Suomen ympäristökeskus - Julkaisuarkisto: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 6203
  • Alasaarela, Erkki; Hellsten, Seppo; Keränen, Reijo; Kurttila, Terttu; Riihimäki, Juha (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1993)
  • Svetlichny, Leonid; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Setälä, Outi; Lehto, Anne-Mari; Samchyshyna, Larysa; Gromova, Yulia; Işinibilir Okyar, Melek; Emiş Türkeri, Ezgi; Eryalçin, Kamil Mert; Can Kayadelen, Gülşah; Kideyş, Ahmet Erkan (Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, 2022)
    Turkish journal of zoology
    Calanoid copepods with different life cycle strategies demonstrate varied velocity in the utilization of energy resources during starvation. This study analyzes the influence of multiday starvation on the rate of total, basal and active energy metabolism in adult females of two Marmara Sea and one Baltic Sea species of copepods; epiplanktonic Acartia clausi unable to accumulate lipid reserves and mesoplanktonic Calanus helgolandicus with minor lipid reserves in the oil sac (approximately 7% of body volume) and the Baltic Sea copepod Limnocalanus macrurus in quasi-diapausing state with large lipid reserves in the oil sac (approximately 19% of body volume). Initially, total weight specific respiration rates were about 0.12 μg C per µg C body weight per day (d–1)for both Marmara Sea species at 20 °C and 0.079 d–1 in the Baltic L. macrurus at 14 °C, decreasing significantly by 1.6–2.5 times with starvation, while basal metabolic rates, measured in the same anesthetized individuals, was nearly constant during starvation. In this regard, the active metabolic rates, defined as the difference between the respiration rate of active and anesthetized individuals, decreased during starvation by 1.7 times in C. helgolandicus and by 4.7 and 6 times in A. clausi and L. macrurus, respectively. In A. clausi and C. helgolandicus with minimal lipid reserves, total daily energy expenditure (5.1% of initial body carbon content) was twice as high as in L. macrurus (2.2% of initial body carbon content daily), which has a large oil sac. Overall, the trend demonstrates that despite different energy reserves, a decrease in the total energy metabolism in copepods occurs due to a reduction in energy expenditure for locomotor activity.
  • Salmenperä, Hanna; Kauppi, Sari; Dahlbo, Helena; Fjäder, Päivi (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Sustainability
    Pharmaceutical packaging is a complex group of products, the main purpose of which is to protect the medicine and forward information. Pharmaceutical packaging waste is generated and accumulated along the various phases and practices of the value chain. In general, the amount of packaging has been growing during the increasing political pressure to reduce waste and to increase the circulation of materials. The goals and solutions are expected to be found in the circular economy; however, the literature on circular pharmaceutical packaging is lacking. This study explores the key factors when promoting the circularity of pharmaceutical packaging along its value chain. This was conducted by reviewing the legislation, elaborating the value chain and analysing the data from focus group discussions with stakeholders. The results show that various barriers, such as legislation, a lack of information or interaction between stakeholders, but also rigid practices, block product design for circularity. In the developing circularity of packaging, the causal links along the value chain must be understood. Chemical recycling technologies are expected to resolve the challenges of maintaining clean cycles. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the environmental benefits of increasing circularity along the value chain of pharmaceutical packaging.
