Suomen ympäristökeskus - Julkaisuarkisto: Recent submissions

Now showing items 21-40 of 5492
  • Huttunen, Suvi; Kaljonen, Minna; Lonkila, Annika; Rantala, Salla; Rekola, Aino; Paloniemi, Riikka (Elsevier, 2021)
    Energy Research and Social Science 76 (2021), 102067
    In order to maintain a habitable planet, relatively fast and large-scale transitions towards sustainable societies are needed especially regarding the production and consumption of energy. The transitions require people to change the ways they conduct their daily lives as well as agency (capacity to act) in bringing about the needed changes at different levels of society. However, inadequate attention to human behaviour and agency is a recurring critique of the sustainability transition literature. In this article, we bring together insights from institutional, socio-psychological, practice theoretical and relational perspectives to highlight the diversity of understanding agency in sustainability transitions. The different approaches provide a nuanced view on the roles of people and the conduct of everyday lives in sustainability transitions. Building on the multi-level perspective (MLP), we argue that in order to acquire a more holistic understanding on the role of agency in sustainability transitions, attention should be paid to the links and interactions between different socio-technical systems, such as energy, transportation, waste and food as well as their internal dynamics, blurring the boundaries of micro-, meso- and macro-levels. Improved understanding of agency will bring to the fore everyday behaviour as an enabler of sustainability transitions. Furthermore, it will allow a more nuanced perception of the transition dynamics, which can significantly improve the overall understanding of the situated sustainability transitions mechanisms.
  • Heino, Jani; Culp, Joseph M.; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Goedkoop, Willem; Lento, Jennifer; Rühland, Kathleen; Smol, John P.; Britton, Robert (British Ecological Society, 2020)
    Journal of Applied Ecology Volume 57, Issue 7 (2020)
    1. Arctic regions support a wide variety of freshwater ecosystems. These naturally oligotrophic and cold-water streams, rivers, ponds and lakes are currently being impacted by a diverse range of anthropogenic pressures, such as accelerated climate change, permafrost thaw, land-use change, eutrophication, brownification and the replacement of northern biota with the range expansion of more southern species. 2. Multiple stressors are rapidly changing Arctic freshwater systems as aquatic habitats are becoming more suitable for species originating from more southerly regions and thereby threatening biota adapted to cold waters. The livelihoods of Indigenous Peoples of the north will be altered when ecosystem services associated with changes in biodiversity are affected. Unfortunately, monitoring of biodiversity change in Arctic freshwaters is currently inadequate, making it difficult, if not impossible, to predict changes in ecosystem services. 3. Synthesis and applications. We propose a three-step approach to better address and facilitate monitoring of the rapid ecological changes that Arctic freshwater ecosystems are currently experiencing as a result of climate change. First, we should increase our efforts in the monitoring of freshwaters across all Arctic countries by setting up a network of monitoring sites and devoting more effort to a broad-scale baseline survey using standardized methods. Second, we should enhance modelling efforts to include both ecological change and socio-economic development. These models should help pinpoint species, ecosystems and geographical areas that are likely to show abrupt changes in response to any changes. Third, we should increase interaction among scientists, policymakers and different stakeholder groups. In particular, Indigenous Peoples must be involved in the leadership, planning and execution of monitoring and assessment activities of Arctic freshwaters. The proposed approach, which is critical to detecting the effects of climate change in the circumpolar region, has broader applications for global coordination of Arctic freshwater biomonitoring. Through routine monitoring, standardization of methods, enhanced modelling of integrated scientific and socio-economic change, and increased collaboration within and among sectors, more effective monitoring and management of climate change impacts on freshwater biodiversity will be possible in the Arctic and globally.
