Suomen ympäristökeskus - Julkaisuarkisto: Recent submissions

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  • Luokkanen, Sinikka; Hilska-Keinänen, Katja; Savilaakso, Neea; Ylänne, Kirsi; Vesterinen, Johanna; Jalonen, Sanna (Signum, 2022)
    Signum
    Vuoden 2020 IFLAn WLIC-konferenssi piti järjestää Dublinissa, mutta pandemian vuoksi sitä siirrettiin kahteen kertaan. Ennen pandemiaa vuosina 2017–2019 konferensseissa on ollut noin 3 500 osallistujaa. Dublinissa osallistujamäärä oli noin 2 000 henkilöä. Pudotus edellisistä on merkittävä, mutta silti osallistujien määrä yllätti järjestäjät positiivisesti.
  • Beldowski, Jacek; Brenner, Matthias; Lehtonen, Kari K. (Elsevier, 2020)
    Marine Environmental Research
    Munitions introduced to the sea during military activities, including naval combat and mine warfare represent only a fraction of military material present in seas and oceans. Huge amounts of obsolete conventional munitions and chemical munitions were dumped to the sea until 1975, when London convention put a stop of sea dumping. Such munitions are a threat for maritime workers, but also for environment. Corroding shells release toxic degradation products to sediments and bottom water, and unlike other contaminants, they cannot be reduced by land measures. Only removal of source can reduce the contamination. Much work has been done in the last decade, and mechanisms of toxicity and bioaccumulation are being recognized, as well as transport and spreading mechanisms. The full assessment of the risk associated with munitions now depends on broad application of developed techniques.
  • Skarbøvik, Eva; Aroviita, Jukka; Fölster, Jens; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Kyllmar, Katarina; Rankinen, Katri; Kronvang, Brian (Springer Nature, 2020)
    Ambio
    Reference conditions of water bodies are defined as the natural or minimal anthropogenically disturbed state. We compared the methods for determining total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in rivers in Finland, Norway and Sweden as well as the established reference conditions and evaluated the possibility for transfer and harmonisation of methods. We found that both methods and values differed, especially for lowland rivers with a high proportion of agriculture in the catchment. Since Denmark has not yet set reference conditions for rivers, two of the Nordic methods were tested for Danish conditions. We conclude that some of the established methods are promising but that further development is required. We moreover argue that harmonisation of reference conditions is needed to obtain common benchmarks for assessing the impacts of current and future land use changes on water quality.
  • Kotta, Jonne; Futter, Martyn; Kaasik, Ants; Liversage, Kiran; Rätsep, Merli; Barboza, Francisco R.; Bergström, Lena; Bergström, Per; Bobsien, Ivo; Díaz, Eliecer; Herkül, Kristjan; Jonsson, Per R.; Korpinen, Samuli; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Krost, Peter; Lindahl, Odd; Lindegarth, Mats; Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke; Mühl, Martina; Sandman, Antonia Nyström; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Orlova, Marina; Skov, Henrik; Rissanen, Jouko; Šiaulys, Andrius; Vidakovic, Aleksandar; Virtanen, Elina (Elsevier, 2020)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Eutrophication is a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems globally with pronounced negative effects in the Baltic and other semi-enclosed estuaries and regional seas, where algal growth associated with excess nutrients causes widespread oxygen free “dead zones” and other threats to sustainability. Decades of policy initiatives to reduce external (land-based and atmospheric) nutrient loads have so far failed to control Baltic Sea eutrophication, which is compounded by significant internal release of legacy phosphorus (P) and biological nitrogen (N) fixation. Farming and harvesting of the native mussel species (Mytilus edulis/trossulus) is a promising internal measure for eutrophication control in the brackish Baltic Sea. Mussels from the more saline outer Baltic had higher N and P content than those from either the inner or central Baltic. Despite their relatively low nutrient content, harvesting farmed mussels from the central Baltic can be a cost-effective complement to land-based measures needed to reach eutrophication status targets and is an important contributor to circularity. Cost effectiveness of nutrient removal is more dependent on farm type than mussel nutrient content, suggesting the need for additional development of farm technology. Furthermore, current regulations are not sufficiently conducive to implementation of internal measures, and may constitute a bottleneck for reaching eutrophication status targets in the Baltic Sea and elsewhere. Highlights • Mussel farming is a viable internal measure to address Baltic Sea eutrophication. • Rates of nutrient removal depend on salinity at the regional scale and food availability at the local scale. • Cost effectiveness of nutrient removal by mussel farming depends also on farm type. • Total farm area needed for achieving HELCOM nutrient reduction targets is realistic.
  • Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Outinen, Okko; Puntila-Dodd, Riikka (Elsevier, 2020)
    Journal of Environmental Management
    Continuous and comprehensive monitoring is one of the most important practices to trace changes in the state of the environment and target management efforts. Yet, governmental resources are often insufficient for monitoring all required environmental parameters, and therefore authorities have started to utilize citizen observations to supplement and increase the scale of monitoring. The aims of the present study were to show the potential of citizen science in environmental monitoring by utilising citizen observations of the non-indigenous Harris mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii in Finnish waters, where coastal monitoring is insufficient to estimate the distribution and spread of non-indigenous species. Harris mud crab has shown measurable impact locally and is considered invasive. For reporting the status of invasions to national and European authorities and planning for potential eradication efforts, up to date knowledge on NIS ranges are needed. Citizen observations on the species were collected from the first observation onwards between 2009 and 2018, at first via email and later through an active citizen observation web portal (Invasive Alien Species Portal). The outcomes of the study indicate that species-specific citizen observations can be a beneficial addition to supplement national monitoring programs to fulfil legislative reporting requirements and to target potential management. Recognizable species and geographical areas with low biodiversity provide a good opportunity to utilize citizen observations. Moreover, citizen observations may enable distribution assessments for certain species that would otherwise require excessive resources and sampling efforts. Highlights • Citizen observations are cost-efficient addition to routine monitoring. • Citizen science can provide presence data on dist inctly recognizable species. • Citizen science provides important information to target management actions. • Citizen science enables estimates for species distribution.
  • Rosemarin, Arno; Macura, Biljana; Carolus, Johannes; Barquet, Karina; Ek, Filippa; Järnberg, Linn; Lorick, Dag; Johannesdottir, Solveig; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Koskiaho, Jari; Haddaway, Neal R.; Okruszko, Tomasz (Elsevier, 2020)
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
    This paper summarizes key findings from a series of systematic reviews and comprehensive efforts to collate evidence and expert opinions on circular solutions for recovery and reuse of nutrients and carbon from different waste streams in the agriculture and wastewater sectors. We identify established and emerging approaches for transformation towards a more circular nutrient economy with relevance to SDGs 6 and 14. The paper cites the example of the Baltic Sea Region which has experienced decades of fertilizer overuse (1950s–1990s) and concomitant urban sources of excessive nutrients. Regulations and incentive policies combining the nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycles are necessary if circular nutrient technologies and practices are to be scaled up. Pricing chemical fertilizer at levels to reflect society’s call for circularity is a central challenge. Highlights • Development of a circular nutrient economy in the EU is reviewed. • The socio-economic value of organic waste products from agriculture & municipalities needs to increase. • Opportunities are found in the new EU Circular Economy Package & Fertilizing Products Regulations. • Further implementation is possible with the Common Agriculture Policy (nutrient management tool) and Waste Framework Directive for recycling. • The Baltic Sea Region case is explored being sensitive to eutrophication with ongoing international efforts to introduce nutrient circularity.
  • Andersson, Hanna; Palm Cousins, Anna; Westerdahl, Jenny; Braun, Hendrik; Bergfors, Linus; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Pettersson, Maria; Wickman, Tonie; Jamtrot, Arne; Parkman, Helena; Krupanek, Janusz; Fridmanis, Juris; Toropovs, Valters; Verta, Matti; Nielsen, Ulf (Suomenympäristökeskus, Finnish Environment Institute, Cohiba project, 2012)
  • Pilke, Ansa; Nakari, Tarja; Schultz, Eija; Munne, Päivi; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Andersson, Hanna; Mathan, Cindy; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank; Sild, Kertu Kirit; Durkin, Mikhail (Suomen ympäristökeskus, Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
  • Spilling, Kristian; Asmala, Eero; Haavisto, Noora; Haraguchi, Lumi; Kraft, Kaisa; Lehto, Anne-Mari; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Norkko, Joanna; Piiparinen, Jonna; Seppälä, Jukka; Vanharanta, Mari; Vehmaa, Anu; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Data in Brief
    Climate change is projected to cause brownification of some coastal seas due to increased runoff of terrestrially derived organic matter. We carried out a mesocosm experiment over 15 days to test the effect of this on the planktonic ecosystem. The experiment was set up in 2.2 m3 plastic bags moored outside the Tvärminne Zoological Station at the SW coast of Finland. We used four treatments, each with three replicates: control (Contr) without any manipulation; addition of a commercially available organic carbon additive called HuminFeed (Hum; 2 mg L-1); addition of inorganic nutrients (Nutr; 5.7 µM NH4 and 0.65µM PO4); and a final treatment of combined Nutr and Hum (Nutr+Hum) additions. Water samples were taken daily, and measured variables included water transparency, organic and inorganic nutrient pools, chlorophyll a (Chla), primary and bacterial production and particle counts by flow cytometry.