  • Costello, David M.; Tiegs, Scott D.; Boyero, Luz; Canhoto, Cristina; Capps, Krista A.; Danger, Michael; Frost, Paul C.; Gessner, Mark O.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; Halvorson, Halvor M.; Kuehn, Kevin A.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Royer, Todd V.; Mathie, Devan M.; Albariño, Ricardo J.; Arango, Clay P.; Aroviita, Jukka; Baxter, Colden V.; Bellinger, Brent J.; Bruder, Andreas; Burdon, Francis J.; Callisto, Marcos; Camacho, Antonio; Colas, Fanny; Cornut, Julien; Crespo‐Pérez, Verónica; Cross, Wyatt F.; Derry, Alison M.; Douglas, Michael M.; Elosegi, Arturo; Eyto, Elvira; Ferreira, Verónica; Ferriol, Carmen; Fleituch, Tadeusz; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J.; Frainer, André; Garcia, Erica A.; García, Liliana; García, Pavel E.; Giling, Darren P.; Gonzales‐Pomar, R. Karina; Graça, Manuel A. S.; Grossart, Hans‐Peter; Guérold, François; Hepp, Luiz U.; Higgins, Scott N.; Hishi, Takuo; Iñiguez‐Armijos, Carlos; Iwata, Tomoya; Kirkwood, Andrea E.; Koning, Aaron A.; Kosten, Sarian; Laudon, Hjalmar; Leavitt, Peter R.; Lemes da Silva, Aurea L.; Leroux, Shawn J.; LeRoy, Carri J.; Lisi, Peter J.; Masese, Frank O.; McIntyre, Peter B.; McKie, Brendan G.; Medeiros, Adriana O.; Miliša, Marko; Miyake, Yo; Mooney, Robert J.; Muotka, Timo; Nimptsch, Jorge; Paavola, Riku; Pardo, Isabel; Parnikoza, Ivan Y.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Pozo, Jesus; Reid, Brian; Richardson, John S.; Rincón, José; Risnoveanu, Geta; Robinson, Christopher T.; Santamans, Anna C.; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Skuja, Agnija; Smykla, Jerzy; Sponseller, Ryan A.; Teixeira‐de Mello, Franco; Vilbaste, Sirje; Villanueva, Verónica D.; Webster, Jackson R.; Woelfl, Stefan; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.; Yates, Adam G.; Yule, Catherine M.; Zhang, Yixin; Zwart, Jacob A. (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2022)
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Microbes play a critical role in plant litter decomposition and influence the fate of carbon in rivers and riparian zones. When decomposing low-nutrient plant litter, microbes acquire nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the environment (i.e., nutrient immobilization), and this process is potentially sensitive to nutrient loading and changing climate. Nonetheless, environmental controls on immobilization are poorly understood because rates are also influenced by plant litter chemistry, which is coupled to the same environmental factors. Here we used a standardized, low-nutrient organic matter substrate (cotton strips) to quantify nutrient immobilization at 100 paired stream and riparian sites representing 11 biomes worldwide. Immobilization rates varied by three orders of magnitude, were greater in rivers than riparian zones, and were strongly correlated to decomposition rates. In rivers, P immobilization rates were controlled by surface water phosphate concentrations, but N immobilization rates were not related to inorganic N. The N:P of immobilized nutrients was tightly constrained to a molar ratio of 10:1 despite wide variation in surface water N:P. Immobilization rates were temperature-dependent in riparian zones but not related to temperature in rivers. However, in rivers nutrient supply ultimately controlled whether microbes could achieve the maximum expected decomposition rate at a given temperature. Collectively, we demonstrated that exogenous nutrient supply and immobilization are critical control points for decomposition of organic matter. Key Points • Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) immobilization was measured on organic matter (cotton) in 100 rivers and riparian zones representing 11 biomes • Elevated temperature in riparian zones and phosphate in rivers increased immobilization, and consequently accelerated decomposition • N and P immobilization was strongly linked by microbial stoichiometry despite widely varied surface-water nutrient ratios Plain Language Summary Bacteria and fungi contribute to the breakdown of leaf litter in rivers and floodplains. To break down leaf litter, these microbes need the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus (P), and microbes can get nutrients either from the leaf litter itself or from the environment. Most leaf litter has low nutrient content and microbes must rely on the environment to supply nutrients. We studied microbial nutrient uptake from the environment during litter breakdown to determine whether it varies predictably across the globe and how it is influenced by changing climate and nutrient pollution. In 100 rivers and floodplains in 11 of Earth's major biomes we placed small strips of cotton as stand-ins for leaf litter. Nutrient uptake was consistently greater on cotton strips that were submerged in the river compared to cotton on the floodplain. For microbes in the river, nutrient uptake was faster in instances where there was more P in the water. For microbes in the floodplain, nutrient uptake was faster where temperatures were warmer. Faster nutrient uptake by microbes was linked with faster cotton breakdown in rivers and floodplains. Our study shows that climate change and nutrient pollution can alter the activity of microbes in rivers and floodplains.
