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  • Ekholm, Petri; Kronvang, Brian; Posch, Maximilian; Rekolainen, Seppo (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus / National Board of Waters and the Environment, 1995)
  • Forsius, Martin (National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1992)
    Yhteenveto: Järvien happamoituminen Suomessa: Alueellinen vedenlaatu ja kriittinen kuormitus
  • Alasaarela, Erkki (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1982)
    Kyrönjoen tulvasuojelutöiden aiheuttamista happamuusongelmista
  • Unknown author (Ministry of the Environment, 2005)
  • Kellomäki, Seppo; Strandman, Harri; Nuutinen, Tuula; Peltola, Heli; Korhonen, Kari T.; Väisänen, Hannu (Finnish Environment Institute, 2005)
    In this study, an ecosystem model (Sima), capable of predicting ecosystem level functioning of boreal forests, was used together with a permanent sample plot data of the Finnish national forest inventory (measured in 1995) and different climate scenarios to analyze, how increase in temperature, precipitation and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration may effect forest growth and dynamics in Finnish conditions. The simulations showed that the forest ecosystems are most impacted in the most northern and in the most southern parts of the country (2000-2099). In the north, the productivity of the forest ecosystems may increase substantially. In this respect, the northern forests may provide many opportunities for forestry and timber production. In southern Finland, the climate change may also increase in general the productivity of the forest ecosystems. However, it may also create environment suboptimal for Norway spruce, the growth of which may reduce throughout southern and central parts of the country. The dominance of Scots pine may increase on less fertile sites currently occupied by Norway spruce. Birch may compete with Scots pine even in these sites, and the dominance of birch may increase. The management of Finnish forests should therefore be adapted to meet the higher productivity and changing tree species composition in the future. These expected changes in growth and trees species composition may have locally negative effect on the total growth in Southern Finland, but at the nation-wide the total growth may increase up to 44 %, with an increase up to 82 % in the sustainable potential total cutting drain over the country.
  • Saarelainen, Seppo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The vulnerability of Finnish transport networks to climate change impacts depends on the climatic conditions anticipated in the future and the robustness of the transport systems affected. Most foreseeable impacts are taken into account in the current practice of design and construction, but design criteria may have to be changed in the future if extreme weather events intensify. Experiences during recent years, such as the floods in 2004 and 2005, have demonstrated that the Finnish society is not properly prepared for the impacts of extreme events. Adaptation can be seen as a risk and safety assessment considering: contingency planning, structural improvement, improvement to design criteria for new constructions, and enhancing building regulations, guidelines and recommendations. Research needed to improve the capacity to adapt to climate change includes: (i) documentation and technical and economic analysis of damage processes obtained from actual damage cases, (ii) compilation of statistics of available climatic data on critical parameters and the estimation of future changes in extreme values and their probability of occurrence, (iii) analysis of statistics on regional flood levels and occurrence, especially along unregulated watercourses, (iv) development of preventive measures against damage for acute hazards, (v) development of more efficient solutions for the design and construction of transport structures, (vi) development of sustainable road maintenance techniques considering climate change, (vii) development of efficient methods for evaluating and monitoring terrain conditions over large areas, and (viii) development of early warning systems for critical weather events.
  • Carter, Timothy R.; Kankaanpää, Susanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2004)
    This report is an account of a one-day seminar organised at the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) as part of the preparatory phase of the FINADAPT consortium. It was attended by 80 participants from government, research institutions, business and the private sector. The seminar had four main goals: 1) to draw attention to the role of climate change adaptation in complementing emissions reduction (mitigation) as a response to changing climate in Finland, 2) to invite participants representing different sectors and constituencies to present their opinions on the key research challenges posed in adapting to future climate change in Finland, 3) to provide input for the final planning of research projects proposed in the FINADAPT consortium, and 4) to discuss the possible establishment of a national research programme on climate change adaptation. The report summarises the information presented at the seminar and also records some of the discussion. Section 2 covers the three short introductory presentations, and sections 3 and 4 then describe two moderated panel sessions that had a sectoral focus - four panelists speaking on aspects of the natural environment and four on themes related to infrastructure and human wellbeing. The experiences of three guest speakers of national climate change research programmes in Norway and the United Kingdom are related in section 5 and section 6 reports the final panel session on themes that cut across the field of climate change adaptation. The concluding session is a summary of some of the main issues and recommendations raised in discussion. The seminar programme and list of participants can be found in the appendices.
