Suomen ympäristökeskus - Julkaisuarkisto: Recent submissions

Now showing items 21-40 of 6248
  • Li, Guohua; Zhang, Sheng; Shi, Xiaohong; Zhan, Liyang; Zhao, Shengnan; Sun, Biao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhijun; Arvola, Lauri; Uusheimo, Sari; Tulonen, Tiina; Huotari, Jussi (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Indicators
    Aquatic ecosystems are globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere, offsetting the terrestrial sinks. A one-year field study was carried out in a shallow eutrophic Lake Wuliangsuhai, Inner Mongolia (draining waters from one of the largest irrigation areas in China), to estimate diffusive GHG fluxes and their relative importance in global warming potential (GWP). Our results showed high spatiotemporal variation in dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations, while they did not differ significantly between the bottom and surface layers of the shallow waterbody. In general, GHG concentrations and diffusive fluxes were higher in the north part of the lake than in the south. GHG concentrations in the water under the ice were significantly higher than those during the open-water period. Spatial variability of GHG concentrations varied with the bathymetry of the lake. The location of study sites relative to the main inflow and abundance of submerged macrophytes were the main controlling factors of GHG concentrations, as indicated by the consistency of GHG concentrations at the sampling sites, particularly for N2O. The total diffusive GHG emission from Lake Wuliangsuhai was 76.9 ± 5.4 Gg CO2 equivalents yr−1, with CO2, CH4 and N2O contributing 16 %, 83 %, and 1 %, respectively. Overall, the results suggest that shallow lakes in mid-latitude arid areas with cold winters can be potentially important GHG sources. However, those lakes are insufficiently represented in the scientific literature, and therefore they deserve more research attention. Highlights • Greenhouse gases emissions from a shallow lake in semi-arid area were estimated. • Considerable spatiotemporal variation in dissolved CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations. • Spatial variability of GHG was associated with lake bathymetry and abundance of macrophytes. • CH4 contributed 83% to the total emissions as CO2-equivalents. • Lakes are an important source of carbon to the atmosphere.
  • Kruglova, Antonina; Muñoz-Palazón, Barbara; Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Mikola, Anna; Vahala, Riku; Talvitie, Julia (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Environmental Pollution
    Microplastics (MPs) provide a stable and protective habitat for diverse wastewater bacteria, including pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant species. Therefore, MPs may potentially transport these bacteria through wastewater treatment steps to the environment and far distances. This study investigated bacterial communities of MP-associated bacteria from different stages of municipal wastewater treatment processes to evaluate the potential negative effect of these biofilms on the environment. The results showed a high diversity of bacteria that were strongly attached to MPs. After all treatment steps, the core bacterial groups remained attached to MPs and escaped from the wastewater treatment plant with effluent water. Several pathogenic bacteria were identified in MP samples from all treatment steps, and most of them were found in effluent water. These data provide new insights into the possible impacts of wastewater-derived MPs on the environment. MP-associated biofilms were proved to be important sources of pathogens and antibiotic-resistant genes in natural waters. Highlights • Effluent microplastics carry a variety of different bacteria into the environment. • Wastewater microplastic biofilms contain bacteria from the human gut microbiome. • Primary and tertiary treatment have a minor impact on microplastic biofilm structure. • Effluent microplastic biofilms are combined of influent and activated sludge bacteria. • Wastewater microplastics are possible hotspots for the spread of harmful bacteria.
  • Viitala, Mirka; Steinmetz, Zacharias; Sillanpää, Mika; Mänttäri, Mika; Sillanpää, Markus (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Environmental Pollution
    Only scarce information is available about the abundance of microplastics (MPs) in Nordic lakes. In this study, the occurrence, types, and distribution of MPs were assessed based on the lake water and sediment samples collected from a sub-basin of Lake Saimaa, Finland. The main goal was to estimate the possible effect of the local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the abundance of MPs in different compartments of the recipient lake area. Collected bottom sediment samples were Cs-137 dated and the chronological structure was utilized to relate the concentrations of MPs to their sedimentation years. Raman microspectroscopy was used for the MPs’ identification from both sample matrices. In addition, MPs consisting of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) were quantified from lake water samples by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to provide a complementary assessment of MPs based on two different analysis methods, which provide different metrics of the abundance of microplastics. MPs concentrations were highest in sediment samples closest to the discharge site of WWTP effluents (4400 ± 620 n/kg dw) compared to other sites. However, such a trend was not found in lake water samples (0.7 ± 0.1 n/L). Overall, microplastic fibers were relatively more abundant in sediment (70%) than in water (40%), and the majority of detected microplastic fibers were identified as polyester. This indicates that a part of textile fibers passing the WWTP processes accumulate in the sediment close to the discharge site. In addition, the abundance of MPs was revealed to have increased slightly during the last 30 years. Highlights • Higher concentrations of microplastics were detected in sediments closer to WWTP. • Polyester fibers were the most common type of plastics near WWTP. • Microplastic pollution has slightly increased from 1990 to 2018.