  • Mchayk, Ali; Nystén, Taina; Shrestha, Arati; Tuominen, Sirkku; Prasad Acharya, Narayan (Finnish Environment Institute, 2023)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 3/2023
    The consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water leads to adverse impacts on human health; arsenic is classified by the World Health Organization as a human carcinogenic substance. In the early 2000s, Nepal was added to the list of countries suffering from arsenic contaminated water. This report reviews the efficiencies and limitations of arsenic oxidation techniques, conventional technologies used for arsenic treatment along with the recent application of nano-particle adsorbents. The arsenic treatment methods reviewed in this report include coagulation-flocculation, membrane filtration, adsorption-ion exchange, and nano-particle adsorbents. These treatment technologies generate arsenic bearing residuals, which can be managed by using several techniques presented in this review. The influence of the water composition on arsenic removal efficiencies is also addressed, along with the most important parameters to consider when choosing the best available technology for arsenic removal. As well as, this report provides tools for the cost effectiveness and environmental evaluation of different treatment systems, according to the capital costs, operational costs, and the environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions and arsenic disposal. Additionally, a predesign cost estimation for a waterwork system with the capacity of 10 mgd (37,854 m3/day) in Nepal was applied, based on historical data. The intention of the predesign cost estimation is to focus research and resources onto cost effective unit processes and technologies. Tiivistelmä Arseenin saastuttaman juomaveden käyttö aiheuttaa haitallisia vaikutuksia ihmisten terveyteen ja Maailman terveysjärjestö on luokitellut sen ihmisille syöpää aiheuttavaksi aineeksi. Nepal lisättiin 2000-luvun alussa niiden maiden luetteloon, jotka kärsivät arseenin saastuttamasta vedestä. Tässä kirjallisuuskatsauksessa tarkastellaan arseenin hapetustekniikoiden tehokkuutta ja rajoituksia, tavanomaisia arseenin poiston käsittelyyn käytettyjä tekniikoita sekä uutena tekniikkana nanohiukkasten adsorbentteja. Tarkasteltuihin arseenin käsittelymenetelmiin kuuluvat koagulaatio-flokkulaatio, kalvosuodatus, adsorptio-ioninvaihto ja nanopartikkeliadsorbentit. Nämä käsittelytekniikat tuottavat arseenipitoisia jäämiä, joita voidaan hallita useilla tässä yhteydessä esitellyillä tekniikoilla. Kirjallisuuskatsauksessa käsitellään lisäksi veden koostumuksen vaikutusta arseeninpoistotehokkuuteen sekä tärkeimpiä parametreja, jotka on otettava huomioon valittaessa parasta käytettävissä olevaa arseeninpoiston teknologiaa. Tässä julkaisussa myös johdatellaan eri arseenipoiston käsittelymenetelmien kustannustehokkuuden ja ympäristövaikutusten arviointiin, mihin vaikuttavat pääomakustannukset, käyttökustannukset sekä kasvihuonekaasupäästöjen ja arseenipitoisen jätteen ympäristövaikutukset. Lisäksi esimerkinomaisesti Nepalissa 10 mgd:n (37 854 m3/vrk) kapasiteetilla toimivalle vesilaitokselle tehtiin arseeninpoiston ennakkosuunnittelun kustannusarvio, joka perustuu aiempiin kustannustietoihin. Esisuunnittelun kustannusarvion tarkoituksena on keskittää tutkimusta ja resursseja kustannustehokkaisiin yksikköprosesseihin ja teknologioihin.