  • Lakso, Esko (National Board of Waters and Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1988)
    Yhteenveto: Ilmastus ylisyöksypadoilla
  • Metsämäki, Sari (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    This thesis focuses on the determination of fractional snow cover (FSC) from optical data provided by satellite instruments. It describes the method development, starting from a simple regionally applicable linear interpolation method and ending at a globally applicable, semi-empirical modeling approach. The development work was motivated by the need for an easily implementable and feasible snow mapping method that could provide reliable information particularly for forested areas. The contribution of the work to the optical remote sensing of snow is mainly associated with accounting for boreal forest canopy effect to the observed reflectance, thus facilitating accurate fractional snow retrievals also for ground beneath the tree canopies. The first proposed approach was based on a linear interpolation technique, which relies on a priori known reference reflectances at a) full snow cover and b) snow-free conditions for each calculation unit-area. An important novelty in the methodology was the utilization of a forest sparseness index determined from AVHRR reflectance data acquired at full dry snow cover conditions. This index was employed to describe the similarity between different unit-areas. In practice, the index was used to determine the reference reflectances for such unit-areas for which the reflectance level could not be determined otherwise, e.g. due to frequent cloud cover. This approach was found to be feasible for Finnish drainage basins characterized by fragmented landscape with moderate canopies. Using a more physical approach instead of linear interpolation would allow the model parameterization using physical quantities (reflectances), and would therefore leave space for further model developments based on measuring and/or modeling of these quantities. The semi-empirical reflectance model-based method SCAmod originates from radiative transfer theory and describes the scene-level reflectance as a mixture of three major constituents: opaque forest canopy, snow and snow-free ground, which are interconnected through transmissivity and snow fraction. Transmissivity, in turn, can be derived from reflectance observations under conditions that highlight the presence of forest canopy, namely the presence of full snow cover on the ground. Thus, SCAmod requires a priori information on transmissivity, but given that it can be determined with the appropriate accuracy, it enables consideration of the obstructing effects of forests in fractional snow estimation. In continental-scale snow mapping, determination of the transmissivity map becomes a key issue. The preliminary demonstration of transmissivity generation using global land cover data was a part of this study. The first implementations and validations for SCAmod were presented for AVHRR data at Finnish drainage basin scale. In subsequent work, determination of the feasible reflectance constituents was addressed, followed by a sensitivity analysis targeting at selection of optimal spectral bands to be applied with SCAmod. Feasibility of the NDSI-based approach in FSC-retrievals over boreal forests is also discussed. Finally, the implementations and validations for MODIS and AATSR data are presented. The results from relative (using high-resolution Earth Observation data to represent the truth) and absolute validation (using in situ observations) indicate a good performance for both forested and non-forested regions in northern Eurasia. Accounting for the effect of forest canopy in the FSC-retrievals is the key issue in snow remote sensing over boreal regions; this study provides a new contribution to this research field and provides one solution for continental scale snow mapping.
  • Koskela, Sirkka; Hiltunen, Marja-Riitta (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2004)
    The LCA methodology for assessment of the performance of product systems is practically unknown in Estonia until now. Recently, interest has been growing to carry out LCA-studies for Estonian products as well. The aim of this guide is to encourage Estonian enterprises to conduct LCAs for their own products by providing information on the data collection phase of LCI and information on some databases from the viewpoint of Estonian key products. The applicability of the seven selected generic databases for future LCIs of the Estonian key products was considered. Also their main raw materials and countries of origin were identified. Additionally, guidelines on important issues to be taken account in the data collection were also developed. The guidelines deal with the modeling of the product systems, the use of primary and secondary data, the importance of the country-specific electricity production profiles, and the validation and documentation of the collected LCI data. The main conclusions were that there exists no country-specific LCI data for Estonia in generic databases. These databases contain data for almost all Estonian key products and their main raw materials, but the applicability of specific process data must be verified separately in each case. All examined databases are applicable for Estonian industry in similar way as in any other country, because the generic databases are typically used for raw materials manufactured elsewhere.