  • Kourantidou, Melina; Verbrugge, Laura N.H.; Haubrock, Phillip J.; Cuthbert, Ross N.; Angulo, Elena; Ahonen, Inkeri; Cleary, Michelle; Falk-Andersson, Jannike; Granhag, Lena; Gíslason, Sindri; Kaiser, Brooks; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa; Lange, Henrik; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Magnussen, Kristin; Navrud, Ståle; Nummi, Petri; Oficialdegui, Francisco J.; Ramula, Satu; Ryttäri, Terhi; von Schmalensee, Menja; Stefansson, Robert A.; Diagne, Christophe; Courchamp, Franck (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Journal of Environmental Management
    A collective understanding of economic impacts and in particular of monetary costs of biological invasions is lacking for the Nordic region. This paper synthesizes findings from the literature on costs of invasions in the Nordic countries together with expert elicitation. The analysis of cost data has been made possible through the InvaCost database, a globally open repository of monetary costs that allows for the use of temporal, spatial, and taxonomic descriptors facilitating a better understanding of how costs are distributed. The total reported costs of invasive species across the Nordic countries were estimated at $8.35 billion (in 2017 US$ values) with damage costs significantly outweighing management costs. Norway incurred the highest costs ($3.23 billion), followed by Denmark ($2.20 billion), Sweden ($1.45 billion), Finland ($1.11 billion) and Iceland ($25.45 million). Costs from invasions in the Nordics appear to be largely underestimated. We conclude by highlighting such knowledge gaps, including gaps in policies and regulation stemming from expert judgment as well as avenues for an improved understanding of invasion costs and needs for future research. Highlights • Total reported costs of invasive species in the Nordic countries were $8.35 billion. • Costs of invasions in the Nordics appear to be largely underestimated. • The majority of invasion costs in the Nordics are expected rather than realized. • Gaps in knowledge, policies and regulations for invasive species persist. • Effective policies require Interdisciplinary work and cross-country collaborations.
  • Gunia, M.; Laine, M.; Malve, O.; Kallio, K.; Kervinen, M.; Anttila, S.; Kotamäki, N.; Siivola, E.; Kettunen, J.; Kauranne, T. (Elsevier, 2022)
    Environmental modelling and software
    We present an operational system for multi-sensor data fusion implemented at the Finnish Environment Institute. The system uses Ensemble Kalman filter and smoother algorithms, which are often used for probabilistic analysis of multi-sensor data. Uncertainty and spatial and temporal correlations present in the available observation data are accounted for to obtain accurate and realistic results. To test the data fusion system, daily chlorophyll-a concentration has been modelled across northern shoreline of Gulf of Finland over the period of August 1st – October 31st 2011. Chlorophyll-a data from routine monitoring stations, ferrybox measurements, and data derived from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite has been used as input. The data fusion system demonstrates the use of existing and well-known Ensemble Kalman filtering and smoothing methods for improving water quality monitoring programs and for ensuring compliance with ecological standards. Highlights • Operational data fusion system for coastal water quality monitoring was implemented. • Remote sensing and in-situ data sources are combined using ensemble Kalman smoother. • Result uncertainty is quantified to improve future data collection. • Simple process model captures relevant dynamics in presence of significant data gaps.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Asmala, Eero; Haavisto, Noora; Haraguchi, Lumi; Kraft, Kaisa; Lehto, Anne-Mari; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Norkko, Joanna; Piiparinen, Jonna; Seppälä, Jukka; Vanharanta, Mari; Vehmaa, Anu; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo (Elsevier, 2022)
    Science of the Total Environment
