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  • Heinonen, Pertti; Kettunen, Ilppo (Vesihallitus, 1972)
    Vesihallitus. Tiedotus 16
  • Kriteerityöryhmä (Ympäristöministeriö, 2003)
    Suomen ympäristö 634
  • Ikonen, Iiro; Hagelberg, Eija (Lounais-Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristö 9/2008
    Lounais-Suomen ympäristökeskuksen vetämän Interreg IIIA ”Ruovikkostrategia Suomessa ja Virossa” –projektin tavoitteena oli löytää tasapainostrategia ruovikoiden hyödyntämisen, säilyttämisen ja merenrantaniityiksi peruskunnostamisen välillä pilottialueilla. Etelä-Suomen yleissuunnittelun pilottialueet olivat Halikonlahti (Salon ja Halikon alueella) ja Turun kaupunki. Rannikkoalueidemme ruovikot ovat lisääntynyt voimakkaasti viime vuosikymmeninä. Etelä-Suomen rannikko-alueen noin 30 000 hehtaarista (ei sisävesiä) arviolta 12 500 hehtaaria soveltuisi hyödynnettäväksi bioenergiaksi ja rakennuskäyttöön ja 7500 hehtaaria tulisi peruskunnostaa merenrantaniityiksi. Ruovikoiden hyödyntäminen hyvin suunniteltuna edistää luonnon monimuotoisuutta, vesiensuojelua, ilmansuojelua ja alueiden virkistyskäyttömahdollisuuksia. Tämän tilanteen saavuttaminen on ruovikkostrategian keskeinen päämäärä. Pilottialueilla käytettyä yleissuunnittelumallia tulisi kopioida laajemmin Etelä-Suomen rannikkoalueille samalla käynnistäen ruovikoiden korjuuketjuja. Lisäksi korjuumenetelmiä tulee samanaikaisesti vielä kehittää ja verkostoitumista lisätä. Onnistuneiden korjuuketjujen ja hyödyntämisen tuloksena voitaisiin soveltuvilla korjuuketjualueilla ottaa käyttöön uusi kansallinen rahoituskeino: ruovikon korjuutuki. Arvokkaimpien alueiden hoidon vaikutusten seurantaa tulee kehittää. Julkaisussa on esitetty Etelä-Suomen osalta toimenpideohjelma, joka toteutuessaan voisi vaikuttaa merkittävästi rantojemme ja merenlahtiemme tilaan.
  • Helminen, Ville; Ristimäki, Mika; Oinonen, Kari (Ympäristöministeriö, 2003)
    Suomen ympäristö 611
  • Ollikka, Kimmo (Ympäristöministeriö, 2005)
    Suomen ympäristö 754
  • Suoheimo, Pirke (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2002)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen moniste 268
    Selvitys tarkastelee Euroopan sosiaalirahaston (ESR) kautta rahoitettuja ympäristökoulutushankkeita. Hankkeet on suunnattu pk-yrityksille ja niiden avulla on toteutettu alue- ja rakennepolitiikan mukaisia eri tavoiteohjelmille asetettuja tavoitteita. Selvitykseen valittiin yhteensä kymmenen hanketta eri puolelta Suomea. Hankkeet toteutettiin ohjelmakaudella 1995-1999. Selvityksessä tarkastellaan mm. hankkeiden rahoituksen jakautumista eri rahoitustahojen kesken sekä kustannusten jakautumista oppilas- ja henkilötyöpäivien osalta. Ympäristökoulutushankkeisiin osallistuneiden yritysten lähtötavoitteita ja hankkeiden vaikuttavuutta yrityksen ympäristöasioiden kehittymiseen selvitettiin yrityksille suunnatun haastattelun perusteella. Selvityksessä havaittiin, ettei hankkeen tuloksellisuus ole voimakkaasti sidoksissa hankkeen kokoon. Ympäristökoulutushankkeiden havaittiin vaikuttavan myönteisesti yritysten toiminnan tehostumiseen ja asemaan kotimaan markkinoilla. Sen sijaan hankkeilla ei havaittu olevan välittömiä vaikutuksia yritysten kilpailuasemaan ulkomailla, uusien tuotteiden syntymiseen tai työllisyyteen. Hankkeeseen osallistuminen tuki useissa yrityksissä pitkäaikaista sitoutumista ympäristöasioiden huomioimiseen ympäristöasioiden hallintajärjestelmien käyttöönoton myötä.