  • Suikkanen, Sanna; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Kauppila, Pirkko; Mäkinen, Katja; Kuosa, Harri (Elsevier, 2021)
    Food Webs 28, e00202
    Blooms of cyanobacteria are recurrent phenomena in coastal estuaries. Their maximum abundance coincides with the productive period of zooplankton and pelagic fish. Experimental studies indicate that diazotrophic, i.e. dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterial (taxonomic order Nostocales) blooms affect zooplankton, as well as other phytoplankton. We used multidecadal monitoring data from one archipelago station (1992–2013) and ten open sea stations (1979–2013) in the Baltic Sea to explore the potential bottom-up connections between diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria and phyto- and zooplankton in natural plankton communities. Random forest regression, combined with linear regression analysis showed that the biomass of cyanobacteria (both diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic) was barely connected to any of the phytoplankton and zooplankton variables examined. Instead, physico-chemical variables (salinity, temperature, total phosphorus), as well as spatial and temporal variability seemed to have more significant connections to both phytoplankton and zooplankton variables. Zooplankton variables were also connected to the biomass of phytoplankton groups other than cyanobacteria (such as chrysophytes, cryptophytes and prymnesiophytes), and phytoplankton variables had connections with the biomass of different zooplankton groups, especially copepods. Overall, negative relationships between cyanobacteria and other plankton taxa were scarcer than expected based on previous experimental studies.
  • Agra, Janaina; Ligeiro, Raphael; Heino, Jani; Macedo, Diego R.; Castro, Diego M.P.; Linares, Marden S.; Callisto, Marcos (Elsevier Science Ireland, 2021)
    Ecological indicators 121, 107079
    The effects of anthropogenic disturbance on multiple facets of biodiversity are poorly understood. In this study, we worked with the hypothesis that anthropogenic disturbances affect the relationship between environmental heterogeneity (EH) and biodiversity. We used a model selection approach to test three predictions. P1: The greater the level of anthropogenic disturbance, the weaker will be the relationship between EH and both taxonomic and functional alpha diversities. P2: The sign and strength of correlations between EH metrics and both taxonomic and functional alpha diversities will depend on the level of anthropogenic disturbance. P3: Taxonomic and functional beta diversities will not respond to the EH gradient. We sampled 76 stream sites in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna and collected insect of the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera to measure taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversities. For P1, we did not find a trend of decreasing strength of this relationship with increasing disturbance. Results confirmed P2. Spatial flow diversity was positively correlated to taxonomic and functional alpha diversities in least-disturbed sites. Bankfull height variation was negatively correlated to taxonomic and functional alpha diversities in moderately-disturbed sites. Thalweg depth variation was positively correlated to taxonomic and functional alpha diversities in most-disturbed sites. Results partially confirmed P3 because taxonomic and functional beta diversities correlated with EH metrics in most-disturbed sites. We conclude that the biodiversity-EH relationship is not the same at all levels of anthropogenic disturbance, a finding that has implications for biomonitoring and ecosystem management.
  • Caroppi, Gerardo; Västilä, Kaisa; Gualtieri, Paola; Järvelä, Juha; Giugni, Maurizio; Rowinski, Pawel M. (Elsevier, 2020)
    Data in Brief 32, (2020), 106080
    Vegetation, generally present along river margins and floodplains, governs key hydrodynamic processes in riverine systems. Despite the flow-influencing mechanisms exhibited by natural vegetation and driven by its complex morphology and flexibility, vegetation has been conventionally simulated by using rigid cylinders. This article presents a dataset obtained from hydraulic experiments performed for investigating the flow-vegetation interaction in partly vegetated channels. Vegetation was simulated by using both natural-like and rigid model plants. Specifically, two sets of experiments are described: in the first, vegetation was simulated with natural-like flexible foliated plants standing on a grassy bed; in the second, rigid cylinders were used. Experiments with rigid cylinders were designed to be compared against tests with natural-like plants, as to explore the effects of vegetation representation. The following experimental data were produced: 3D instantaneous velocity measured by acoustic Doppler velocimetry, vegetation motion video recordings, and auxiliary data including detailed vegetation characterization. These experiments are unique both for the use of natural-like flexible woody vegetation in hydraulic experiments and for the similarity achieved between the resulting observed vegetated shear layers. These data are expected to be useful in vegetated flows model development and validation, and represent a unique benchmark for the interpretation of the flow-vegetation interaction in partly vegetated channels.