  • Ruoppa, Marja; Ojala, Tiina (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1988)
  • Kenttämies, Kaarle (Vesihallitus, 1979)
    Tiivistelmä: Ilman rikkilaskeuma ja järvien happamoituminen Suomessa.
  • Syri, Sanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
    This study presents the development and applications of regional and local scale models for use in integrated assessment of air pollution effects in conjunction with large-scale models. A regional deposition model called DAIQUIRI (Deposition, AIr QUality and Integrated Regional Information) for integrated assessment purposes in Finland was constructed, and regional matrices for nitrogen oxides and ammonia were developed from the results of the regional air quality model of the FMI. DAIQUIRI produced similar estimates of deposition from Finnish sources as the original model, and long-term trends and the average level of deposition estimated with DAIQUIRI were found comparable with the monitored deposition levels and trends. For the mid-nineties situation, the regional nitrogen modeling resulted in 9% to 19% (depending on the region compared) larger estimates of areas with acidity critical load exceedances than when using European scale nitrogen deposition modeling.In this work, also a method for estimating the impacts of local NOx emissions on urban and sub-urban ozone levels was developed and tested. The study concentrated on representing the destruction of ozone by fresh NO emissions in urban areas for future use in integrated assessment modeling of ozone control strategies. Correlation coefficients between measured daytime ozone values in the study area were found to improve from 0.64 (correlation between urban and surrounding rural measurements) to 0.85, on the average. The average correlation between daytime large-scale model estimates and urban site measurements was found to improve from 0.37 to 0.58.In the study, also integrated assessment model applications were carried out at European, national and local levels. The synergies between control strategies for CO2 and acidification and ozone formation in the case of the UN/FCCC Kyoto protocol and the air quality targets of the EU were assessed with the help of coupled models. With two alternative energy scenarios reflecting the Kyoto targets for CO2, reductions of sulfur and NOx emissions between 12% and 22% and 8% to 12%, respectively, were estimated by 2010 in the EU-15 with the present emission control legislation. Due to the lower activity levels generating less emissions and the cleaner energy forms used, 35-43% cost savings in further technical emission controls required for achieving the EU air quality targets would be achieved with the scenarios studied. Case studies for Finland indicated that there has been a decrease of 60% in the area at risk of acidification from 1990 to 1995, and that the declining trend is expected to continue due to the recent international emission reduction agreements within the UN/ECE and the EU. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Finland and in the whole of EU-15 (with the present emission legislation) could bring up to 8% more reduction of ecosystems at risk of acidification in Finland by 2010 than the recent UN/ECE protocol.An uncertainty analysis of acidification integrated assessment modeling in Finland indicated that critical loads dominate the uncertainty. Estimates are becoming more robust, as the general level of deposition is decreasing. In Finland, further efforts to reduce the overall uncertainty should be mainly directed to more accurate description of critical thresholds. In areas affected by major nearby emission sources, also uncertainties in emissions and deposition are significant. The models and their applications presented in this study contributed to identifying the problem characteristics and have supported environmental policy development at international, national and regional levels.
  • Gästgifvars, Maria; Sarkanen, Annakaisa; Frisk, Mikael; Lauri, Hannu; Myrberg, Kai; Alenius, Pekka; Andrejev, Oleg; Mustonen, Olli; Haapasaari, Heli; Andrejev, Alexander (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2004)
  • Laikari, Hannu (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1987)
  • Lax, Hans-Göran; Vainio, Taru (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1988)
  • Unknown author (Ympäristöministeriö, 31.5)
    Suomessa Akwé: Kon -ohjeet on tarkoitettu käytettäväksi saamelaisten kotiseutualueella sellaisten hankkeiden ja suunnitelmien kulttuuri-, ympäristö- ja sosiaalisten vaikutusten arvioinnissa, jotka voivat vaikuttaa saamelaiskulttuuriin, -elinkeinoihin ja kulttuuriperintöön. Ohjeiden tarkoitus on turvata luonnon monimuotoisuuden säilyminen sekä alkuperäiskansakulttuurin luontosuhteen ja perinteisen tiedon säilyminen. Akwé: Kon -ohjeet tarjoavat menettelytavan, jolla saamelaisten osallistuminen hankkeiden ja suunnitelmien valmisteluun, vaikutusten arviointiin ja päätöksentekoon voidaan turvata.