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  • Ministry of the Environment (Ministry of the Environment, 2002)
  • Wilén, Carl; Salokoski, Pia; Kurkela, Esa; Sipilä, Kai (Finnish Environment Institute, 2004)
  • Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Unknown author (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
  • Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Fugleberg, Sigmund (Finnish Environment Institute, 1999)
  • Oinonen, Teemu (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2003)
  • Oinonen, Teemu (Finnish Environment Institute, 2004)
    Year 2002 was exceptional in the history of Finnish HFC, PFC and SF6 (F-gases for short) use. For the first time in a 10 year period, emissions fell from previous year. High uncertainty of the 2001 estimate prevents reliable quantification of the magnitude of this decrease, but simulation results suggest that the decrease may have been around 10%. The 2002 level of F-gases emissions was 530 Gg CO2-equivalent. This figure corresponds to 0.6% of total Finnish greenhouse gas emissions. The inventory of F-gases was improved in 2003 by extending the coverage of the survey used to gather data. The number of respondents surveyed was quadrupled to some 1 000 individuals, and more than 750 of these responded. This improvement had an effect of bringing down the inventory uncertainty (measured by the width of the 95 % certainty range) from 400 Gg CO2-eq. in 2001 to 140 Gg CO2-eq. in 2002.Best efforts were made to ensure the accuracy, transparency, consistency, completeness and comparability of the inventory, as mandated in the guidelines of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Although reporting to the UNFCCC is the primary purpose of this document, it is hoped that the information contained within is of use also in formulating strategies to combat climate change both in Finland and in European Union.
  • Silvenius, Frans; Grönroos, Juha (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2003)
  • Laukkanen, Risto (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1981)
    Vuorokausivirtaaman ennustaminen yhdyskuntien vesi- ja viemärilaitosten yleissuunnittelussa.
  • Seppälä, Jukka (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    To obtain data on phytoplankton dynamics (abundance, taxonomy, productivity, and physiology) with improved spatial and temporal resolution, and at reduced cost, traditional phytoplankton monitoring methods have been supplemented with optical approaches. Fluorescence detection of living phytoplankton is very sensitive and not disturbed much by the other optically active components. Fluorescence results are easy to generate, but interpretation of measurements is not straightforward as phytoplankton fluorescence is determined by light absorption, light reabsorption, and quantum yield of fluorescence - all of which are affected by the physiological state of the cells. In this thesis, I have explored various fluorescence-based techniques for detection of phytoplankton abundance, taxonomy and physiology in the Baltic Sea.In algal cultures used in this thesis, the availability of nitrogen and light conditions caused changes in pigmentation, and consequently in light absorption and fluorescence properties of cells. The variation of absorption and fluorescence properties of natural phytoplankton populations in the Baltic Sea was more complex. Physical environmental factors (e.g. mixing depth, irradiance and temperature) and related seasonal succession in the phytoplankton community explained a large part of the seasonal variability in the magnitude and shape of Chlorophyll a (Chla)-specific absorption. Subsequent variations in the variables affecting fluorescence were large; 2.4-fold for light reabsorption at the red Chla peak and 7-fold for the spectrally averaged Chla-specific absorption coefficient for Photosystem II. In the studies included in this thesis, Chla-specific fluorescence varied 2-10 fold. This variability in Chla-specific fluorescence was related to the abundance of cyanobacteria, the size structure of the phytoplankton community, and absorption characteristics of phytoplankton.Cyanobacteria show very low Chla-specific fluorescence. In the presence of eukaryotic species, Chla fluorescence describes poorly cyanobacteria. During cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea, phycocyanin fluorescence explained large part of the variability in Chla concentrations. Thus, both Chla and phycocyanin fluorescence were required to predict Chla concentration.Phycobilins are major light harvesting pigments for cyanobacteria. In the open Baltic Sea, small picoplanktonic cyanobacteria were the main source of phycoerythrin fluorescence and absorption signal. Large filamentous cyanobacteria, forming harmful blooms, were the main source of the phycocyanin fluorescence signal and typically their biomass and phycocyanin fluorescence were linearly related. It was shown that for reliable phycocyanin detection, instrument wavebands must match the actual phycocyanin fluorescence peak well. In order to initiate an operational ship-of-opportunity monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea, the distribution of filamentous cyanobacteria was followed in 2005 using phycocyanin fluorescence.Various taxonomic phytoplankton pigment groups can be separated by spectral fluorescence. I compared multivariate calibration methods for the retrieval of phytoplankton biomass in different taxonomic groups. During a mesocosm experiment, a partial least squares regression method gave the closest predictions for all taxonomic groups, and the accuracy was adequate for phytoplankton bloom detection. This method was noted applicable especially in the cases when not all of the optically active compounds are known.Variable fluorescence has been proposed as a tool to study the physiological state of phytoplankton. My results from the Baltic Sea emphasize that variable fluorescence alone cannot be used to detect nutrient limitation of phytoplankton. However, when combined with experiments with active nutrient manipulation, and other nutrient limitation indices, variable fluorescence provided valuable information on the physiological responses of the phytoplankton community. This thesis found a severe limitation of a commercial fast repetition rate fluorometer, which couldn’t detect the variable fluorescence of phycoerythrin-lacking cyanobacteria. For these species, the Photosystem II absorption of blue light is very low, and fluorometer excitation light did not saturate Photosystem II during a measurement.This thesis encourages the use of various in vivo fluorescence methods for the detection of bulk phytoplankton biomass, biomass of cyanobacteria, chemotaxonomy of phytoplankton community, and phytoplankton physiology. Fluorescence methods can support traditional phytoplankton monitoring by providing continuous measurements of phytoplankton, and thereby strengthen the understanding of the links between biological, chemical and physical processes in aquatic ecosystems.