  • Nyberg, Elina; Kontio, Panu; Vierikko, Kati; Räikkönen, Natalia; Holma, Anne; Koivula, Hanna; Ryttäri, Terhi; Shorokova, Ekaterina; Velmala, Sannakajsa (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2021)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 36/2021
    Vieraslaji on haitallinen, jos se uhkaa luonnon monimuotoisuutta tai siihen liittyviä ekosysteemipalveluita. Haitallisista vieraslajeista osa on säädetty kansallisesti ja osa koko EU:n tasolla haitallisiksi. Haitalliseksi määriteltyjen vieraslajien maahantuonti, kasvatus, myynti ja muu hallussapito sekä ympäristöön päästäminen on kielletty. Nykyisin haitallisten vieraslajien torjuntaan kiinnitetään yhä enemmän huomiota ja käytetään resursseja. Tärkeä osa torjuntatyötä on lisätä vieraslajien ja niiden aiheuttamien haittojen tuntemusta sekä tietoa oikeaoppisista torjuntamenetelmistä. DIAS-hankkeessa (Osaamisen ja aineistojen vaihdon yhteistyöverkosto), jonka toteuttajina olivat Luonnonvarakeskus, Suomen ympäristökeskus ja Karjalan tutkimuskeskus (KarRC RAS) tarkasteltiin vieraslajiasioita Suomessa sekä Venäjän Karjalassa. DIAS-yhteistyöhankkeen tavoitteena oli lisätä tietoa haitallisten vieraslajien aiheuttamista uhkista luonnon monimuotoisuudelle ja mm. virkistyskäytölle tai kotitalousviljelylle. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli jakaa hyviä kokemuksia erilaisista leviämistä ehkäisevistä toimenpiteistä ja hyviksi koetuista torjuntakeinoista niin järjestöille, tutkijoille, viranomaisille kuin kansalaisille. Luomalla uusia tiedonvaihtomenetelmiä sekä perustamalla ja yhdistämällä lajistoaineiston hallintaan ja avoimen datan jakamiseen hyödynnettäviä yhteisiä digitaalisia ICT-alustoja, voidaan maiden välistä viranomaisyhteistyötä parantaa. Hankkeessa toteutettiin internetpohjaiset Webropol-kyselyt kansalaisille Suomessa sekä Karjalan tasavallassa Venäjällä kesän ja syksyn 2020 aikana. Kyselyillä pyrittiin kartoittamaan, miten hyvin ihmiset tuntevat vieraslajit, vieraslajien levinneisyyttä sekä vieraslajien torjuntaa. Kyselyt sisälsivät samoja kysymyksiä / teemoja, mutta niitä oli sovitettu molempien maiden olosuhteisiin. Tässä raportissa esittelemme Suomen ja Karjalan tasavallan kyselyjen tulokset sekä vastaajien esille nostamia keinoja vieraslajien torjunnan edistämiseksi. Suomessa kyselyyn vastasi yhteensä 475 henkilöä. Vastaajien ikä painottui ikäryhmiin 40-49- sekä 50-64 -vuotiaat. Alueellisesti eniten vastauksia saatiin Etelä- ja Keski-Suomesta (asuinpaikka ja mökkipaikkakunta huomioitu). Karjalan tasavallan kyselyyn vastasi yhteensä 84 henkilöä, joista suurin osa asui tai vieraili säännöllisesti Petroskoin alueella. Eniten vastauksia saatiin 30-39 -vuotiailta henkilöiltä. Kyselyihin vastanneet olivat kohtalaisen tietoisia vieraslajeista. Eniten tietoa vieraslajeista oli saatu internetin välityksellä (vieraslajiportaalit) sekä paikallisesta mediasta. Myös sosiaalinen media ja tuttavapiiri nousivat esiin tärkeinä tiedonvälityskanavina. Suomessa vastaajat tunsivat parhaiten maaekosysteemien kasvivieraslajit ja toiseksi parhaiten selkärankaiset. Vesiekosysteemien vieraslajit olivat hieman vieraampia, samoin kuin metsien ja peltojen tuholaiset. Monet vastaajista olivat osallistuneet vieraslajien torjuntaan, useimmiten omassa lähiympäristössään, mutta melko usein myös talkoissa. Ideoita vieraslajitoiminnan kehittämiseksi saatiin