    Highlights • Modest brownification did not affect primary production, but increased bacterial production. • Concentration of inorganic nitrogen was the primary driver for the phytoplankton development. • Brownification benefitted picophytoplankton. Climate change is projected to cause brownification of some coastal seas due to increased runoff of terrestrially derived organic matter. We carried out a mesocosm experiment (15 d) to test the effect of this on the planktonic ecosystem expecting reduced primary production and shifts in the phytoplankton community composition. The experiment was set up in 2.2 m3 mesocosm bags using four treatments, each with three replicates: control (Contr) without any manipulation, organic carbon additive HuminFeed (Hum; 2 mg L−1), inorganic nutrients (Nutr; 5.7 μM NH4 and 0.65 μM PO4), and combined Nutr and Hum (Nutr + Hum) additions. Measured variables included organic and inorganic nutrient pools, chlorophyll a (Chla), primary and bacterial production and particle counts by flow cytometry. The bags with added inorganic nutrients developed a phytoplankton bloom that depleted inorganic N at day 6, followed by a rapid decline in Chla. Brownification did not reduce primary production at the tested concentration. Bacterial production was lowest in the Contr, but similar in the three treatments receiving additions likely due to increased carbon available for heterotrophic bacteria. Picoeukaryotes clearly benefited by brownification after inorganic N depletion, which could be due to more effective nutrient recycling, nutrient affinity, light absorption, or alternatively lower grazing pressure. In conclusion, brownification shifted the phytoplankton community composition towards smaller species with potential effects on carbon fluxes, such as sinking rates and export to the sea floor.
  • Stahl Olafsson, Anton; Purves, Ross S.; Wartmann, Flurina M.; Garcia-Martin, Maria; Fagerholm, Nora; Torralba, Mario; Albert, Christian; Verbrugge, Laura N.H.; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia; Kaaronen, Roope; Hartmann, Maximilian; Raymond, Christopher M. (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Landscape and Urban Planning
    Highlights •We compare the use of PPGIS and Flickr in landscape value assessments. •Landscape values and their spatial patterns are compared across sites. •We find more cross-site differences than similarities both in spatial patterns and value types. •PPGIS elicits a wider spectrum of values, while Flickr mainly elicits relationships to and with landscapes. •We recommend a complementary use in future landscape value studies. Abstract In this study, we bring together participatory mapping and analysis of geolocated social media content from the Flickr platform in an assessment of similarities and differences in their utility for landscape value elicitation. We do so in a Pan-European context comparing types of landscape values and their spatial patterns across 19 case sites in 11 European countries. Across these sites, we find great variety in volume, types and spatial patterns of landscape values elicited from participatory mapping by local people and opportunistic use of tags and image locations crowdsourced from Flickr. Most agreement in spatial patterns across the two data sets are found in densely populated landscapes; however, comparison of types of perceived landscape values is challenged by the differing assumptions of each value elicitation technique. We argue for the complementary potential of both approaches and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of using the two together in landscape research, planning and management. An integrated approach is likely to increase the inclusiveness of landscape value assessments.
  • Mönkkönen, Mikko; Aakala, Tuomas; Blattert, Clemens; Burgas, Daniel; Duflot, Remí; Eyvindson, Kyle; Kouki, Jari; Laaksonen, Toni; Punttila, Pekka (Societas pro fauna et flora Fennica, 2022)
    Memoranda Societatis pro fauna et flora Fennica
    National forest inventories (NFI) in Finland provide empirical evidence for a marked increase in tree growth, total forest area, and total timber volume over the past century. Meanwhile, the assessments of threatened forest species and habitats indicate continuous degradation of biodiversity in Finnish forests. To shed light on this seeming paradox, we summarized the temporal patterns of forest characteristics (indicators) that have major influence on biodiversity, comparing the structure of current Finnish forests with natural and historical references. Using a variety of data sources, we estimated the proportion of area of old-growth forest and of deciduous-dominated forests, the density of large trees, and the amount of dead wood in Finnish forests under natural reference conditions, in the 1750s, 1920s (NFI1), and 2010s (NFI12). Our results show that levels of the forest structures essential to maintain ecologically diverse forests are below those that likely prevailed in Finland under natural reference conditions and in the 1750s. This scarcity is particularly pronounced for dead wood volumes and old forest area. The marked increase in the volume of living trees during the last century did not translate into improved biodiversity indicators and has not been effective for turning the tide of biodiversity loss in Finnish forests. We discuss actions that are necessary to safeguard forest biodiversity in Finland both in terms of protected areas and management in production forest.