  • Lehtoranta, Suvi; Laukka, Vuokko; Fjäder, Päivi; Äystö, Lauri; Grönroos, Juha; Ekholm, Petri; Laitinen, Jyrki; Valve, Helena; Alhola, Katriina; Kauppi, Sari (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, 2022)
    SYKE Policy Brief 30 Nov. 2022
    Water management solutions need to be improved. New technologies in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment would enable more efficient nutrient recovery, allowing them to be utilised in food production and industry due to their greater degree of purity. This would also reduce negative environmental impacts. The recovery of nutrients would increase security of supply in an uncertain world situation, where the availability of nutrients can become even more difficult.
  • Lehtoranta, Suvi; Laukka, Vuokko; Fjäder, Päivi; Äystö, Lauri; Grönroos, Juha; Ekholm, Petri; Laitinen, Jyrki; Valve, Helena; Alhola, Katriina; Kauppi, Sari (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2022)
    SYKE Policy Brief 30.11.2022
    Vesihuoltoratkaisuja on muutettava. Uusilla jätevesien ja jätevesilietteen käsittelyn tekniikoilla ravinteet saataisiin talteen nykyistä tehokkaammin ja puhtaampina, ja ne pystyttäisiin hyödyntämään ruuan tuotannossa ja teollisuudessa. Samalla ympäristöhaitat vähenisivät. Ravinteiden talteenotto lisäisi huoltovarmuutta epävarmassa maailmantilanteessa, jossa ravinteiden saatavuus voi entisestään vaikeutua.
  • Virkki, Vili; Alanärä, Elina; Porkka, Miina; Ahopelto, Lauri; Gleeson, Tom; Mohan, Chinchu; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Flörke, Martina; Gerten, Dieter; Gosling, Simon N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Wanders, Niko; Kummu, Matti (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
    Human actions and climate change have drastically altered river flows across the world, resulting in adverse effects on riverine ecosystems. Environmental flows (EFs) have emerged as a prominent tool for safeguarding the riverine ecosystems, but at the global scale, the assessment of EFs is associated with high uncertainty related to the hydrological data and EF methods employed. Here, we present a novel, in-depth global EF assessment using environmental flow envelopes (EFEs). Sub-basin-specific EFEs are determined for approximately 4400 sub-basins at a monthly time resolution, and their derivation considers the methodological uncertainties related to global-scale EF studies. In addition to a lower bound of discharge based on existing EF methods, we introduce an upper bound of discharge in the EFE. This upper bound enables areas to be identified where streamflow has substantially increased above natural levels. Further, instead of only showing whether EFs are violated over a time period, we quantify, for the first time, the frequency, severity, and trends of EFE violations during the recent historical period. Discharge was derived from global hydrological model outputs from the ISIMIP 2b ensemble. We use pre-industrial (1801–1860) quasi-natural discharge together with a suite of hydrological EF methods to estimate the EFEs. We then compare the EFEs with recent historical (1976–2005) discharge to assess the violations of the EFE. These violations most commonly manifest as insufficient streamflow during the low-flow season, with fewer violations during the intermediate-flow season, and only a few violations during the high-flow season. The EFE violations are widespread and occur in half of the sub-basins of the world during more Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 3316 V. Virkki et al.: Globally widespread and increasing violations of environmental flow envelopes than 5 % of the months between 1976 and 2005, which is double compared with the pre-industrial period. The trends in EFE violations have mainly been increasing, which will likely continue in the future with the projected hydroclimatic changes and increases in anthropogenic water use. Indications of increased upper extreme streamflow through EFE upper bound violations are relatively scarce and dispersed. Although local fine-tuning is necessary for practical applications, and further research on the coupling between quantita tive discharge and riverine ecosystem responses at the global scale is required, the EFEs provide a quick and globally robust way of determining environmental flow allocations at the sub-basin scale to inform global research and policies on water resources management.