  • Koivikko, Riitta; Nurkki, Annika; Leivuori, Mirja; Tervonen, Keijo; Lanteri, Sari; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2023)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 2/2023
    Proftest Syke järjesti yhteistyössä Työterveyslaitoksen (TTL) kanssa syksyllä 2022 kansallisen vertailumittauksen toimijoille, jotka tekevät materiaalinäytteiden asbestimäärityksiä. Vertailumittauksen osallistujille toimitettiin neljä rakennusmateriaalinäytettä, joista analysoitiin asbestin läsnäolo tai puuttuminen sekä tunnistetut asbestisilikaattimineraalit. Vertailumittaukseen osallistui yhteensä 10 toimijaa. Osallistujatulosten arviointi perustui testinäytteiden raportoituihin tuloksiin ja osallistujatuloksia verrattiin asiantuntijalaboratoriossa tehtyihin asbestianalyyseihin. Hyväksyttäviä asbestimääritystuloksia oli tulosaineistossa 93 % ja hyväksyttäviä asbestitunnistustuloksia 99,5 %. Kiitos vertailumittauksen osallistujille!
  • Grönroos, Päivi; Koivikko, Riitta; Näykki, Teemu; Kolehmainen, Jaana; Sara-Aho, Timo; Tervonen, Keijo; Lanteri, Sari; Väisänen, Ritva; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Finnish Environment Institute, 2023)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 1/2023
    Proftest Syke carried out the proficiency test (PT) for analyses of synthetic samples and drinking water as well as raw water samples in September 2022. In total, there were 37 participants in the PT. Either the calculated concentration or the robust mean of the reported results was used as the assigned values for the measurands. The overall performance of the participants was evaluated by using z scores. In this PT 86% of the results were satisfactory when total deviation of 0.2 pH units for pH values and 5–20% for the other measurands was accepted from the assigned value. Warm thanks to all participants in this proficiency test! Pätevyyskoe 09/2022: Talousvesimääritykset Proftest Syke järjesti syyskuussa 2022 pätevyyskokeen talousvesiä analysoiville laboratorioille synteettisestä vesinäytteestä sekä talous- ja raakavesinäytteistä. Pätevyyskokeeseen osallistui yhteensä 37 laboratoriota. Testisuureiden vertailuarvoina käytettiin joko laskennallista pitoisuutta tai osallistujien tulosten robustia keskiarvoa. Osallistujien pätevyyden arviointi tehtiin z-arvojen avulla. Koko tulosaineistossa oli z-arvoilla arvioituna 86 % hyväksyttäviä tuloksia, kun vertailuarvosta sallittiin pH-määrityksissä 0,2 pH-yksikön ja muissa määrityksissä 5–20 %:n poikkeama. Kiitos pätevyyskokeen osallistujille!
  • Keto, Vesa; Koponen, Sampsa (Finnish Environment Institute, 2023)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 39/2022
    Satellite Earth Observation methods can be used to monitor the environment with extensive spatial and temporal coverage. The Sentinel satellites of Copernicus programme of the European Union provide an excellent opportunity to develop monitoring systems for the Arctic. This report shows visual examples where satellite images have been used to provide information about River Tana located in Northern Finland and Norway. The visual snow and ice cover examples cover different seasons over the year: from the winter to the low water season of the late summer. The proposed next steps are to extend the use of EO methods into efficient routine use for monitoring the arctic environment. Provision of EO-based lake ice, snow cover and water quality information is already on going and partially automated. Additional effort is needed especially on the further processing of EO-based information, user collaboration and on identification of the barriers. Arktisen alueen satelliittihavainnointi: esimerkkejä Tenojoelta Satelliittihavaintomenetelmien avulla ympäristön tilaa on mahdollista seurata hyvällä alueellisella ja ajallisella erotuskyvyllä. Euroopan Unionin Copernicus ohjelman Sentinel satelliitit tarjoavat oivallisen tilaisuuden rakentaa kattava seurantajärjestelmä arktiselle alueelle. Tämä raportti keskittyy Pohjois-Suomessa ja Norjassa olevan Tenojoen tilanteen seurantaan satelliittikuvien avulla eri vuodenaikoina. Esimerkit kuvaavat joen tilaa lumi ja jääpeitteisestä talvesta loppukesän vähävetiseen kauteen. Jatkovaiheiksi ehdotetaan satelliittihavaintomenetelmien käyttöönottoa osana arktisen ympäristön jatkuvaluonteista seurantaa. Satelliittihavaintopohjaisia järvien jääpeitetietoja, lumenpeittävyyttä ja vedenlaatutietoja tuotetaan jo osin automatisoidusti. Kehitystyötä tarvitaan erityisesti aineistojen jatkojalostamiseksi ja käyttäjäyhteistyön tiivistämiseksi.