  • Pitkänen, Heikki (National Board of Waters and the Environment, 1994)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 18
    Suomen rannikkovesien rehevöityminen: jokivesien tuomien ravinteiden alkuperä, käyttäytyminen ja vaikutukset.
  • Mela, Hanna; Hildén, Mikael (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    The Finnish Environment 19/2012
    Improving the effectiveness of climate policy requires monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of policy measures. Also the EU requires that the member states should every two years report their implemented measures to the European Commission according to the Decision 280/2004/EC. This report studies the ex-ante and ex-post evaluations of climate policies implemented in the EU countries. The focus is especially on policies related to buildings, waste and F-gases. The objective of the study is to encourage sharing experiences of evaluations between countries and thus increase the transparency and cost-efficiency of the evaluations. The study addresses e.g. what kind of criteria and methods have been used in the evaluations, what kind of data has been utilised and what kind of limitations have been brought up in the evaluations. The need to renew the evaluation and reporting of climate policy measures has been recognised both at the EU – and member state level. The European Commission has proposed replacing the current Decision 280/2004/EC with a decree that would oblige member states to report about their policy measures yearly in more detail than currently. The results of this report are reflected against the Commission’s proposal. Based on this report, a clearer distinction should be made between regular, routine-like reporting and research-based evaluations. The report concludes that regular reporting should be restricted to standardised data that is relatively easily available. At the same time, the need to undertake periodic, more in-depth and research-based evaluations, can be emphasised.
  • Vasara, Petri; Silvo, Kimmo; Nilsson, Pia; Peuhkuri, Laura; Perrels, Adriaan (Finnish Environment Institute, 2002)
    The Finnish Environment 528
  • Hildén, Mikael; Lepola, Jukka; Mickwitz, Per; Mulders, Aard; Palosaari, Marika; Similä, Jukka; Sjöblom, Stefan; Vedung, Evert (Finnish Environment Institute, 2002)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 21
    This research-based evaluation of environmental policy Instruments in Finland is focussed on regulatory instruments based on the Water Act, the Air Pollution Control Act and the Chemicals Act, on electricity taxation and on voluntary environmental management systems. The examined policy instruments have had several positive effects. They have directed major industrial point source polluters towards solving environmental problems. The transparency has been an important factor ensuring the success of the policy instruments and in avoiding the regulatory capture that could have thrived in a system largely based on negotiations between operators and authorities. The transparency has made it easy for Finnish firms to adopt environmental management systems and an open attitude to environmental reporting. The permit conditions have not directly resulted in innovations, but they have contributed to the diffusion of end-of-pipe technology and have contributed to innovations by expanding the market for environmentally better technical solutions. The permit systems have also indirectly contributed to innovations by creating a demand for environmental experts and environmental education.Networks have clearly developed as a consequence of and in response to regulatory instruments. These networks appear to have had their greatest significance prior to the permit procedures. The trend has been towards a greater emphasis of the communication in the networks prior to the presentation of an application in order to ensure a smoothly functioning permit process. In the networks contributing to innovations and the diffusion of innovations authorities have largely been outsiders, except when an innovation has become a de facto standard for permit conditions.The different kind of effects, the complexity of consequences and the uncertainties with respect to causes and effects mean that studies aiming at evaluating the overall worth and merit of an environmental policy instrument should never be structured from a single point of view using only one method. Multiple criteria should be used. The drawback of the multiple approach principle in evaluation is that the evaluations will run into data problems and all the difficulties of multi- and transdisciplinary research, but the multidisciplinarity is a necessary condition for developing an informed view of the functioning and effects of environmental policy instruments.This publication is the result of a project financed by the environmental cluster research programme.
  • Patosaari, Pekka (Ministry of the Environment, 2003)
    The Finnish Environment 645
    This report describes progress made towards sustainable development in Finland over the last two decades. It also presents problem areas and future challenges in regard to sustainable development in Finland. The findings of the report are based on the evaluation of the Finnish Government´s programme for sustainable development.