  • Auvinen, Ari-Pekka; Kemppainen, Eija; Von Weissenberg, Marina (Ministry of the Environment, 2010)
    The Fourth National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Finland, which was submitted to the secretariat of the CBD in June 24 2009, provides a wide-ranging overview on the state and development of biodiversity in Finland. It also analyses the results achieved by the policies that have been drafted and implemented to safeguard natural environments. The state, trends, threats and actions taken are all examined by means of indicators. Attention is also paid on the key means to mainstream biodiversity issues as well as on progress towards the goals of the CBD's strategic plan. According to this report, the loss of biodiversity in Finland has been not been halted on the whole although, for example, several bird and mammal species which declined previously are now recovering. There has been progress in terms of integrating biodiversity issues into national legislation and strengthening sectoral cooperation. However, even better consideration of biodiversity in the policies of different administrative sectors and more thorough implementation of the national Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans is needed to reverse the present trends.
  • Alahuhta, Janne; Joensuu, Ilona; Matero, Jukka; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Saastamoinen, Olli (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    Ecosystem services have become a significant multidisciplinary research agenda in the world. Man-made activities both at global and local scales deteriorate biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, which are essential also to human welfare. Ecosystem services are material and immaterial benefits and services provided by nature. Ecosystem services can be divided to the following main categories: provisioning, regulating, cultural and sustaining services. Different ecosystems provide various services depending also on their geographical location. For example, boreal ecosystems differ ecologically from tropical ones, for which the services they provide also vary. Boreal region is generally known for its high abundance of freshwaters. Quantity of freshwaters is rarely a problem in boreal region, but quality of inland waters is decreased in many places due to anthropogenic pressures. Freshwaters have received less attention than other ecosystems in ecosystem services research, because direct link between inland waters and terrestrial ecosystems makes evaluation of freshwater ecosystem services challenging. Purpose of this report is to identity and classify freshwater ecosystem services in Finland. The report consists of two parts: 1) historical review of freshwater ecosystem services in Finland, and 2) identification and classification of current ecosystem services in Finnish freshwaters. In historical review, we roughly evaluate how identification and appreciation of freshwater ecosystem services have varied temporally. In the second part, we identify and classify current freshwater ecosystem services in Finland based on two classification criteria, which complement each other. This report is part of project ”Integrated and policy relevant valuation of forest, agro, peatland and aquatic ecosystem services in Finland”, which is funded by Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation and coordinated by University of Eastern Finland. Appreciation of freshwater ecosystem services has varied over the decades. In the beginning of 20th century, inland waters were important source of nutriment and way of transportation. Increased pollution of water bodies awaked society to appreciate other services provided by freshwaters in turn of 1970s-80s. Nowadays, freshwaters have a major role among others in flood protection, climate regulation, primary production and recreation. However, identification of many freshwater services is still superficial or deficient. For example, genetic and biochemical resources, control of invasive species and diseases, aesthetic and religious services, and formation of soil and water cycling are generally poorly known in Finland. In addition, large scale studies of freshwater ecosystem services are rarely done in Finland and knowledge on how services interact with each other is inadequate.
  • Vepsäläinen, Milja (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    Soil microorganisms mediate central reactions of element cycles in a heterogenic environment characterized by discontinuity of energy, nutrients, and water together with sharp pH gradients. They are diverse in species, numerous in quantity and possess a multitude of functions. One gram of soil may contain 10x109 microbial cells; for comparison, the Earth has only 7x109 human inhabitants. Species richness, evenness and composition in soils is impossible to measure, and therefore a convenient means of characterising soil microorganisms is to measure the type and rate of reactions occurring.The aim of this work was to develop a rapid, sensitive method to measure the activities of a set of soil enzymes simultaneously in a small scale. In the method, homogenized soil suspensions are investigated using fluorescent substrate analogues freeze-dried onto multiwall plates. It was shown that extraction of enzymes from soils produced inconsistent and unpredictable yields of the various activities and was therefore not applied as a pretreatment. Applicability of the method was evaluated by characterising soils treated with different agricultural practices, supporting a variety of crop plants and with fluctuating seasonal attributes. Bulk samples from experimental sites established both in agricultural and forest soils were utilized. Details of method development and of the effects of different treatments on enzyme activity pattern and on individual enzyme activities are discussed.The effects of eight crop plants, peat amendment and two consecutive sampling years yielded significant differences in soil extracellular enzyme activities. The effect of crop plants was most pronounced: eight of the measured ten activities yielded statistically significant differences in both years. The activities differed between years for six enzymes. The effect of peat was slight and was observed only two years after the addition. In another experiment, green or composted plant residues tended to enhance the activities of enzymes compared with chemical fertilizers, although the effect was not consistent. Forest soils usually yielded higher specific activities than field soils and the enzymes showed higher potential activities under alder than under pine. Temporal fluctuations of enzyme activities were also studied.Cluster analysis was utilized for data analysis in order to combine all measured attributes and to reveal the differences in the entire pattern, even though the differences in individual enzyme level were not statistically significant and the enzyme activities often correlated with each other.Due to the multitude of processes and functions, together with the wide taxonomic diversity in soils, method development in soil microbiology is still a major challenge. Interpretation of results usually requires a reference comparison. The method developed in the present study is proposed to be used as a sensitive measure of soil functional activity.
  • Ruosteenoja, Kimmo; Carter, Timothy R.; Jylhä, Kirsti; Tuomenvirta, Heikki (Finnish Environment Institute, 2003)