  • Polyakov, Igor V.; Tikka, Kimmo; Haapala, Jari; Alkire, Matthew B.; Alenius, Pekka; Kuosa, Harri (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Frontiers in Marine Science
    Glider observations conducted between 2016 and 2021 were combined with shipborne surveys from the 1950s through the 2010s to provide critically important information about changes in the Bothnian Sea. Particularly, we evaluated the rate of warming and freshening in several layers of the basin and showed that warming of 0.3°C/decade in the upper 25m was sufficient to explain ~40% of the oxygen depletion since the mid-1950s. This depletion was driven by limited saturation of the surface mixed layer (SML), caused by warming and a (related) weakening of the surface oxygen flux during spring blooms. Below the SML, the role of warming in oxygen depletion decreased to less than 30%, whereas the role of freshening became increasingly important via establishing stronger stratification that reduced local ventilation across the basin’s halocline. The observed values in this study are not critical for the ecological system of the Bothnian Sea. However, the presented trends towards oxygen depletion should be considered as an early warning sign as future projections of the oxygen levels in the Bothnian Sea suggest further severe losses of the dissolved oxygen in the next decades. Thus, enhancement of both observational networks and the current physical and biogeochemical models is a high priority if we are to mitigate the potential impact of oxygen loss and develop a reliable monitoring system of the Bothnian Sea.
  • Heino, Jani; García Girón, Jorge; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Hellsten, Seppo; Ilmonen, Jari; Karjalainen, Juha; Mäkinen, Teemu; Nyholm, Kristiina; Ropponen, Janne; Takolander, Antti; Tolonen, Kimmo T. (Wiley, 2022)
    Diversity and Distributions
    Aim We propose a novel approach that considers taxonomic uniqueness, functional uniqueness and environmental uniqueness and show how it can be used in guiding conservation planning. We illustrate the approach using data for lake biota and environment. Location Lake Puruvesi, Finland. Methods We sampled macrophytes and macroinvertebrates from the same 18 littoral sites. By adapting the original “ecological uniqueness” approach, we used distance-based methods to calculate measures of taxonomic (LCBD–t), functional (LCBD–f) and environmental (LCEH) uniqueness for each site. We also considered the numbers and locations of the sites needed to protect up to 70% of total variation in taxonomic, functional or environmental features in the studied part of the lake. Results Relationships between taxonomic (LCBD–t), functional (LCBD–f) and environmental (LCEH) uniqueness were generally weak, and only the relationship between macrophyte LCBD–t and LCBD–f was statistically significant. Overall, however, if the whole biotic dataset was considered, macroinvertebrate LCBD–f values showed a consistent positive relationship with macrophyte LCBD–f. Depending on the measure of site uniqueness, between one-third to one half of the sites could help protect up to 70% of the ecological uniqueness of the studied part of Lake Puruvesi. Main conclusions Although the dataset examined originated from a large lake system, the approach we proposed here can be applied in different ecosystems and at various spatial scales. An important consideration is that a set of sites has been sampled using the same methods, resulting in species and environmental matrices that can be analysed using the methodological approach proposed here. This framework can be easily applied to grid-based data, sets of islands or sets of forest fragments. We suggest that the approach based on taxonomic, functional and environmental uniqueness will be a useful tool in guiding nature conservation and ecosystem management, especially if associated with meta-system ideas or network thinking.
  • Valsta, Liisa M.; Tapanainen, Heli; Kortetmäki, Teea; Sares-Jäske, Laura; Paalanen, Laura; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Haario, Peppi; Kaljonen, Minna (MDPI, 2022)
    Nutrients
    Information on dietary adequacy is needed to assess food and nutrition security in a modern society, especially in the transition towards climate-friendly food systems. In this study, differences in the nutritional adequacy of diets among Finnish adults were evaluated in population groups of different education, income and urbanisation levels. The study used data from the FinDiet 2017 Survey (n = 1655, 18–74 years). Modelled usual intakes of foods and nutrients were evaluated relative to food-based dietary guidelines issued by the National Nutrition Council of Finland (FNNC) and with respect to nutrient adequacy following the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations and FNNC. For about half of the nutrients studied, intakes were found to be adequate. Intakes of protein, fat, saturated fatty acids and salt were estimated to be high. By contrast, inadequate intakes were seen in folate and vitamins A, D, B1, B2 and C in almost all groups studied. Groups with a higher education and income, groups that lived in urban areas and, in particular, women adhered more closely to recommended food consumption and nutrient intakes than others. However, major challenges posed by the Finnish diet are common to all groups studied, and only certain dietary features evaluated in view of nutritional adequacy are associated with socioeconomic differences.