  • Auvinen, Ari-Pekka; Hildén, Mikael; Toivonen, Heikki; Primmer, Eeva; Niemelä, Jari; Aapala, Kaisu; Bäck, Saara; Härmä, Pekka; Ikävalko, Jussi; Järvenpää, Elise; Kaipiainen, Heidi; Korhonen, Kari T.; Kumela, Hanna; Kärkkäinen, Leena; Lankoski, Jussi; Laukkanen, Marita; Mannerkoski, Ilpo; Nuutinen, Tuula; Nöjd, Anna; Punttila, Pekka; Salminen, Olli; Söderman, Guy; Törmä, Markus; Virkkala, Raimo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2007)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 29
    The results of the evaluation of the Finnish National Biodiversity Action Plan 1997-2005 indicate clear changes towards better consideration of biodiversity in the routines and policies of many sectors of the administration and economy. There are many indications that actors across society have recognized the need to safeguard biodiversity and have begun to adjust their practices accordingly. Several concrete measures have been undertaken in forests, agricultural habitats and in other habitats significantly affected by human activities. Biodiversity research has expanded significantly and the knowledge of Finland´s biological diversity has increased. In general, the Action Plan has supported public discussion of the need to safeguard biodiversity and this discussion has resulted in more positive attitudes towards nature conservation.So far, however, the implemented measures have not been sufficiently numerous or efficient to stop the depletion of original biological diversity. Many habitats remain far from their original state. More species will become endangered in the immediate future unless more effective and far-reaching measuresare taken. The objective of the EU to halt the decline of biodiversity by 2010 will not be achieved given the current development. Although the deterioration in biodiversity may have slowed down in several cases, many economic activities continue to have a negative impact on biodiversity. The scale of these activities is normally greater than that of the measures taken to manage and restore biodiversity.The evaluation focused on detecting changes in the administration of key sectors, analysing the recent development of biodiversity and observing interlinkages between these two. The analysis of administrative measures was based on interviews and on examining policy documents, reports and other relevant literature. The analysis covered changes in the administration of nature conservation, forestry,  agriculture, land use and regional and development cooperation. The analysis of the development of biodiversity was based on employing 75 pressure, state, impact and response indicators. There were 5 to 15 indicators for each of the nine major habitat types of Finland.Three separate case studies were made to provide further insights into some key issues: 1) A GISanalysis was made of the development of land use patterns in North Karelia and south-west Finland between 1990 and 2000, 2) two scenarios on the development of forest structure in North Karelia until 2050 were developed using a special MELA-model and 3) the cost-effectiveness of the agri-environmental support scheme was examined by comparing different land allocation choices and their effects on biodiversity on an average farm in southern Finland. The evaluation also paid special attention to the role of research in safeguarding biodiversity and reflected Finnish experiences against an international background.
  • Lääne, Ain; Pitkänen, Heikki; Arheimer, Berit; Behrendt, Horst; Jarosinski, Waldemar; Lucane, Sarmite; Pachel, Karin; Räike, Antti; Shekhovtsov, Alexander; Svendsen, Lars M.; Valatka, Simonas (Finnish Environment Institute, 2002)
    The Finnish Environment 524
  • Juvonen, Sanna-Kaisa; Kuhmonen, Anna (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 37/2013
    In this report, results of a regional evaluation on protected areas in the Barents Region are presented. The evaluation was made using the Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) of the Convention on Biological Diversity as a framework. The Convention on Biological Diversity aims to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020. The work was done as a part of the Barents Protected Area Network (BPAN) project by national and regional authorities, scientific institutes and nature conservation nongovernmental organisations from Norway, Sweden, Finland and northwest Russia. The aim of the project is to promote the establishment of a representative protected area network in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region to conserve biodiversity of boreal and arctic nature, particularly forests and wetlands. The PoWPA national reporting framework was modified and simplified to make it more suitable to be used as a tool for analysis of the protected area network in the Barents Region. It was used especially to see in which PoWPA goals and targets the Barents Region as a whole had made progress, and in which there was need for further work, and thus make recommendations for future actions in the Region. This enabled also the individual regions to assess in which goals and targets their region had made progress and in which there was need for further development. The reporting framework also provided a common language for interregional discussions and comparisons. A network of existing and planned protected areas is under development in the Barents Region. New protected areas have been established in recent years. However, strong efforts are still needed for strengthening the network of protected areas in order to reach the internationally agreed Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari; Mela, Hanna (Suomen ympäristökeskus (SYKE) & Ilmastonmuutoksen viestintäohjelma, 2006)
  • Lähteenmäki, Heini; Rotko, Pia (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2005)
    Ympäristöopas 125
    Hyvin toimiva viestintä ja vuorovaikutus edesauttavat monella tapaa hankkeen onnistumista. Siksi onkin tärkeää, että viestinnän suunnittelu on hankeen osana jo varhaisessa vaiheessa hankkeen käynnistyessä. Oppaassa esitetty viestintäsuunnitelman runko toimii apuna viestinnän kehittämisessä sekä ohjaa suunnitelmalliseen ja monipuoliseen viestinnän hyödyntämiseen vesistön kunnostuksen tai säännöstelyn kehittämisen tukena. Oppaaseen on koottu tietoa vuorovaikutteisen suunnittelun menetelmistä, joiden avulla yhteisten toimintalinjojen luominen helpottuu ja ristiriitojen syntymisen riskit pienenevät, sekä sosiaalisen pääoman merkityksestä vuorovaikutuksen vahvistajana ja hankkeen jatkuvuuden tukijana. Siinä on myös pohdittu maineen ja mielikuvien roolia vesistöjen kunnostuksessa ja säännöstelyssä. Viestinnän onnistumisen kannalta on tärkeää huomioida mielikuvien vastaanottajakeskeisyys ja sen mukanaan tuomat haasteet ja mahdollisuudet. Vesistön maineen kannalta tärkeä vaikuttaja, lehtiuutisointi ja sen hyödyntäminen vesistöhankkeissa on myös huomioitu oppaassa. Opas palvelee viestinnän ja vuorovaikutuksen edistämisestä kiinnostuneita vesistöjen kunnostajia ja säännöstelyn luvanhaltijoita sekä kunnostamisen ja säännöstelyn parissa työskenteleviä ympäristöviranomaisia.