kyselyissä paljon. Vastaajat toivoivat esimerkiksi viestinnän parantamista, ohjausta, paikallishallinnon roolin selkiytystä tai resursseja sekä muutoksia lainsäädäntöön. Myös torjunnan pitkäjänteisyyden tukeminen sekä vieraslajihavaintojen ilmoittamisjärjestelmien kehittäminen mainittiin. Suomessa pohdittiin erilaisia tapoja motivoida ihmisiä mukaan toimintaan ja kehitettiin järjestelmien toimivuutta, Karjalan tasavallassa taas toivottiin parempaa viestintää siitä, mihin havaintoja voi ilmoittaa. Suomessa toteutetun kyselyn perusteella muodostettiin toimenpidesuosituksia vieraslajien torjuntaan. Toimenpide-ehdotukset jaoteltiin eri teemoihin, kuten resurssit, koulutus, viestintä, sääntelyn kehittäminen, yhden luukun periaate (ilmoittamis- ja hallinnointijärjestelmät), motivointi sekä tapahtumat.
  • Ahkola, Heidi; Lindholm-Lehto, Petra; Perkola, Noora; Välitalo, Pia; Meriläinen, Päivi; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Alegre Stelzer, Julio Alberto; Heiskanen, llse; Järvistö, Johanna; Nuutinen, Jari; Leppänen, Matti T. (Elsevier, 2020)
    Science of the Total Environment 758 (2021), 143700
    Sewage sludge is an inevitable byproduct produced in wastewater treatment. Reusing nutrient-rich sludge will diminish the amount of waste ending in soil dumping areas and will promote circular economy. However, during sewage treatment process, several potentially harmful organic chemicals are retained in sludge, but proving the safety of processed sludge will promote its more extensive use in agriculture and landscaping. Environmental risk assessment of sludge requires new methods of characterizing its suitability for various circu lar economy applications. Bioavailable and bioaccessible fractions are key variables indicating leaching, transport, and bioaccumulation capacity. Also, sludge treatments have a significant effect on chemical status and resulting environmental risks. In this study, the concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), methyl triclosan (mTCS), and selected active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were deter mined in different sludge treatments and fractions. Passive samplers were used to characterize the bioavailable and bioaccessible fractions, and the sampler extracts along the sludge and filtrate samples were utilized in the bioassays. The TCS and PAH concentrations did not decrease as the sludge was digested, but the contents diminished after composting. Also, mTCS concentration decreased after composting. The API concentrations were lower in digested sludge than in secondary sludge. Digested sludge was toxic for Aliivibrio fischeri, but after composting, toxicity was not observed. However, for Daphnia magna, passive sampler extracts of all sludge treatments were either acutely (immobility) or chronically (reproduction) toxic. Secondary and digested sludge sampler extracts were cytotoxic, and secondary sludge ex tract was also genotoxic. The measured chemical concentration levels did not explain the toxicity of the samples based on the reported toxicity thresholds. Bioassays and sampler extracts detecting bioavailable and bioaccessible contaminants in sludge are complementing tools for chemical analyses. Harmonization of these methodswill help establish scientifically sound regulative thresholds for the use of sludge in circular economy applications.
  • Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Artell, Janne; Hjerppe, Turo; Pouta, Eija (Springer Link, 2020)
    Environmental and Resource Economics 77, 615–639
    Studies on the public’s implicit discount rate in the willingness to pay for environmental amenities have mostly employed contingent valuation surveys. We investigate respondents’ time preferences using choice experiments with four payment schedules in a split-sample design in the context of mire conservation. We first examine preference and taste heterogeneity among respondents, finding them to a large extent independent of payment schedules. Next we use an endogenous approach to jointly estimate the implicit discount rates and preferences using choice experiments data. We explore exponential and hyperbolic discounting model specifications. We find insensitivity to the length of the payment period and support for hyperbolic discounting. Furthermore, we provide policy relevant valuation results concerning mire conservation.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2021)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 37/2021
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2020/2021 including: a short summary of previous data assessments, a status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network, a report on the recovery of epiphytic lichen communities in Sweden over 20 years of rapid air pollution decline, a report on long-term impacts of air pollution and climate change at Finnish ICP IM sites, National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Leoni, Mack; Attila, Jenni; Aylagas, Eva; Beermann, Arne; Borja, Angel; Hering, Daniel; Kahlert, Maria; Leese, Florian; Lenz, Robin; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Liess, Antonia; Lips, Urmas; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Meissner, Kristian; Pyhälahti, Timo; Setälä, Outi; Strehse, Jennifer S.; Uusitalo, Laura; Willstrand Wranne, Anna; Birk, Sebastian (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020)
    Frontiers in marine science 7: 552047
    A multitude of anthropogenic pressures deteriorate the Baltic Sea, resulting in the need to protect and restore its marine ecosystem. For an efficient conservation, comprehensive monitoring and assessment of all ecosystem elements is of fundamental importance. The Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission HELCOM coordinates conservation measures regulated by several European directives. However, this holistic assessment is hindered by gaps within the current monitoring schemes. Here, twenty-two novel methods with the potential to fill some of these gaps and improve the monitoring of the Baltic marine environment are examined. We asked key stakeholders to point out methods likely to improve current Baltic Sea monitoring. We then described these methods in a comparable way and evaluated them based on their costs and applicability potential (i.e., possibility to make them operational). Twelve methods require low to very low costs, while five require moderate and two high costs. Seventeen methods were rated with a high to very high applicability, whereas four methods had moderate and one low applicability for Baltic Sea monitoring. Methods with both low costs and a high applicability include the Manta Trawl, Rocket Sediment Corer, Argo Float, Artificial Substrates, Citizen Observation, Earth Observation, the HydroFIA®pH system, DNA Metabarcoding and Stable Isotope Analysis.
  • Leivuori, Mirja; Koivikko, Riitta; Sara-Aho, Timo; Näykki, Teemu; Tervonen, Keijo; Lanteri, Sari; Väisänen, Ritva; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Finnish Environment Institute, 2021)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 38/2021
    Proftest SYKE carried out the proficiency test (PT) for analysis of metals in natural and drinking waters in April-May 2021. The measurands for synthetic sample and drinking as well as natural water samples were: Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, V, and Zn. In total, there were 15 participants in the PT. Either metrologically traceable concentration, the calculated concentration or the mean or the median of the results reported by the participants was used as the assigned value for the measurands. The overall performance of the participants was evaluated by using z and En scores. In this PT 90 % of the results were satisfactory when total deviation of 10–20 % for the measurands was accepted from the assigned value. The titanium results of the drinking water sample D2M were evaluated by using En scores and 80 % of those were satisfactory. Warm thanks to all participants in this proficiency test!
  • Czub, Michał; Nawała, Jakub; Popiel, Stanisław; Brzeziński, Tomasz; Maszczyk, Piotr; Sanderson, Hans; Maser, Edmund; Gordon, Diana; Dziedzic, Daniel; Dawidziuk, Barbara; Pijanowska, Joanna; Fabisiak, Jacek; Szubska, Marta; Lang, Thomas; Vanninen, Paula; Niemikoski, Hanna; Missiaen, Tine; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Bełdowski, Jacek; Kotwicki, Lech (Elsevier, 2021)
    Aquatic Toxicology 230, 105693
    Sea dumping of chemical warfare (CW) took place worldwide during the 20th century. Submerged CW included metal bombs and casings that have been exposed for 50–100 years of corrosion and are now known to be leaking. Therefore, the arsenic-based chemical warfare agents (CWAs), pose a potential threat to the marine ecosystems. The aim of this research was to support a need for real-data measurements for accurate risk assessments and categorization of threats originating from submerged CWAs. This has been achieved by providing a broad insight into arsenic-based CWAs acute toxicity in aquatic ecosystems. Standard tests were performed to provide a solid foundation for acute aquatic toxicity threshold estimations of CWA: Lewisite, Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine (PDCA), CWA-related compounds: TPA, arsenic trichloride and four arsenic-based CWA degradation products. Despite their low solubility, during the 48 h exposure, all CWA caused highly negative effects on Daphnia magna. PDCA was very toxic with 48 h D. magna LC50 at 0.36 μg × L−1 and Lewisite with EC50 at 3.2 μg × L−1. Concentrations at which no immobilization effects were observed were slightly above the analytical Limits of Detection (LOD) and Quantification (LOQ). More water-soluble CWA degradation products showed no effects at concentrations up to 100 mg × L−1.