  • Annala, Mari; Hilli, Anu; Hotanen, Juha-Pekka; Hokajärvi, Raili; Jokikokko, Pauli; Karttunen, Krister; Kesälä, Mikko; Kuoppala, Minna; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Leinonen, Antti; Marttila, Hannu; Meriö, Leo-Juhani; Karhunen, Helli; Piirainen, Sirpa; Porvari, Petri; Salmivaara, Aura; Vaso, Asta; Mykrä, Heikki (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2023)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 47 / 2022
    Hankkeessa testattiin laserkeilausaineistoista johdettujen paikkatietoaineistojen soveltuvuutta pienvesien suojavyöhykkeiden rajaamiseen Pohjois-Pohjanmaalla sijaitsevien purojen ranta-alueilla. Pääasiallisena aineistona oli topografinen kosteusindeksi (DTW), joka ilmaisee maanpinnan korkeuseroa suhteessa pohjaveden pintaan ja siten maan suhteellisia kosteusolosuhteita. Lisäksi tarkasteltiin maaperän eroosioriskistä kertovaa RUSLE-karttaa ja siitä johdettuja retentio- ja massatasekarttoja, joiden avulla voidaan tarkastella kiintoaineen pidättymistä ja kulkeutumisen reittejä. Suojavyöhykkeen rajaamiseen soveltuvia kosteusindeksin raja-arvoja selvitettiin viiden puron ranta-alueilla tehtyjen kasvillisuusinventointien avulla. Suojavyöhykkeiden raja-arvot mallinnettiin lisäksi koneoppimisalgoritmin avulla ja suojavyöhykevaihtoehtoihin sisällytettiin myös maaperän eroosioherkkyyteen perustuva rajaus. Rajattujen suojavyöhykkeiden taloudellisia vaikutuksia selvitettiin suojavyöhykerajauksiin jäävän puuston arvon perusteella. Taloudellisiin tarkasteluihin sisällytettiin myös harvennus- ja poimintahakkuut mahdollisina metsän käsittelyinä. Tutkimuspurot luokiteltiin lisäksi suojeluluokkiin Siniset tavoitteet -työkalun avulla. Metsänomistajien näkemyksiä rantametsien suojelusta kartoitettiin 15 281 Pohjois-Pohjanmaalaiselle metsänomistajalle lähetetyn kyselyn avulla. Kosteusindeksi selitti kasvilajiston vaihtelua hyvin ja indeksin raja-arvon (0,5 metriä) perusteella voitiin rajata rannan monimuotoisimmat kosteat kasvupaikat kattava suojavyöhyke. Tällä vyöhykkeellä kasvilajistossa oli useita kostealle kasvupaikalle ominaisia lajeja, joita ei juurikaan tavattu kuivemmilta vyöhykkeiltä. Myös koneoppimismenetelmän perusteella kosteusindeksi oli ylivoimaisesti tärkein kasvilajiston vaihtelun selittäjä, minkä lisäksi kosteusindeksi vastasi mitattua maankosteutta suhteellisen hyvin, etenkin jos maalaji oli turvemaata. Kosteusindeksiin perustuvat suojavyöhykkeet olivat pinta-alaltaan laajempia verrattuna 15 metriä leveään tasalevyiseen suojavyöhykkeeseen, mutta hehtaarikohtainen puuston arvo oli kosteusindeksiin perustuvilla vyöhykkeillä alhaisempi verrattuna tasalevyisiin vyöhykkeisiin. Harvennus- ja poimintahakkuilla saatiin alennettua suojavyöhykkeelle jäävän puuston arvoa, mutta hakkuumahdollisuudet vaihtelivat paljon purojen välillä. Eroosioherkkien alueiden huomioiminen suojavyöhykkeissä kasvatti pinta-alaa huomattavasti, koska alueet eivät sijainneet aivan puron välittömässä läheisyydessä. Näillä alueilla maanmuokkauksen huolellinen suunnittelu ja kiintoaineen kulkeutumisreittien huomioiminen olisi tärkeää. Eroosioherkille alueille voisi esimerkiksi sijoittaa säästöpuuryhmiä rantametsän ja vesistöjen sedimentaation ehkäisemiseksi. Paikkatietoaineistoja tarkastelemalla voidaan ennustaa luontoarvojen esiintymistä, mutta niiden toteaminen vaatii maastotarkasteluja. Siniset tavoitteet -työkalun mukainen inventointi soveltuu tähän hyvin ja menetelmän avulla voidaan helposti tunnistaa erityistä huomiota vaativat kohteet. Vaihtelevan levyiset suojavyöhykkeet kiinnostivat metsänomistajia laajasti. Vastauksissa tuotiin selvästi esiin tarve joustaville, tapauskohtaisille suojelumenetelmille ja monipuoliselle metsäneuvonnalle. Kosteusindeksiin perustuvat vyöhykkeet ja näillä mahdollisesti tehtävät poimintahakkuut todennäköisesti vastaavat parhaiten useimpien metsänomistajien toiveita.
  • Häkkinen, Tarja (Finnish Environment Institute, 2023)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 48/2022