  • Viitasalo, Markku; Bonsdorff, Erik (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Earth System Dynamics
    Climate change has multiple effects on Baltic Sea species, communities and ecosystem functioning through changes in physical and biogeochemical environmental characteristics of the sea. Associated indirect and secondary effects on species interactions, trophic dynamics and ecosystem function are expected to be significant. We review studies investigating species-, population- and ecosystem-level effects of abiotic factors that may change due to global climate change, such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, nutrient levels, and the more indirect biogeochemical and food web processes, primarily based on peer-reviewed literature published since 2010. For phytoplankton, clear symptoms of climate change, such as prolongation of the growing season, are evident and can be explained by the warming, but otherwise climate effects vary from species to species and area to area. Several modelling studies project a decrease of phytoplankton bloom in spring and an increase in cyanobacteria blooms in summer. The associated increase in N:P ratio may contribute to maintaining the “vicious circle of eutrophication”. However, uncertainties remain because some field studies claim that cyanobacteria have not increased and some experimental studies show that responses of cyanobacteria to temperature, salinity and pH vary from species to species. An increase of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) may also decrease primary production, but the relative importance of this process in different sea areas is not well known. Bacteria growth is favoured by increasing temperature and DOM, but complex effects in the microbial food web are probable. Warming of seawater in spring also speeds up zooplankton growth and shortens the time lag between phytoplankton and zooplankton peaks, which may lead to decreasing of phytoplankton in spring. In summer, a shift towards smaller-sized zooplankton and a decline of marine copepod species has been projected. In deep benthic communities, continued eutrophication promotes high sedimentation and maintains good food conditions for zoobenthos. If nutrient abatement proceeds, improving oxygen conditions will first increase zoobenthos biomass, but the subsequent decrease of sedimenting matter will disrupt the pelagic–benthic coupling and lead to a decreased zoobenthos biomass. In the shallower photic systems, heatwaves may produce eutrophication-like effects, e.g. overgrowth of bladderwrack by epiphytes, due to a trophic cascade. If salinity also declines, marine species such as bladderwrack, eelgrass and blue mussel may decline. Freshwater vascular plants will be favoured but they cannot replace macroalgae on rocky substrates. Consequently invertebrates and fish benefiting from macroalgal belts may also suffer. Climate-induced changes in the environment also favour establishment of non-indigenous species, potentially affecting food web dynamics in the Baltic Sea. As for fish, salinity decline and continuing of hypoxia is projected to keep cod stocks low, whereas the increasing temperature has been projected to favour sprat and certain coastal fish. Regime shifts and cascading effects have been observed in both pelagic and benthic systems as a result of several climatic and environmental effects acting synergistically. Knowledge gaps include uncertainties in projecting the future salinity level, as well as stratification and potential rate of internal loading, under different climate forcings. This weakens our ability to project how pelagic productivity, fish populations and macroalgal communities may change in the future. The 3D ecosystem models, food web models and 2D species distribution models would benefit from integration, but progress is slowed down by scale problems and inability of models to consider the complex interactions between species. Experimental work should be better integrated into empirical and modelling studies of food web dynamics to get a more comprehensive view of the responses of the pelagic and benthic systems to climate change, from bacteria to fish. In addition, to better understand the effects of climate change on the biodiversity of the Baltic Sea, more emphasis should be placed on studies of shallow photic environments. The fate of the Baltic Sea ecosystem will depend on various intertwined environmental factors and on development of the society. Climate change will probably delay the effects of nutrient abatement and tend to keep the ecosystem in its “novel” state. However, several modelling studies conclude that nutrient reductions will be a stronger driver for ecosystem functioning of the Baltic Sea than climate change. Such studies highlight the importance of studying the Baltic Sea as an interlinked socio-ecological system.
  • Virtanen, Elina A.; Söderholm, Maria; Moilanen, Atte (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022)
    PLOS ONE
    Conservation planning addresses the development and expansion of protected areas and requires data on for instance species, habitats, and biodiversity. Data on threats is often minimal, although necessary in conservation planning. In principle, threats should guide which conservation actions to take and where, and how to allocate resources. The lack of threat information may also limit the validity of areas to be conserved, if the condition of areas is degraded by threats unknown. The protocol described here outlines the methodology for a systematic review to explore how threats are theoretically and methodologically understood and used in conservation plans across freshwater, marine and terrestrial environments. Our primary research question is: how have threats informed conservation planning? Studies will be categorized according to the types of threats and conservation features used, theoretical and methodological approaches applied, geographical context, and biome. The results are expected to increase our understanding about how threats can and should be addressed in conservation planning.
