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  • Lääne, Ain; Pitkänen, Heikki; Arheimer, Berit; Behrendt, Horst; Jarosinski, Waldemar; Lucane, Sarmite; Pachel, Karin; Räike, Antti; Shekhovtsov, Alexander; Svendsen, Lars M.; Valatka, Simonas (Finnish Environment Institute, 2002)
    The Finnish Environment 524
  • Juvonen, Sanna-Kaisa; Kuhmonen, Anna (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 37/2013
    In this report, results of a regional evaluation on protected areas in the Barents Region are presented. The evaluation was made using the Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) of the Convention on Biological Diversity as a framework. The Convention on Biological Diversity aims to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020. The work was done as a part of the Barents Protected Area Network (BPAN) project by national and regional authorities, scientific institutes and nature conservation nongovernmental organisations from Norway, Sweden, Finland and northwest Russia. The aim of the project is to promote the establishment of a representative protected area network in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region to conserve biodiversity of boreal and arctic nature, particularly forests and wetlands. The PoWPA national reporting framework was modified and simplified to make it more suitable to be used as a tool for analysis of the protected area network in the Barents Region. It was used especially to see in which PoWPA goals and targets the Barents Region as a whole had made progress, and in which there was need for further work, and thus make recommendations for future actions in the Region. This enabled also the individual regions to assess in which goals and targets their region had made progress and in which there was need for further development. The reporting framework also provided a common language for interregional discussions and comparisons. A network of existing and planned protected areas is under development in the Barents Region. New protected areas have been established in recent years. However, strong efforts are still needed for strengthening the network of protected areas in order to reach the internationally agreed Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari; Mela, Hanna (Suomen ympäristökeskus (SYKE) & Ilmastonmuutoksen viestintäohjelma, 2006)
  • Lähteenmäki, Heini; Rotko, Pia (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2005)
    Ympäristöopas 125
    Hyvin toimiva viestintä ja vuorovaikutus edesauttavat monella tapaa hankkeen onnistumista. Siksi onkin tärkeää, että viestinnän suunnittelu on hankeen osana jo varhaisessa vaiheessa hankkeen käynnistyessä. Oppaassa esitetty viestintäsuunnitelman runko toimii apuna viestinnän kehittämisessä sekä ohjaa suunnitelmalliseen ja monipuoliseen viestinnän hyödyntämiseen vesistön kunnostuksen tai säännöstelyn kehittämisen tukena. Oppaaseen on koottu tietoa vuorovaikutteisen suunnittelun menetelmistä, joiden avulla yhteisten toimintalinjojen luominen helpottuu ja ristiriitojen syntymisen riskit pienenevät, sekä sosiaalisen pääoman merkityksestä vuorovaikutuksen vahvistajana ja hankkeen jatkuvuuden tukijana. Siinä on myös pohdittu maineen ja mielikuvien roolia vesistöjen kunnostuksessa ja säännöstelyssä. Viestinnän onnistumisen kannalta on tärkeää huomioida mielikuvien vastaanottajakeskeisyys ja sen mukanaan tuomat haasteet ja mahdollisuudet. Vesistön maineen kannalta tärkeä vaikuttaja, lehtiuutisointi ja sen hyödyntäminen vesistöhankkeissa on myös huomioitu oppaassa. Opas palvelee viestinnän ja vuorovaikutuksen edistämisestä kiinnostuneita vesistöjen kunnostajia ja säännöstelyn luvanhaltijoita sekä kunnostamisen ja säännöstelyn parissa työskenteleviä ympäristöviranomaisia.