    The emission database for building products and services – CO2DATA – was developed at the Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE) by the request of the Ministry of the Environment and in collaboration with specialists of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for building products and buildings. The main target of the database is to support the design for low carbon and resource-efficient building by providing typical environmental data for products, services, and systems to be used in the assessment of alternative design solutions. An essential function of the CO2DATA database is to enable the preparation of climate reports for building designs. Climate reports will be required in the building permissions processes for new building and deep renovation in accordance with the new Government’s proposal for Build-ing Act. Climate reports can be calculated and formulated by combining the emission data based on CO2DATA with the information about the energy consumption and energy sources, and the information based on the bill of quantities. The purpose of this report is to explain how the environmental data of the database was developed and introduce what kind of sources were used. The purpose is also to give information about the structure and coverage of data and to support the correct use of data in the environmental assessment of buildings and building designs. The main indicator of the database is global warming potential (GWP). The database defines GWP values for products, services, and systems. The indicator is called as carbon footprint and defined as the total amount of greenhouse gases induced during the life cycle of the building, expressed as the weight of carbon dioxide equivalents. For all building products, the GWP is expressed in terms of kg CO2e per kg of product. Additional information – such as weight per m, m2 or m3 – is typically also given to help the conversion of the mass-based value. The specific GWP values of energy services are given in kg CO2e in relation to the energy unit of the service (kWh), and those of transportation services are defined in kg CO2e per load unit (ton) and the unit of transportation distant (km). The GWP values for construction and deconstruction of buildings are mostly given in terms of kg CO2e per building area unit (m2). LCA-tietokanta rakennustuotteille, palveluille ja järjestelmille Rakennustuotteiden ja -palvelujen päästötietokanta – CO2DATA – on kehitetty Suomen ympäristökeskuksessa (SYKE) ympäristöministeriön tilauksesta ja yhteistyössä rakennustuotteiden ja rakennusten elinkaariarvioinnin (Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) asiantuntijoiden kanssa. Tietokannan päätavoitteena on tukea vähähiilisen ja resurssitehokkaan rakentamisen suunnittelua tarjoamalla tyypillistä ympäristötietoa tuotteille, palveluille ja järjestelmille vaihtoehtoisten suunnitteluratkaisujen arviointiin ja vertailuun. CO2DATA -tietokannan olennainen tehtävä on myös mahdollistaa rakennussuunnitelmien ilmastoselvitysten laatiminen. Uudisrakentamisen ja peruskorjauksen rakennuslupaprosesseissa tullaan vaatimaan ilmastoselosteiden laatimista Valtioneuvoston uuden rakentamislakiehdotuksen mukaisesti. Ilmastoselvitys voidaan laskea ja muotoilla yhdistämällä CO2DATA -pohjaiset päästötiedot energiankulutusta ja energialähteitä koskeviin tietoihin sekä rakennussuunnitelman määräluetteloon perustuviin tietoihin. Tämän raportin tarkoituksena on selittää, miten tietokannan ympäristödata on kehitetty ja millaisia lähteitä tietojen valinnassa on pääosin käytetty. Tarkoituksena on myös antaa tietoa tietokannan rakenteesta ja kattavuudesta sekä tukea tiedon oikeaa käyttöä rakennusten ja suunnitelmien arvioinnissa. Tietokannan pääindikaattori on ilmastonlämpenemispotentiaali (GWP). Tietokanta määrittelee GWP-arvot tuotteille, palveluille ja järjestelmille. Tunnuslukua kutsutaan hiilijalanjäljeksi, ja se annetaan rakennuksen elinkaaren aikana syntyneiden kasvihuonekaasujen kokonaismääränä, ja sen yksikkönä käytetään kilogrammaa hiilidioksidiekvivalentteja (kg CO2e). Kaikille rakennustuotteille GWP ilmaistaan kilogrammoina hiilidioksidiekvivalentteja tuotekiloa kohden (kg CO2e/kg). Massaperusteisen arvon muuntamisen avuksi annetaan tyypillisesti myös lisätietoa – kuten tuotteen paino per m, m2 tai m3. Energiapalveluiden GWP-arvot annetaan energiayksikköä (kWh) kohden ja kuljetuspalveluiden arvot kuormayksikköä (tonnia) ja kuljetusetäisyyden yksikköä (km) kohden. Rakennusten rakentamisen ja purkamisen GWP-arvot annetaan pääosin rakennuksen pinta-alayksikköä (m2) kohti.
  • Minard, Guillaume; Kahilainen, Aapo; Biere, Arjen; Pakkanen, Hannu; Mappes, Johanna; Saastamoinen, Marjo (Wiley, 2022)