  • Kangas, Johanna; Kullberg, Peter; Pekkonen, Minna; Kotiaho, Janne S.; Ollikainen, Markku (Springer, 2021)
    Environmental Management 68,170–183
    The rates of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss are alarming and current conservation efforts are not sufficient to stop them. The need for new tools is urgent. One approach is biodiversity offsetting: a developer causing habitat degradation provides an improvement in biodiversity so that the lost ecological value is compensated for. Accurate and ecologically meaningful measurement of losses and estimation of gains are essential in reaching the no net loss goal or any other desired outcome of biodiversity offsetting. The chosen calculation method strongly influences biodiversity outcomes. We compare a multiplicative method, which is based on a habitat condition index developed for measuring the state of ecosystems in Finland to two alternative approaches for building a calculation method: an additive function and a simpler matrix tool. We examine the different logic of each method by comparing the resulting trade ratios and examine the costs of offsetting for developers, which allows us to compare the cost-effectiveness of different types of offsets. The results show that the outcomes of the calculation methods differ in many aspects. The matrix approach is not able to consider small changes in the ecological state. The additive method gives always higher biodiversity values compared to the multiplicative method. The multiplicative method tends to require larger trade ratios than the additive method when trade ratios are larger than one. Using scoring intervals instead of using continuous components may increase the difference between the methods. In addition, the calculation methods have differences in dealing with the issue of substitutability.
  • Rutanen, Ilpo (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1994)
    Vesi- ja ympäristöhallinnon julkaisuja - Sarja A 196
  • Salminen, Sarianna; Tammelin, Mira; Jilbert, Tom; Fukumoto, Yu; Saarni, Saija (Kluwer Academic, 2021)
    Journal of Paleolimnology 2021
    The influence of lake restoration efforts on lake bottom-water conditions and varve preservation is not well known. We studied varved sediments deposited during the last 80 years along a water-depth transect in the Enonsaari Deep, a deep-water area of the southernmost Enonselkä Basin, Lake Vesijärvi, southern Finland. For the last few decades, the Enonselkä Basin has been subject to ongoing restoration efforts. Varve, elemental, and diatom analyses were undertaken to explore how these actions and other human activities affected varve preservation in the Enonsaari Deep. In contrast to most varved Finnish lakes, whose water columns have a natural tendency to stratify, and possess varve records that span thousands of years, varve formation and preservation in Lake Vesijärvi was triggered by relatively recent anthropogenic stressors. The multi-core varve analysis revealed that sediment in the Enonsaari Deep was initially non-varved, but became fully varved in the late 1930s, a time of increasing anthropogenic influence on the lake. The largest spatial extent of varves occurred in the 1970s, which was followed by a period of less distinguishable varves, which coincided with diversion of sewage from the lake. Varve preservation weakened during subsequent decades and was terminated completely by lake aeration in the 2010s. Despite improvements in water quality, hypolimnetic oxygen depletion and varve preservation persisted beyond the reduction in sewage loading, initial aeration, and biomanipulation. These restoration efforts, however, along with other human actions such as harbor construction and dredging, did influence varve characteristics. Varves were also influenced by diatom responses to anthropogenic forcing, because diatoms form a substantial part of the varve structure. Of all the restoration efforts, a second episode of aeration seems to have had the single most dramatic impact on profundal conditions in the basin, resulting in replacement of a sediment accumulation zone by a transport or erosional zone in the Enonsaari Deep. We conclude that human activities in a lake and its catchment can alter lake hypolimnetic conditions, leading to shifts in lake bottom dynamics and changes in varve preservation.
