geobotany of Finnish forests and mires: the Finnish approach. 12. Ecohydrology of Finnish mires. 13. Ecological gradients as the basis of Finnish mire site types. 14. Mire plant species and their ecology in Finland. 15. Land uplift phenomenon and its effects on mire vegetation. 16. Palsa mires in Finland. 17. Cultural land use history in Finland. 18. The use of mires for agriculture and forestry. 19. Destruction of mires in Finland. 20. Environmental impacts of mire utilization. 21. Peatlands and global change - the Finnish case. 22. Ecosystem services provided by Finnish mires. 23. Mire conservation and its short history in Finland. 24. Ramsar areas in Finland. 25. Land birds in Finnish mires and their conservation status. 26. A short introduction to the Finnish language. 27. Etymology of some Finnish words for mire.
  • Hanhijärvi, Johanna; Yliskylä-Peuralahti, Johanna (Miljöministeriet, 2006)
    Bedömningsdelen i Finlands kuststrategi har utarbetats i enlighet med EU:s rekommendation om kustområden som en bakgrundsutredning till strategin. Bedömningsdelen behandlar de finländska kustområdenas tillstånd och deras viktigaste aktörer samt styrmedel för förvaltning av kustområden i ljuset av de i rekommendationen presenterade principerna och det strategiska betraktelsesättet. Utmaningar för en hållbar användning av kustområden är bland annat den ökade användningen av kustområdet, försämringen i miljöns tillstånd, de minskande möjligheterna till näringsutövande, olycksriskerna från den ökande trafiken samt förebyggandet av klimatförändringens effekter. En hållbar kustområdesförvaltning försvåras av motstridiga administrativa mål, aktörernas olika intressen, många olika tillvägagångssätt och bristen på information. Även om det finns bra enstaka styrmedel, måste man utveckla instrument som gör det möjligt att betrakta kustområdet som en enhetlig helhet. Det behövs en integrerande och övergripande synvinkel för att utveckla kustområdets livskraft och bevara dess mångfald.
  • Ministry of the Environment (Ministry of the Environment, 2002)
  • Wilén, Carl; Salokoski, Pia; Kurkela, Esa; Sipilä, Kai (Finnish Environment Institute, 2004)
  • Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Unknown author (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
  • Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Fugleberg, Sigmund (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Oinonen, Teemu (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2003)
  • Oinonen, Teemu (Finnish Environment Institute, 2004)
    Year 2002 was exceptional in the history of Finnish HFC, PFC and SF6 (F-gases for short) use. For the first time in a 10 year period, emissions fell from previous year. High uncertainty of the 2001 estimate prevents reliable quantification of the magnitude of this decrease, but simulation results suggest that the decrease may have been around 10%. The 2002 level of F-gases emissions was 530 Gg CO2-equivalent. This figure corresponds to 0.6% of total Finnish greenhouse gas emissions. The inventory of F-gases was improved in 2003 by extending the coverage of the survey used to gather data. The number of respondents surveyed was quadrupled to some 1 000 individuals, and more than 750 of these responded. This improvement had an effect of bringing down the inventory uncertainty (measured by the width of the 95 % certainty range) from 400 Gg CO2-eq. in 2001 to 140 Gg CO2-eq. in 2002.Best efforts were made to ensure the accuracy, transparency, consistency, completeness and comparability of the inventory, as mandated in the guidelines of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Although reporting to the UNFCCC is the primary purpose of this document, it is hoped that the information contained within is of use also in formulating strategies to combat climate change both in Finland and in European Union.
  • Silvenius, Frans; Grönroos, Juha (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2003)
  • Hudd, Richard; Hildèn, Mikael; Urho, Lauri; Axell, Maj-Britt; Jåfs, Lili-Ann (Vesihallitus, 1094)