    Functional Ecology
    1. Many specialist herbivores have evolved strategies to cope with plant defences, with gut microbiota potentially participating to such adaptations. 2. In this study, we assessed whether the history of plant use (population origin) and microbiota may interact with plant defence adaptation. 3. We tested whether microbiota enhance the performance of Melitaea cinxia larvae on their host plant, Plantago lanceolata and increase their ability to cope the defensive compounds, iridoid glycosides (IGs). 4. The gut microbiota were significantly affected by both larval population origin and host plant IG level. Contrary to our prediction, impoverishing the microbiota with antibiotic treatment did not reduce larval performance. 5. As expected for this specialized insect herbivore, sequestration of one of IGs was higher in larvae fed with plants producing higher concentration of IGs. These larvae also showed metabolic signature of intoxication (i.e. decrease in Lysine levels). However, intoxication on highly defended plants was only observed when larvae with a history of poorly defended plants were simultaneously treated with antibiotics. 6. Our results suggest that both adaptation and microbiota contribute to the metabolic response of herbivores to plant defence though complex interactions.
  • Hyysalo, S.; Heiskanen, E.; Lukkarinen, J.; Matschoss, K.; Jalas, M.; Kivimaa, P.; Juntunen, J.K.; Moilanen, F.; Murto, P.; Primmer, E. (Elsevier, 2022)
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions
    Energy transitions are in many respects past the early exploration stages and moving towards the urgently needed mass market take-up. We examine the Finnish energy transition regarding how solutions – heat-pumps, deep retrofits and new district-wide solutions – that have demonstrated economic benefits and reasonable payback times have faced slow uptake and slow market development. We focus on the difficulties that suppliers and adopters face in establishing the value and singularization of goods when adopters need to act as calculative agents in the market. When the intermediation processes needed for market development do not cover the all the needed aspects, these market difficulties can persist until late in the transition process. We further elaborate how the intermediation takes place in ecologies of actors that become complex once the complexity of goods grows and the intermediation becomes tied to formalized arenas such as those found in urban development. Periodic assessment of the effectiveness of markets and ecologies of intermediation can inform policy interventions on market development. Highlights • Market formation in the energy transition may take longer than assumed • Intermediation is important in market formation prior to mainstream markets • Intermediation is not functional but happens in partial and shifting ways • Ecologies of intermediation and socio-material arenas pattern intermediation • The embedding of markets into complex patterns of intermediation slows market development
  • Lahtinen, Laura; Mattila, Tuomas; Myllyviita, Tanja; Seppälä, Jyri; Vasander, Harri (Elsevier, 2022)
    Ecological engineering
    Drained peatlands are a large emission source and a shift to paludiculture (rewetting and cultivation of wet-tolerant plants) is emerging as a potential emission reduction measure. Paludiculture can potentially results in emission savings from direct emissions, product substitution and carbon storage, but the whole life cycle climate impacts are rarely studied. In this study, we evaluated two paludiculture product systems (cattail (Typha) construction board and common reed (Phragmites) horticultural vermicompost) with cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) applied global sensitivity analysis to identify, which parts of the product system would need more research and product development to ensure net emission savings. Based on the results, both product systems result in much lower emissions than current agricultural land use and may be net greenhouse gas sinks (average − 6.0 tCO2eq ha−1 for cattail board; −3.0 tCO2eq ha−1 for reed growing media). The uncertainty in the product life cycle is concentrated to a few key processes: the direct CO2 and CH4 emissions from paludiculture, construction board additives, and CH4 emissions from vermicomposting reed. Further research to these would minimize the uncertainty and help in maximizing the climate mitigation potential of paludiculture derived products. Highlights • Paludiculture reduces emissions from agricultural peatlands. • Paludiculture products can store carbon and substitute emission intensive products. • Benefits can be increased by identifying high emission process stages in production. • Life cycle assessment can help in guiding process development.