  • Hällfors, Maria H.; Pöyry, Juha; Heliölä, Janne; Kohonen, Ilmari; Kuussaari, Mikko; Leinonen, Reima; Schmucki, Reto; Sihvonen, Pasi; Saastamoinen, Marjo (Blackwell Science, 2021)
    Ecology Letters 24: 1619-1632
    Species can adapt to climate change by adjusting in situ or by dispersing to new areas, and these strategies may complement or enhance each other. Here, we investigate temporal shifts in phenology and spatial shifts in northern range boundaries for 289 Lepidoptera species by using long-term data sampled over two decades. While 40% of the species neither advanced phenology nor moved northward, nearly half (45%) used one of the two strategies. The strongest positive population trends were observed for the minority of species (15%) that both advanced flight phenology and shifted their northern range boundaries northward. We show that, for boreal Lepidoptera, a combination of phenology and range shifts is the most viable strategy under a changing climate. Effectively, this may divide species into winners and losers based on their propensity to capitalize on this combination, with potentially large consequences on future community composition.
  • Cowie, Annette L.; Berndes, Göran; Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Brandão, Miguel; Cherubini, Francesco; Egnell, Gustaf; George, Brendan; Gustavsson, Leif; Hanewinkel, Marc; Harris, Zoe M.; Johnsson, Filip; Junginger, Martin; Kline, Keith L.; Koponen, Kati; Koppejan, Jaap; Kraxner, Florian; Lamers, Patrick; Majer, Stefan; Marland, Eric; Nabuurs, Gert‐Jan; Pelkmans, Luc; Sathre, Roger; Schaub, Marcus; Smith, Charles Tattersall; Soimakallio, Sampo; Van Der Hilst, Floor; Woods, Jeremy; Ximenes, Fabiano A. (Blackwell, 2021)
    GCB Bioenergy 13: 1210-1231
    The scientific literature contains contrasting findings about the climate effects of forest bioenergy, partly due to the wide diversity of bioenergy systems and associated contexts, but also due to differences in assessment methods. The climate effects of bioenergy must be accurately assessed to inform policy-making, but the complexity of bioenergy systems and associated land, industry and energy systems raises challenges for assessment. We examine misconceptions about climate effects of forest bioenergy and discuss important considerations in assessing these effects and devising measures to incentivize sustainable bioenergy as a component of climate policy. The temporal and spatial system boundary and the reference (counterfactual) scenarios are key methodology choices that strongly influence results. Focussing on carbon balances of individual forest stands and comparing emissions at the point of combustion neglect system-level interactions that influence the climate effects of forest bioenergy. We highlight the need for a systems approach, in assessing options and developing policy for forest bioenergy that: (1) considers the whole life cycle of bioenergy systems, including effects of the associated forest management and harvesting on landscape carbon balances; (2) identifies how forest bioenergy can best be deployed to support energy system transformation required to achieve climate goals; and (3) incentivizes those forest bioenergy systems that augment the mitigation value of the forest sector as a whole. Emphasis on short-term emissions reduction targets can lead to decisions that make medium- to long-term climate goals more difficult to achieve. The most important climate change mitigation measure is the transformation of energy, industry and transport systems so that fossil carbon remains underground. Narrow perspectives obscure the significant role that bioenergy can play by displacing fossil fuels now, and supporting energy system transition. Greater transparency and consistency is needed in greenhouse gas reporting and accounting related to bioenergy.