  • Kettunen, Juhani; Leonov, Alexander V.; Varis, Olli (The National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the water and environment research institute 3, pp. 48-54
  • Furman, Eeva; Kivimaa, Paula; Kuuppo, Pirjo; Nykänen, Marja; Väänänen, Paula; Mela, Hanna; Korpinen, Päivi (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 43/2006
    The ERA-NET scheme, which is designed to support the networking of national research funding organisations, is among the means of the European Union to create an integrated European Research Area for innovative knowledge production. The SKEP ERA-NET aims at improving the co-ordination of environmental research, including among other things the management and assessment of research programmes. This report documents and analyses the practices of research programme planning and management in the EU and highlights some of the best practices available in environment-related research. Information on research programme management of thirtyseven case programmes of eight countries was collected through a questionnaire survey. In addition, interviews considering research programme management in seven countries and workshop discussions among twenty-one representatives from nine countries were used to gain comprehensive insight examples. There is a great deal of variation in countries' experience in programme management. Based on the country experiences from the study, readers are provided with set procedures and practices for the research programme management.The variety of funding structures and governance cultures, however, requires flexibility in implementing the recommended procedures, and the recommendations of the report should be interpreted in such a way. Working with stakeholders is an example of culture-dependent practice. Careful but flexible planning is needed despite the culture and context. Therefore, the report recommends that objectives and goals should be developed on the subject of the research programme but also for more general issues such as dissemination,  evaluation and gender. A core management team is seen as the crucial operational tool of programme management and should thus be carefully planned to serve the programme. Evaluation finally reveals how well the programme has succeeded, also from the management point of view. For the sake of continuity it is crucial that the lessons learned be translated to future programmes which aim to contribute to innovative European knowledge production.
  • Kautto, Petrus; Kärnä, Anna (Ministry of the Environment, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 35/2006
    New environmental product policy measures (RoHS, WEEE and EuP directives), targeted to the products of electrical and electronics industry, are entering into force during 2005-2007. This report raises key questions that companies have confronted in anticipating and interpreting these new requirements in their operations, focusing especially on changes needed in product development and supply chain management. The report reveals that the work needed in companies to comply with the new requirements may begin years before the requirements enter into force, and it may take different forms. Depending on the resources companies possess, this work can vary from influencing the actual contents of the new regulation being developed to adjusting to new requirements and incorporating them into different company operations (product development, manufacturing, sourcing etc.). Two Finnish company cases are reported. The first describes how Vaisala Oyj is implementing RoHS requirements together with its key suppliers. The second case assesses the Commission’s Integrated Product Policy pilot exercise on mobile phones, which was lead by Nokia Oyj during 2005. The report provides companies with useful information about practical experiences of proactive companies in environmental policy implementation, and policy makers with information for the assessment and future steering of environmental product policy in the European Union. This report is the final report of the YPSE research project, which was carried out during 2004-2005. It was financed by the Finnish Environment Cluster Program by the Ministry of the Environment and Technology Industries of Finland. The aim of the project was to assess how companies in the electrical and electronics industry “interpret” and negotiate with each other (and with environmental authorities) the contents of these new requirements, which are still to some extent unclear. It has been of interest what kinds of changes the new requirements create in products and what kinds of operational practices evolve in the industry, for example in the area of material data management.