  • Saastamoinen, Uula; Vikström, Suvi; Helminen, Ville; Lyytimäki, Jari; Nurmio, Kimmo; Nyberg, Elina; Rantala, Salla (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Land Use Policy
    In order to formulate relevant understanding of key sustainability challenges, evidence-based decision-making relies on comprehensive data. While the complexity of producing and processing spatial data and the potential for biases are well recognised, the social process of making sense of data and its implications for societal uses is less analysed. In this article, insights of critical data studies are applied to study the production of, as well as uses and misuses of, the Finnish urban-rural classification. The classification structures Finland into three urban classes and four rural classes and offers an alternative to classifications that utilise administrative, municipal, and regional boundaries. The classification acts as a boundary object, functioning as a common reference for parties with varying information needs and interests. Using document analysis, as well as an insider action research methodology and our own experiences as data producers, this article aims to understand the processes of sense-making of data in the context of urban-rural classification and identify ways of improving related information systems and data practices. Intended and realised uses of the classification are analysed in order to identify different ways in which data producers and users make sense of data and justify the utilisation of the classification. The process of sense-making starts from the planning of data production and shapes how data and eventually information system are formulated throughout the data cycle. Communication about the limitations of the classification remains an issue and highlights the nature of sense-making as a collective process wherein users are actively shaping data practices as they translate information systems into their own contexts. This also draws attention to the nature of information systems as inherently unneutral, inevitably affected by negotiations shaped by the various information needs. Highlights • Sense-making within spatial data practices is studied. • A methodology for classifying an urban-rural continuum is analysed as a case study. • Uses of the classification are difficult, yet important to anticipate. • Communicative and social considerations cannot be disentangled from information systems.
  • Munck af Rosenschöld, Johan; Vihma, Peeter (Elsevier Science, 2022)
    Environmental science and policy
    Social-ecological fit has been a popular approach to assessing the connectedness between social and ecological systems in environmental governance. However, the role of projects in social-ecological fit has yet to be explicitly problematized and conceptualized. Given the centrality of projects - i.e. temporally limited organizations that bring various actors into collaboration to pursue clearly defined goals and tasks - in environmental governance, this is a serious shortcoming in the literature. In this paper, we fill this gap by drawing on the hitherto unconnected literatures on projectified environmental governance and social-ecological fit. We then assess the extent to which fit can be achieved in projectified environmental governance. To do this, we develop a novel framework for assessing the vertical and horizontal dimensions of social, spatial, and temporal fit and conduct an empirical study of the European Union’s LIFE Program and environmental projects funded by the program in Estonia. Our results suggest that the spatial and temporal fit of projects is contingent on social fit, i.e., the alignment of interests and needs of project-related actors. Frictions between various levels of decision-making also condition the possibilities of achieving fit horizontally across stakeholder groups and ecological systems as well as of sustaining project results over time. Highlights • Socio-ecological fit is a widely debated topic in environmental governance. • A critical analysis of the role of projects in social-ecological fit is currently lacking. • We explore social-ecological fit of Estonian EU LIFE projects. • The interconnectedness between different forms of fit needs to be addressed. • Pursuing socio-ecological fit is a multi-scale and multi-level effort.