  • Kettunen, Juhani; Leonov, Alexander V.; Varis, Olli (The National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the water and environment research institute 3, pp. 48-54
  • Furman, Eeva; Kivimaa, Paula; Kuuppo, Pirjo; Nykänen, Marja; Väänänen, Paula; Mela, Hanna; Korpinen, Päivi (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 43/2006
    The ERA-NET scheme, which is designed to support the networking of national research funding organisations, is among the means of the European Union to create an integrated European Research Area for innovative knowledge production. The SKEP ERA-NET aims at improving the co-ordination of environmental research, including among other things the management and assessment of research programmes. This report documents and analyses the practices of research programme planning and management in the EU and highlights some of the best practices available in environment-related research. Information on research programme management of thirtyseven case programmes of eight countries was collected through a questionnaire survey. In addition, interviews considering research programme management in seven countries and workshop discussions among twenty-one representatives from nine countries were used to gain comprehensive insight examples. There is a great deal of variation in countries' experience in programme management. Based on the country experiences from the study, readers are provided with set procedures and practices for the research programme management.The variety of funding structures and governance cultures, however, requires flexibility in implementing the recommended procedures, and the recommendations of the report should be interpreted in such a way. Working with stakeholders is an example of culture-dependent practice. Careful but flexible planning is needed despite the culture and context. Therefore, the report recommends that objectives and goals should be developed on the subject of the research programme but also for more general issues such as dissemination,  evaluation and gender. A core management team is seen as the crucial operational tool of programme management and should thus be carefully planned to serve the programme. Evaluation finally reveals how well the programme has succeeded, also from the management point of view. For the sake of continuity it is crucial that the lessons learned be translated to future programmes which aim to contribute to innovative European knowledge production.
  • Kautto, Petrus; Kärnä, Anna (Ministry of the Environment, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 35/2006
    New environmental product policy measures (RoHS, WEEE and EuP directives), targeted to the products of electrical and electronics industry, are entering into force during 2005-2007. This report raises key questions that companies have confronted in anticipating and interpreting these new requirements in their operations, focusing especially on changes needed in product development and supply chain management. The report reveals that the work needed in companies to comply with the new requirements may begin years before the requirements enter into force, and it may take different forms. Depending on the resources companies possess, this work can vary from influencing the actual contents of the new regulation being developed to adjusting to new requirements and incorporating them into different company operations (product development, manufacturing, sourcing etc.). Two Finnish company cases are reported. The first describes how Vaisala Oyj is implementing RoHS requirements together with its key suppliers. The second case assesses the Commission’s Integrated Product Policy pilot exercise on mobile phones, which was lead by Nokia Oyj during 2005. The report provides companies with useful information about practical experiences of proactive companies in environmental policy implementation, and policy makers with information for the assessment and future steering of environmental product policy in the European Union. This report is the final report of the YPSE research project, which was carried out during 2004-2005. It was financed by the Finnish Environment Cluster Program by the Ministry of the Environment and Technology Industries of Finland. The aim of the project was to assess how companies in the electrical and electronics industry “interpret” and negotiate with each other (and with environmental authorities) the contents of these new requirements, which are still to some extent unclear. It has been of interest what kinds of changes the new requirements create in products and what kinds of operational practices evolve in the industry, for example in the area of material data management.
  • Kocharian, Andrey; Gekov, Valentin; Malyutin, Alexander; Lapin, Igor (The National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the water and environment research institute 3, pp. 33-39
  • Mattsson, Tuija (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 36