  • Toivonen, Marjaana; Karimaa, Anna-Elina; Herzon, Irina; Kuussaari, Mikko (Elsevier, 2022)
    Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
    Non-bee insects have been identified as important crop pollinators globally. However, strategies to protect pollinators and enhance crop pollination usually focus on supporting bees. This study examined the effects of landscape structure, location within field, and floral resources on pollinators’ visits on mass-flowering caraway (Carum carvi L.) in boreal farmland, and the effects of the visits on caraway yield. Pollinator visits on caraway flowers were monitored and caraway yield measured in 30 fields at landscapes ranging from field-dominated to forest-dominated landscapes. Hoverflies were the most abundant flower-visitors of caraway, followed by honeybees. Hoverflies and other flies made more flower visits on caraway than all bee species combined. Pollinator groups differed in their responses to landscape and local factors. Flies were most abundant near field edges and in landscapes with high forest cover. Non-syrphid flies and solitary bees responded positively to the cover of flowering herbs in the adjacent field margins. Flower visits by honeybees, instead, were positively related to the flowering crop cover in the study fields. Caraway seed yield increased with increasing number of flower visits by honeybees, hoverflies and all pollinators together. Pollinator exclusion reduced caraway fruit set (i.e. the number of fruits per flower) by 13% and seed yield by 40%. Our study is the first to report the high importance of flies to crop pollination in boreal farmland, where caraway is an important export crop. The results highlight the need of taking flies and their habitat requirements into account when developing strategies to enhance crop pollination. Highlights • Hoverflies were the most frequent flower-visitors on caraway, followed by honeybees. • Flies made more flower visits than all bee species combined. • Flies were abundant near field edges and in landscapes with high forest cover. • Honeybees responded positively to the flowering crop cover. • Flower visits by both honeybees and hoverflies increased caraway yield.
  • Ruokamo, Enni; Räisänen, Milja; Kauppi, Sari (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Journal of Cleaner Production
    This study investigates consumer experiences and perceptions of products and packaging made of recycled plastics and examines factors that are linked with the attractiveness of such applications. Generally, the drivers and barriers related to the demand for recycled plastics are not thoroughly understood. To study these, a survey was conducted in Finland. The results reveal that 93% of consumers of recycled plastic applications are satisfied with the acquired products and would buy the products again. The use of recycled plastic is stated to have positively affected purchase decisions of 86% of consumers. The results imply that females, younger people, those who recycle, and those who are environmentally conscious are likelier to think that the use of recycled plastics increases product attractiveness. However, developers and producers should pay attention to availability, product selection and labeling of recycled plastics. The study provides information on potential customers, marketing strategies, and appreciated product characteristics for developers, manufacturers, policy-makers, and researchers in the plastic field. Highlights • Consumers are mainly satisfied with the products made of recycled plastic they own. • The use of recycled plastic seems to positively affect purchase decisions. • Many product- and consumer-specific factors impact attractiveness of recycled plastic. • Product selection, availability and labeling should be improved.