  • Toivonen, Marjaana; Huusela, Erja; Hyvönen, Terho; Marjamäki, Paula; Järvinen, Ari; Kuussaari, Mikko (2022)
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment
    Crop choice affects biodiversity within fields due to crop-specific characteristics and management practices. However, there is a lack of studies systematically comparing the biodiversity value of different crops across multiple taxa. This study empirically compared the diversity of plants, pollinators, predatory arthropods, and multi-taxa diversity between seven crop types and long-term environmental fallows in boreal farmland. The effects of crop production method (organic vs. conventional) on biodiversity were also examined. Biodiversity data were collected in 78 fields in Southern Finland. The studied species groups differed in their preferences for crop types and fallows, but none of them was particularly associated to spring cereal (oat), the dominant arable crop in the boreal farmland. Environmental fallows had the highest plant species richness and butterfly abundance, whereas faba bean and oilseed crop fields attracted high numbers of bumblebees. Carabid beetles were most abundant in winter cereal (rye) fields, and spiders in perennial crop types. Multi-taxa diversity was highest in fallows and lowest in spring cereal (oat), ley and cabbage fields. Organic production increased plant species richness across crop types. Hoverflies responded to the interaction of production method and crop type, being most abundant in organically managed faba bean fields. The other species groups and multi-taxa diversity were not affected by the production method. High arable land cover in the surrounding landscape had negative effect on butterflies, solitary bees and carabid beetles within fields. Our results suggest that diversifying cropping systems to include more insect-pollinated crops, winter cereals and pastures, and increasing the area of environmental fallows while maintaining landscape heterogeneity would enhance resource provision for a variety of organism groups in boreal agricultural landscapes. Highlights • Diversity of multiple taxa was compared between crop types and production methods. • Insect-pollinated crops and fallows attracted the highest numbers of pollinators. • Predatory arthropods were most abundant in winter cereals and perennials. • Multidiversity was highest in fallows and lowest in oat, ley and cabbage fields. • Organic production increased plant species richness across crop types.
  • Kiviluoto, Katariina; Tapio, Petri; Ahokas, Ira; Aittasalo, Minna; Kokko, Sami; Vasankari, Tommi; Tuominen, Anu; Paloniemi, Riikka; Sandberg, Birgitta; Hurmerinta, Leila (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Sedentary lifestyles and the lack of physical activity (PA) are a major concern among all age groups, and current generations tend to be less fit than the previous ones in the Western World. At the same time, there is an urgent need to cut transport-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Major gains can be foreseen if current car-centred lifestyles and sedentary behaviour are addressed from an integrated perspective. In this study, we explore future scenarios in the intersections of PA and active lifestyles as well as related environmental and health benefits in Finland. We used a disaggregative Delphi approach to examine the topic. Although frequently used in health-related research, Delphi has rarely been used in exploring alternative futures or non-consensus. The study design was based on a mixed-methods approach where we combined both qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Building on the experts’ perceptions on alternative futures, we formulated four scenarios for PA up to 2030, which we named Mismatch, Empowerment, Fatigue and Balance. The scenarios may be utilised as guides in developing future policies and decision-making, and to build better futures. Our scenarios demonstrate that alternatives do exist, and actions can be realigned with the positive scenarios of Empowerment and Balance. The physically inactive scenarios of Mismatch and Fatigue represent avoidable scenarios. Highlights • We explored future scenarios in the intersections of physical activity and active lifestyles. • We utilised a mixed-methods approach where we combined both qualitative and quantitative data analysis. • We formulated four scenarios: Empowerment, Balance, Mismatch and Fatigue . • Lifestyle changes of individuals are not enough - community building and active societal support are needed.
  • Heikkinen, Risto K.; Aapala, Kaisu; Leikola, Niko; Aalto, Juha (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Informatics
    Climate velocity is an increasingly used metric to detect habitats, locations and regions which are exposed to high rates of climate change and displacement. In general, velocities are measured based on the assumption that future climatically similar locations can occur anywhere in the study landscape. However, this assumption can provide a biased basis for habitats which are constrained to specific environmental conditions. For such habitats, a set of selected suitable locations may provide ecologically more realistic velocity measures. Here, we focus on one environmentally constrained habitat, aapa mires, which are peat-accumulating EU Habitats Directive priority habitats, whose ecological conditions and biodiversity values may be jeopardised by climate change. We assess the climate exposure of aapa mires in Finland by developing velocity metrics separately for the whole ≥10 ha aapa mire complexes (‘aapa mires’) and their wettest flark-dominated parts (‘flark fens’). Velocity metrics were developed for six bioclimatic variables (growing degree days (GDD5), mean January and July temperatures, annual