    The terrestrial export of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is associated with climate, vegetation and land use, and thus is under the influence of climatic variability and human interference with terrestrial ecosystems, their soils and hydrological cycles. The present study provides an assessment of spatial variation of DOM concentrations and export, and interactions between DOM, catchment characteristics, land use and climatic factors in boreal catchments. The influence of catchment characteristics, land use and climatic drivers on the concentrations and export of total organic carbon (TOC), total organic nitrogen (TON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) was estimated using stream water quality, forest inventory and climatic data from 42 Finnish pristine forested headwater catchments, and water quality monitoring, GIS land use, forest inventory and climatic data from the 36 main Finnish rivers (and their sub-catchments) flowing to the Baltic Sea. Moreover, the export of DOM in relation to land use along a European climatic gradient was studied using river water quality and land use data from four European areas. Additionally, the role of organic and minerogenic acidity in controlling pH levels in Finnish rivers and pristine streams was studied by measuring organic anion, sulphate (SO4) and base cation (Ca, Mg, K and Na) concentrations. In all study catchments, TOC was a major fraction of DOM, with much lower proportions of TON and DOP. Moreover, most of TOC and TON was in a dissolved form. The correlation between TOC and TON concentrations was strong and TOC concentrations explained 78% of the variation in TON concentrations in pristine headwater streams. In a subgroup of 20 headwater catchments with similar climatic conditions and low N deposition in eastern Finland, the proportion of peatlands in the catchment and the proportion of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karsten) of the tree stand had the strongest correlation with the TOC and TON concentrations and export. In Finnish river basins, TOC export increased with the increasing proportion of peatland in the catchment, whereas TON export increased with increasing extent of agricultural land. The highest DOP concentrations and export were recorded in river basins with a high extent of agricultural land and urban areas, reflecting the influence of human impact on DOP loads. However, the most important predictor for TOC, TON and DOP export in Finnish rivers was the proportion of upstream lakes in the catchment. The higher the upstream lake percentage, the lower the export, indicating organic matter retention in lakes. Molar TOC:TON ratio decreased from headwater catchments covered by forests and peatlands to the large river basins with mixed land use, emphasising the effect of the land use gradient on the stoichiometry of rivers. This study also demonstrated that the land use of the catchments is related to both organic and minerogenic acidity in rivers and pristine headwater streams. Organic anion dominated in rivers and streams situated in northern Finland, reflecting the higher extent of peatlands in these areas, whereas SO4 dominated in southern Finland and on western coastal areas, where the extent of fertile areas, agricultural land, urban areas, acid sulphate soils, and sulphate deposition is highest. High TOC concentrations decreased pH values in the stream and river water, whereas no correlation between SO4 concentrations and pH was observed. This underlines the importance of organic acids in controlling pH levels in Finnish pristine headwater streams and main rivers. High SO4 concentrations were associated with high base cation concentrations and fertile areas, which buffered the effects of SO4 on pH.
  • Hiidenheimo, Heikki (Vesihallitus, 1976)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 17
  • Peltonen, Lasse; Haanpää, Simo; Lehtonen, Samuli (Ympäristöministeriö, 2006)
    Suomen ympäristö 22/2006
    Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin yhdyskuntasuunnittelun ja tulvariskien hallinnan välisiä yhteyksiä kunnissa. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kartoittaa tähän liittyviä mahdollisuuksia, asenteita, ohjauskeinoja ja toimintatapoja sekä tarkastella tulvakysymyksiin liittyvää toimijoiden välistä yhteistyötä ja mahdollisia ristiriitoja. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin sähköpostikyselyllä, joka suunnattiin suurtulvatyöryhmän (2003) nimeämiin, merkittävimmillä tulvavahinkoalueilla sijaitseviin kuntiin. Kyselyaineistoa täydensivät ryhmähaastattelut. Tutkimuksen tuloksena voidaan todeta, että tulvariskien huomioiminen yhdyskuntasuunnittelussa jää kauaksi suurtulvatyöryhmän esittämästä tasosta. Tulvariskiä lisäävät kuntien rakentamispaineet sekä ranta-rakentamisen suuri suosio. Tulvariskien huomioimista vaikeuttavat lisäksi maankäytön suunnitteluun liittyvät ristiriidat. Tiedon taso tulvariskeistä vaihtelee kunnissa. Tietoa harvinaisista (HW 1/100) tulvatilanteista on kunnissa hyvin vähän. Ilmastonmuutoksen uhka otetaan todesta, mutta se ei ole vielä vaikuttanut tulvariskien uudelleenarviointiin. Tulvat huomioidaan paremmin asemakaavoituksessa kuin yleispiirteisissä kaavoissa. Ongelmana on, että koko vesistöalueen kattava tulvasuojelu vaatii kuntarajat ylittävää yhteistyötä. Maakuntakaavassa tulvariskien huomioiminen on kaikkein heikointa. Kaiken kaikkiaan kuntien valmiudet vaihtelevat, mikä korostaa alueellisten ympäristö-keskusten roolia tulvariskien hallinnassa. Alueellisten ympäristö-keskuksia pidetään kunnissa keskeisinä yhteistyökumppaneina tulvariskien hallinnassa ja yhteistyö ympäristökeskusten kanssa koetaan toimivaksi. Raportti on osa EXTREFLOOD –hanketta (EXTREFLOOD: Tulvavahinkojen ennaltaehkäisy – suurtulvien mallinnus, tulvaskenaariot ja tulvatiedon interaktiivinen välittäminen), jota ovat rahoittaneet maa- ja metsätalousministeriö ja ympäristöministeriön ympäristöklusterin tutkimusohjelma vuosina 2003-2005. Raportin loppuun on koottu aiheeseen liittyviä jatkotutkimustarpeita.
  • Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina (Finnish Environment Institute, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 8
  • Niemi, Maarit (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1985)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 64
    Fekaali indikaattoribakteerit sisävesien kirjolohen kasvatuslaitoksilla
  • Rönkä, Esa; Suokko, Tuulikki (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2004)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen moniste 303
  • Unknown author (Merentutkimuslaitos, 1987)
    Meri 15
  • Leivuori, Mirja; Näykki, Teemu; Leito, Ivo; Helm, Irja; Jalukse, Lauri; Kaukonen, Lari; Hänninen, Panu; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Finnish Environment Institute, 2014)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 24/2014
    In the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project ENV05 OCEAN (Metrology for ocean salinity and acidity), the dissolved oxygen field (in situ) intercomparison (FieldOxy 2014) test was organized onboard R/V Aranda on April 23, 2014 in the Gulf of Finland. The aim of the intercomparison was to enable the participants to assess their performance in measuring dissolved oxygen concentration in seawater under field conditions. The intercomparison measurement was organized jointly by the Finnish Environment Institute (Proftest SYKE. Envical SYKE) and University of Tartu. Total of 21 participants from 10 institutes in Finland, Estonia, France, Germany and Sweden participated in the intercomparison. Totally, 13-18 oxygen sensors were tested depending of the test depth. Additionally, six Winkler titrimetric setups participated in the intercomparison. The metrologically traceable Winkler titration result (the assigned value) was measured by the Winkler setup of University of Tartu onboard R/V Aranda. In total, 88 % of the results were satisfactory when total deviation of 8 % from the assigned values were accepted. Only three results were questionable and five results were unsatisfactory. A possible reason for several of the unsatisfactory results might be problems with calibration of electrochemical oxygen sensors. The movement of the water during the PT may have been insufficient for the electrochemical sensors, which may have resulted biased measurement results. Overall the share of satisfactory results was very good.
  • Olsonen, Riitta (Merentutkimuslaitos, 2007)
    Meri 59
  • Olsonen, Riitta (Merentutkimuslaitos, 2008)
    Meri 62
  • Carter, Timothy R.; Jylhä, Kirsti; Perrels, Adriaan; Fronzek, Stefan; Kankaanpää, Susanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2005)
    Finnish Environment Institute Mimeographs 332 (Suomen ympäristökeskuksen moniste 332)
    A set of three scenarios of environmental and socio-economic conditions in Finland during the 21st century is presented. The scenarios were developed to provide a contextual framework for research into adaptation to climate change in the FINADAPT project. They have similarities to the IPCC SRES global scenarios, but they also differ from SRES because they are national in scope and they account for climate policy. The scenarios are labelled: Global Markets, assuming low greenhouse gas levels, high economic growth with rapid technological development (related to SRES A1T); Sustainability, assuming low greenhouse gas levels, sustainability goals with slower economic growth than Global Markets and rapid technological development (related to SRES B1); and Retrenchment, assuming high global greenhouse gas emissions, a world in blocs with unbalanced wealth, rapid population growth and obstacles to technological proliferation and trade (related to SRES A2). The scenarios span four time frames (climatological averaging periods in brackets): present-day (1971-2000), near-term (1991-2020), mid-term (2021-2050), and long-term (2071-2100), and the requirements for adaptation are then treated as if they apply in 2005 (present-day), 2020, 2050 and 2100. Quantitative scenario information on socio-economic development, climate, CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition and land use change has been provided, with detailed data available from the FINADAPT web site or from relevant partner institutes.