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  • Tohka, Antti; Karvosenoja, Niko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
  • Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the atmosphere have been associated with severe human health effects. This report explores future emissions of primary PM2.5, their reduction potential and related reduction costs in Finland. One activity pathway of 2020 of the Finnish Climate Strategy was studied with two different PM emission control utilization scenarios: (1) "Baseline" which involves PM control technology utilization complying with current legislation, and (2) "Reduction" which assumes the use of maximum technically and economically feasible emission reduction measures. The studied sectors included stationary combustion and industrial activities. The work was performed using the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model of Finnish environment institute (SYKE). Total emission reduction potential below "Baseline" was estimated at 6.7 Gg(PM2.5) a-1, or 22% of the total emissions. The biggest relatively cost-efficient reductions (marginal cost below 5000 € Mg-1) can be achieved by the use of small electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in domestic wood log boilers, 2.0 Gg a-1. In large-scale combustion installations in power plants and industry the reduction of 1.2 Gg a-1 is possible by fabric filter installations instead of ESPs. A comparable reduction with slightly higher costs can be achieved in small (below 5 MWth) industrial boilers by the introduction of ESPs. For industrial processes potential occurs in few individual plants. The uncertainties in emission reduction and cost estimates are biggest for domestic combustion and industrial processes. This report presents cost-efficiency estimates of future emission reductions per mass of PM2.5 reduced. However, the magnitude of health benefits gained from emission reductions are different for different emission sources, depending on e.g. the altitude of emission release, the emission location in relation to the location of population etc. The results of this study are used in the integrated assessment modeling framework developed in the KOPRA project in order to link the information of emission reductions and costs, atmospheric dispersion and induced health impacts.
  • Lindholm, Arto (Ministry of the Environment, 2002)
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Heikkilä, Raimo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    Finland - Land of mires is a textbook on mires and their ecology in Finland. Totally 27 separate articles of different topics are included in the book. The items dealt with in the book are the following: 1. Unsettled weather and climate of Finland. 2. Climate of Finland and its effect on mires. 3. Bedrock in Finland and its infl uence on vegetation. 4. The landforms of Finland. 5. Glacial and postglacial history of the Baltic Sea and Finland. 6. Postglacial history of Finnish inland waters. 7. Lake and river systems in Finland. 8. Interglacial and interstadial organic deposits in Finland. 9. Mire development history in Finland. 10. Regional distribution of peat increment in Finland. 11. Geobotany of Finnish forests and mires: the Finnish approach. 12. Ecohydrology of Finnish mires. 13. Ecological gradients as the basis of Finnish mire site types. 14. Mire plant species and their ecology in Finland. 15. Land uplift phenomenon and its effects on mire vegetation. 16. Palsa mires in Finland. 17. Cultural land use history in Finland. 18. The use of mires for agriculture and forestry. 19. Destruction of mires in Finland. 20. Environmental impacts of mire utilization. 21. Peatlands and global change - the Finnish case. 22. Ecosystem services provided by Finnish mires. 23. Mire conservation and its short history in Finland. 24. Ramsar areas in Finland. 25. Land birds in Finnish mires and their conservation status. 26. A short introduction to the Finnish language. 27. Etymology of some Finnish words for mire.
  • Hanhijärvi, Johanna; Yliskylä-Peuralahti, Johanna (Miljöministeriet, 2006)
    Bedömningsdelen i Finlands kuststrategi har utarbetats i enlighet med EU:s rekommendation om kustområden som en bakgrundsutredning till strategin. Bedömningsdelen behandlar de finländska kustområdenas tillstånd och deras viktigaste aktörer samt styrmedel för förvaltning av kustområden i ljuset av de i rekommendationen presenterade principerna och det strategiska betraktelsesättet. Utmaningar för en hållbar användning av kustområden är bland annat den ökade användningen av kustområdet, försämringen i miljöns tillstånd, de minskande möjligheterna till näringsutövande, olycksriskerna från den ökande trafiken samt förebyggandet av klimatförändringens effekter. En hållbar kustområdesförvaltning försvåras av motstridiga administrativa mål, aktörernas olika intressen, många olika tillvägagångssätt och bristen på information. Även om det finns bra enstaka styrmedel, måste man utveckla instrument som gör det möjligt att betrakta kustområdet som en enhetlig helhet. Det behövs en integrerande och övergripande synvinkel för att utveckla kustområdets livskraft och bevara dess mångfald.