  • Fontenelle, Ana Luiza; Nilsson, Erik; Hidalgo, Ieda Geriberto; Uvo, Cintia B.; Peyerl, Drielli (MDPI, 2022)
    Energies
    Guaranteeing reliable access to water and clean energy has been one of the most debated topics to promote sustainable development, which has made the Water–Energy Nexus (WEN) a relevant field of study. However, despite much development of the WEN, there are still many gaps to be addressed. One of these gaps is the understanding of temporal features. To address this, this study aimed to identify, categorize, and analyze the main temporal features applied in WEN studies based on a review of academic publications from 2010 to 2021. The results showed that most of the recent literature has focused on understanding the WEN from a quantitative perspective, often does not provide clear motivations for their choice of time, and lacks understanding of the role of historical processes. To improve the temporal understanding in WEN research, there is a need to include more methodological diversity, enhance the understanding of historical developments, and diversify the data use. The presented measures provide a chance to improve the evaluation of key issues, enhance the understanding of drivers of trade-offs between the water and energy sectors, and ground the discussion besides quantification. Moreover, these measures help the scientific community better communicate results to a broader audience.
  • Fraixedas, Sara; Roslin, Tomas; Antão, Laura H.; Pöyry, Juha; Laine, Anna-Liisa (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2022)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Mustajoki, Jyri; Borchardt, Steve; Büttner, Leonie; Köhler, Berit; Lepenies, Robert; Lyytimäki, Jari; Mille, Raoul; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Reis, Stefan; Richard, Didier (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Discover Sustainability
    We analyse how ambitiously the underlying targets for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations Agenda 2030 are set in terms of their semantic formulation and discuss the implications of this for policy making. Our analysis is based on classifying ambitiousness into three types: semantic, relative and absolute ambitiousness; in this paper, we mainly analyse semantic ambitiousness. We establish an evaluation framework that shows clear differences in semantic ambitiousness levels between SDG targets. Awareness of these differences is essential, as semantic ambitiousness also lays the foundation for evaluating other types of ambitiousness of the SDGs in international cross-country comparisons and national policy making processes. We also analyse how progress towards the targets has been reported in the Sustainable Development Report of the SDG Index and in the SDGs Progress Chart of the United Nations. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for the differences in the level of ambitiousness and provide recommendations for operationalising the targets. Our aim is to provide a better understanding of the variability of interpretations that can occur in the evaluation of different SDGs, and to improve the coherence between the goals in developing any future development goal frameworks beyond Agenda 2030.
  • Marttunen, Mika; Mustajoki, Jyri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Saarikoski, Heli (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Environmental Management
    The ecosystem service (ES) concept has increasingly been applied in environmental planning, while there are several decades of experience in applying multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) in complex planning situations. The aim of this article is to assess how the ES concept has been used in water management projects together with MCDA and to examine the experiences gained and make recommendations to overcome any identified challenges. Our conclusions are based on a systematic analysis of 23 articles that were selected among 206 articles focused on water-related studies using, for example, the terms multi-criteria and ecosystem services in the title, abstract or keywords. Here, we explore (i) at what level of detail ESs are included in the decision hierarchy, (ii) the pros and cons of the complementary use of the two approaches, and (iii) how the potential challenges related to the use of MCDA, such as the large number of criteria, double-counting, or assigning criteria weights, are addressed in the selected cases. The results reveal large differences between the case studies. It is shown that only a few case studies used ES categories to classify criteria in the decision hierarchy, that these cases included different numbers of ES criteria and non-ES criteria, and that most case studies elicited stakeholder preferences in MCDA. Although the paper focuses on water management projects, the conclusions regarding the advantages and pitfalls of the complementary use of the methods, as well as our recommendations, are also applicable to other environmental management contexts