  • Kelemen, Eszter; Pataki, György; Konstantinou, Zoi; Varumo, Liisa; Paloniemi, Riikka; Pereira, Tânia R.; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Vandewalle, Marie; Young, Juliette (Elsevier Science, 2021)
    Environmental Science and Policy 123, 91-98
    An approach that has been suggested as potentially addressing the challenges of science-policy-interfaces (SPIs) is the mobilization of existing networks through a ‘network-of-networks’ (NoN) approach. This paper shares empirical findings from a mixed-method study, combining qualitative and quantitative data, that critically evaluates the ‘network-of-networks’ approach for SPIs. To establish whether and how a NoN can help existing networks act more effectively at the boundary of science and policy, we use the Eklipse Mechanism as a key example. We analyse the major characteristics of networks active in biodiversity-focused science-policy interactions, the potential roles and types of engagement of participants, and the major challenges faced by networks and individuals when acting at the boundaries of science and policy. Results suggest that the more diverse the actors involved, the more effective the SPI. While a formalized EU-level SPI for biodiversity is welcomed by most respondents, willingness and actual potential to contribute to such an entity differed amongst networks, highlighting that contributions to SPIs are highly dependent on individual and organizational capacities. The challenges faced by individuals and networks range from limited resources to effective communication and achieving meaningful impact even if the institutional context is unrewarding. To make a ‘network-of-networks’ model fully operational requires meeting the capacity building needs of networks, providing institutional support, and creating room for wider engagement.
  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Volobuev, Sergey; Malysheva, Vera; Miettinen, Otto; Kotiranta, Heikki; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (Nationale Plantentuin van België, 2021)
    Plant Ecology and Evolution 154: 2, 231-244
    Background and aims – To date, Megalocystidium leucoxanthum, a corticioid fungus originally described from the Italian Alps, was considered as a widely distributed species inhabiting numerous angiosperm hosts in the northern hemisphere. Its specimens collected in different geographic areas and from various host species revealed a high morphological variability and thus obfuscated differences from the closely related M. luridum. The objective of this study was to re-establish M. leucoxanthum based on newly collected and sequenced specimens and clarify the identity of morphologically deviating collections previously ascribed to this species. Material and methods – In total, 87 specimens of Megalocystidium spp. (including two historical types) were studied by morphological methods. Their phylogenetic relations were investigated based on DNA sequences (nrITS, nrLSU, and tef1) of 29 specimens. Key results – Based on morphological, ecological and DNA data, we showed M. leucoxanthum sensu typi is a rare species restricted to Alnus alnobetula in subalpine and subarctic zones. Consequently, records from other hosts (mostly representatives of Salicaceae) belong to three other species, M. olens, M. perticatum, and M. salicis, described as new to science. The fourth newly introduced species, M. pellitum, occurs on the same host tree as M. leucoxanthum but it can be separated from the latter due to distinctive morphological traits and DNA sequences. Additionally, Aleurodiscus diffissus is combined in Megalocystidium and the identity of M. luridum is clarified.
  • Kiryluk, Halina; Glińska, Ewa; Ryciuk, Urszula; Vierikko, Kati; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa (Public Library of Science, 2021)
    PLoS ONE 16: 6, e0253166
    Stakeholder participation is particularly important when dealing with mobility problems in touristic remote areas, in which there is a need to find sustainable solutions to increase transport accessibility. However, the literature lacks research linking the issues of establishing stakeholder groups with the most desirable level of involvement and methods ensuring involvement on the indicated level. The aim of the paper is to fill this gap on example of project dedicated to six Baltic Sea Regions. In the first stage key stakeholder groups were identified, then different methods and tools were proposed depending on levels of engagement of given group of stakeholders on solving the problems of local mobility. Two research methods were implemented–the case study and the content analysis of documents. The results of the research point to the existence of five key groups of stakeholders interested in solving transport problems of touristic remote areas: authorities, business and service operators, residents, visitors and others (like experts and NGOs). Among the five–authorities and business representatives–should be to a higher degree engaged. However, the main conclusion is that engagement local government units, when developing their own, long-term strategies for social participation, should adapt the selection of participation methods and techniques to a specific target group and the desired level of their involvement so as to include stakeholders in the co-decision processes as effectively as possible and achieve effective regional co-management.