  • Ministry of the Environment (Ministry of the Environment, 2002)
  • Wilén, Carl; Salokoski, Pia; Kurkela, Esa; Sipilä, Kai (Finnish Environment Institute, 2004)
  • Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Unknown author (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
  • Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Fugleberg, Sigmund (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Oinonen, Teemu (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2003)
  • Oinonen, Teemu (Finnish Environment Institute, 2004)
    Year 2002 was exceptional in the history of Finnish HFC, PFC and SF6 (F-gases for short) use. For the first time in a 10 year period, emissions fell from previous year. High uncertainty of the 2001 estimate prevents reliable quantification of the magnitude of this decrease, but simulation results suggest that the decrease may have been around 10%. The 2002 level of F-gases emissions was 530 Gg CO2-equivalent. This figure corresponds to 0.6% of total Finnish greenhouse gas emissions. The inventory of F-gases was improved in 2003 by extending the coverage of the survey used to gather data. The number of respondents surveyed was quadrupled to some 1 000 individuals, and more than 750 of these responded. This improvement had an effect of bringing down the inventory uncertainty (measured by the width of the 95 % certainty range) from 400 Gg CO2-eq. in 2001 to 140 Gg CO2-eq. in 2002.Best efforts were made to ensure the accuracy, transparency, consistency, completeness and comparability of the inventory, as mandated in the guidelines of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Although reporting to the UNFCCC is the primary purpose of this document, it is hoped that the information contained within is of use also in formulating strategies to combat climate change both in Finland and in European Union.
  • Silvenius, Frans; Grönroos, Juha (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2003)
  • Laukkanen, Risto (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1981)
    Vuorokausivirtaaman ennustaminen yhdyskuntien vesi- ja viemärilaitosten yleissuunnittelussa.
  • Seppälä, Jukka (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    To obtain data on phytoplankton dynamics (abundance, taxonomy, productivity, and physiology) with improved spatial and temporal resolution, and at reduced cost, traditional phytoplankton monitoring methods have been supplemented with optical approaches. Fluorescence detection of living phytoplankton is very sensitive and not disturbed much by the other optically active components. Fluorescence results are easy to generate, but interpretation of measurements is not straightforward as phytoplankton fluorescence is determined by light absorption, light reabsorption, and quantum yield of fluorescence - all of which are affected by the physiological state of the cells. In this thesis, I have explored various fluorescence-based techniques for detection of phytoplankton abundance, taxonomy and physiology in the Baltic Sea.In algal cultures used in this thesis, the availability of nitrogen and light conditions caused changes in pigmentation, and consequently in light absorption and fluorescence properties of cells. The variation of absorption and fluorescence properties of natural phytoplankton populations in the Baltic Sea was more complex. Physical environmental factors (e.g. mixing depth, irradiance and temperature) and related seasonal succession in the phytoplankton community explained a large part of the seasonal variability in the magnitude and shape of Chlorophyll a (Chla)-specific absorption. Subsequent variations in the variables affecting fluorescence were large; 2.4-fold for light reabsorption at the red Chla peak and 7-fold for the spectrally averaged Chla-specific absorption coefficient for Photosystem II. In the studies included in this thesis, Chla-specific fluorescence varied 2-10 fold. This variability in Chla-specific fluorescence was related to the abundance of cyanobacteria, the size structure of the phytoplankton community, and absorption characteristics of phytoplankton.Cyanobacteria show very low Chla-specific fluorescence. In the presence of eukaryotic species, Chla fluorescence describes poorly cyanobacteria. During cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea, phycocyanin fluorescence explained large part of the variability in Chla concentrations. Thus, both Chla and phycocyanin fluorescence were required to predict Chla concentration.Phycobilins are major light harvesting pigments for cyanobacteria. In the open Baltic Sea, small picoplanktonic cyanobacteria were the main source of phycoerythrin fluorescence and absorption signal. Large filamentous cyanobacteria, forming harmful blooms, were the main source of the phycocyanin fluorescence signal and typically their biomass and phycocyanin fluorescence were linearly related. It was shown that for reliable phycocyanin detection, instrument wavebands must match the actual phycocyanin fluorescence peak well. In order to initiate an operational ship-of-opportunity monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea, the distribution of filamentous cyanobacteria was followed in 2005 using phycocyanin fluorescence.Various taxonomic phytoplankton pigment groups can be separated by spectral fluorescence. I compared multivariate calibration methods for the retrieval of phytoplankton biomass in different taxonomic groups. During a mesocosm experiment, a partial least squares regression method gave the closest predictions for all taxonomic groups, and the accuracy was adequate for phytoplankton bloom detection. This method was noted applicable especially in the cases when not all of the optically active compounds are known.Variable fluorescence has been proposed as a tool to study the physiological state of phytoplankton. My results from the Baltic Sea emphasize that variable fluorescence alone cannot be used to detect nutrient limitation of phytoplankton. However, when combined with experiments with active nutrient manipulation, and other nutrient limitation indices, variable fluorescence provided valuable information on the physiological responses of the phytoplankton community. This thesis found a severe limitation of a commercial fast repetition rate fluorometer, which couldn’t detect the variable fluorescence of phycoerythrin-lacking cyanobacteria. For these species, the Photosystem II absorption of blue light is very low, and fluorometer excitation light did not saturate Photosystem II during a measurement.This thesis encourages the use of various in vivo fluorescence methods for the detection of bulk phytoplankton biomass, biomass of cyanobacteria, chemotaxonomy of phytoplankton community, and phytoplankton physiology. Fluorescence methods can support traditional phytoplankton monitoring by providing continuous measurements of phytoplankton, and thereby strengthen the understanding of the links between biological, chemical and physical processes in aquatic ecosystems.