  • Kaila, Lotta; Ketola, Jarmo; Toivonen, Marjaana; Loukola, Olli; Hakala, Kati; Raiskio, Sakari; Hurme, Timo; Jalli, Marja (Springer, 2022)
    Environmental science and pollution research
    Researchers globally identify pesticides as one of the main reasons for pollinator decline. In the European Union (EU), extensive legislation is implemented to protect pollinators from harmful pesticide exposure. The aim of our study was to discover whether the pesticide residue levels in honeybee matrices, such as nectar and pollen, exceeded the chronic or acute toxicity levels when beehives were located next to fields treated with specific insecticides. The insecticides were used according to the EU legislation and its national implementation. The experiments were conducted in turnip rape, oilseed rape, and caraway fields in southern Finland during the years 2019 and 2020. The pesticides used in the experiments contained the active substances lambda-cyhalothrin (2019), esfenvalerate (2020), and tau-fluvalinate (2020). However, the honeybee-collected pollen and nectar were analyzed for residues of more than 100 active substances. The results showed that the pesticide residue levels clearly remained under the oral acute toxicity for honeybees, although we found high levels of thiacloprid residues in the pollen collected in 2019. The pesticide residues in nectar were below LOQ values, which was most likely due to the rainy weather conditions together with the chosen sampling method. No statistically significant differences were observed between the insecticide-treated and untreated fields. In light of our research, the EU legislation protected honeybees from oral acute toxicity during the years 2019 and 2020. However, potential sublethal effects of thiacloprid and other pesticide compounds found in the collected pollen cannot be ruled out. In the future, constant monitoring of pesticide exposure of honeybees and wild pollinators should be established to ensure that pesticide legislation, and its implementation across the EU successfully protects pollinators and their services in agricultural environments.
  • Truffer, Bernhard; Rohracher, Harald; Kivimaa, Paula; Raven, Rob; Alkemade, Floor; Carvalho, Luis; Feola, Giuseppe (Elsevier, 2022)
    Environmental innovation and societal transitions
    The journal Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions (EIST) recently celebrated its tenth anniversary. Its development represents a great success, contributing substantially to the consolidation and maturation of the research field of sustainability transitions. However, being content with past successes will not be sufficient for tackling emerging challenges. In this perspective paper, we take stock of recent dynamics in the field by analyzing the evolving knowledge structure of the papers published in the journal. Based on these insights, we share the editorial priorities of the new editorial team and elaborate how we want to position the journal in the rapidly changing landscape of academic publishing. This is in the hope to align expectations with future authors and readers and to serve our quickly growing research field even better as it increasingly gains academic recognition and policy relevance. Highlights • We analyze the development of the knowledge structure in all articles published in EIST from 2011 to 2021. • The new editorial strategy is formulated as well as conditions for successful publication of papers in the journal. • We elaborate on how this strategy relates to recent development in the academic publishing landscape.
  • Ahkola, Heidi; Siimes, Katri (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2022)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 46 | 2022
    Haitallisten aineiden pitoisuus vesistä määritetään pääsääntöisesti kertavesinäytteestä, joka antaa hetkellisen kuvan tutkittavien yhdisteiden pitoisuudesta tietyllä ajanhetkellä ja tietyssä paikassa. Passiivikeräimien käyttö tulee ajankohtaiseksi yleensä silloin, kun kertavesinäytteenotolla ei havaita tutkittavia yhdisteitä tai pitoisuudet ovat lähellä määritysrajaa. Erilaiset passiivikeräimet keräävät tarkasteltavaa yhdistettä tietyn pituisen ajan jakson, joka voi olla päivistä viikkoihin tai jopa kuukausiin, keräintyypistä ja altistusolosuhteista riippuen. Tuona aikana kertavesinäytteessä alle määritysrajan jääneet pitoisuudet konsentroituvat mitattavalle tasolle, jolloin voidaan osoittaa yhdisteen esiintyminen näytepaikalla. Passiivikeräimiä voi altistaa hyvin erilaisissa kohteissa kuten pintavesissä, järvi- ja jokivesissä, meri- ja murtovesissä, jätevesissä ja pohjavesissä. Keräimet keräävät tutkittavan yhdisteen liukoista osaa, jolloin niiden avulla määritettävä pitoisuus ei ole aivan suoraan vertailukelpoinen kertavesinäytteestä määritetyn kokonaispitoisuuden kanssa. Yhdisteiden raja-arvot ja ympäristölaatunormit perustuvat hetkellisen kertavesinäytteenoton tuloksiin, mutta passiivikeräimet voivat tarjota edustavamman kuvan vesistön tilasta ja osoittaa läsnä olevaksi yhdisteitä, joiden pitoisuus kertavesinäytteessä jää määritysrajan alle. Passiivikeräimet tarjoavat kertavesinäytteenottoon verrattuna erilaisen menetelmä haitallisten aineiden määritykseen vesistä. Erot eri näytteenottomenetelmien välillä eivät kuitenkaan ole ylitsepääsemättömiä eivätkä menetelmät ole toisiaan poissulkevia. Keräintulosten vertailu riskinarvioinnissa käytettyihin raja-arvoihin vaatii uudenlaisen ajattelu- ja toimintamallin, joka toteutuessaan voi tuoda hyvin paljon lisätietoa haitallisten yhdisteiden ympäristövaikutuksista. Tämä raportti esittelee passiivikeräinmenetelmän periaatteen sekä tavallisimmat passiivikeräintyypit ja niiden käytössä huomioitavia seikkoja. Passive sampling in monitoring harmful substances in aquatic environment Concentrations of harmful substances in water are mainly measured from grab water samples which give an instant chemical concentration at the certain moment of sampling. Passive sampling technique becomes applicable if the concentrations in grab samples remain below the detection limits. Passive samplers are deployed at the sampling site for a time period from days to weeks or even months, depending on the sampler type. During that time the trace concentrations can be enriched to measurable level which enables to indicate the presence of harmful substance at the study site. Passive samplers can be deployed at different locations, such as surface- and groundwaters, rivers, lakes, sea and brackish waters and waste waters. The samplers collect dissolved fraction of the chemical which differs from the total concentration determined from grab water samples. The environmental quality standards are based on instant grab water sample concentrations, but passive samplers can give more representative picture of the status of watercourse by revealing the presence of harmful substances which remain undetectable in grab water samples. Passive samplers provide different sampling technique for detecting harmful substances than grab water sampling. However, the differences are feasible, and the use of one sampling techniques does not exclude the other one. Risk assessment based on passive sampling results requires new way of thinking and new mode of action which can bring novel approach on assessing the environmental effects of harmful chemicals. This guideline provides general information about the passive sampling technique and presents most commonly used passive sampler types. Also, the issues considered at the sampler deployment are discussed.
  • Manninen, Terhikki; Roujean, Jean‐Louis; Hautecoeur, Olivier; Riihelä, Aku; Lahtinen, Panu; Jääskeläinen, Emmihenna; Siljamo, Niilo; Anttila, Kati; Sukuvaara, Timo; Korhonen, Lauri (John Wiley & Sons, 2022)
    Journal of geophysical research : atmospheres
    Abstract Helicopter based simultaneous measurements of broadband surface albedo and the effective leaf area index (LAIeff) were carried out in subarctic area of Finnish Lapland in spring 2008, 2009, and 2010 under varying illumination and snow cover conditions. Vertical profile measurements show that the found relationship between albedo and LAIeff seems to be rather independent of the flight altitude and therefore the footprint scale. Actually, flights above 500 m in altitude revealed low variations of the surface albedo approaching an aerial average at 1 km, meaning that a footprint of 20 km is representative of the landscape. The albedo of the area was beta distributed, and without LAIeff values below 0.25, the average albedo value of the area would decrease from 0.49 to 0.44 showing the albedo sensitivity to sparse vegetation. The results agreed with the photon recollision probability based model PARAS and the MODIS satellite albedo product MCD43A3. However, differences between satellite based and airborne albedo values were noticed, which could be explained by a difference in footprint size and/or the strong local heterogeneity as certain flights were operated on specific targets. Key Points • Surface albedo and effective leaf area index (LAI) can be measured at fine resolution and landscape scale simultaneously using helicopter • Surface albedo and effective LAI are coherently retrieved based on a photon recollision probability based model • Airborne and satellite-based surface albedo show a good agreement Plain Language Summary Helicopter based measurements were used to assess how much a forest stand laying over a snow slab reduces the surface albedo at high latitudes where the sun zenith angle is large and shadow cast is always important. The effect is amplified in the case of sparse vegetation as there is less mutual shadowing. Model results and satellite observations are found in good agreement with the airborne data sets.