precipitation, and May and July water balance, based on climate data for 1981–2010 and for 2040–2069 as derived from global climate models for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). For the six variables, velocities were calculated based on the distance between climatically similar present-day and nearest future mire, divided by the number of years between the two periods, and by excluding the unsuitable matrix. Both aapa mires and flark fens showed high exposure (>5 km/year) to changes in January temperature, and often also considerably high velocities for GDD5 and July temperatures. The flark fens showed significantly higher climate velocities than the aapa mires and had a smaller amount of corresponding habitat in their surroundings. Thus, many of the studied mires, particularly the flark fens, are likely to face increased risks of exposure due to changes in winter and summer temperatures. Moreover, considerable changes in precipitation-related conditions may occur at the southern margin of the aapa mire zone. Our results show that specifically tailored climate velocity metrics can provide a useful quantitative tool to inform conservation and management decisions to support the ecosystem sustainability of this EU Habitats Directive biotope and targeting restoration towards the most vulnerable aapa mires. Highlights • Aapa mires are EU Habitats Directive priority habitats of high conservation value • Velocity assessments enable quantifying the exposure of habitats to climate change • Boreal aapa mires will face notable exposure risks due to warming climate • Wet flark fens with open water pools and their biodiversity are particularly at risk • Climate velocity information supports adaptive biodiversity conservation planning
  • Khan, Uzair Akbar; Postila, Heini; Kujala, Katharina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Engineering
    The HYDRUS wetland module is widely used together with the biokinetic model CWM1 to simulate reactive transport of contaminants in constructed wetlands. However, this approach has not been used previously to simulate processes in peat-based wetlands operating in cold climates and treating mining-influenced water. In this study, the goal was to clarify changes in flow, transport, and nitrogen removal processes in cold climate treatment peatlands by assessing the performance of HYDRUS-CWM1. Flow and non-reactive transport of tracer, and reactive transport of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate, in two pilot wetlands operated under controlled conditions representing frozen (winter) and frost-free (summer) periods were simulated. Model simulation outputs were compared against data obtained from the pilot wetlands and from a full-scale treatment peatland treating mining-influenced water in an Arctic region. Initial peaks in tracer concentration were simulated satisfactorily, but transformation and transport of nitrogen species in treatment peatlands, especially under partially frozen conditions, were modeled with only limited success. Limitations of the model and the assumptions made for the simulations have been discussed to highlight the challenges in modeling of treatment peatlands. Highlights • Initial peaks in tracer concentration were simulated satisfactorily. • Transport of nitrogen especially in winter was modeled with limited success. • Limitations of the model and possibilities for improvement are discussed. • Possibility to use multiple HYDRUS add-ons simultaneously may be critical.
  • Selonen, Salla; Jemec Kokalj, Anita; Benguedouar, Hiba; Alavian Petroody, Somayye Sadat; Dolar, Andraž; Drobne, Damjana; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M. (Elsevier BV, 2023)
    Applied Soil Ecology
    Synthetic fibers released from sewage sludge and tire particles released from traffic are among the most common types of microplastics in soil. In soil, microplastics may interact with chemicals, such as plant protection products used in agriculture. Most studies on the interactions of microplastics and chemicals focused on aquatic environments and only few addressed soil arthropods. To increase the understanding of the combined effects of microplastics and chemicals on soil arthropods, we studied the effects of polyester fibers and tire particles on the toxicity of the insecticide chlorpyrifos. Springtails (Folsomia candida) and woodlice (Porcellio scaber) were exposed in Lufa 2.2 soil to a range of chlorpyrifos concentrations (0.0088–0.8 and 0.2–3.9 mg kg−1 dry soil, respectively) without or with 0.05 % w/w (“low”) or 0.5 % w/w (“high”) of microplastics. Tire particles reduced the lethality of chlorpyrifos to springtails (LC50 = 0.13–0.14 mg kg−1 dry soil) and isopods (LC50 = 1.6 mg kg−1 dry soil) by a factor of 2- > 2.5 and the chlorpyrifos-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and changes in electron transfer system (ETS) activity in P. scaber by a factor of 2–4. Polyester fibers reduced the chlorpyrifos-induced inhibition of AChE activity by a factor of 2 and increased (ETS) activity in P. scaber by a factor of >3. The fibers did not affect the toxicity of chlorpyrifos to the survival of P. scaber or the survival and reproduction of F. candida. These results indicate that the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos may be decreased by microplastics, especially by tire particles. This study shows the importance of applying a mixture toxicity approach for understanding the threats of microplastics to soil, but also suggests that the organism and the endpoints chosen are crucial for the interpretation of the effects of combined exposures to microplastics and chemicals. Highlights • Microplastics affected the toxicity of chlorpyrifos to two soil arthropod species. • Chlorpyrifos lethality to arthropods decreased by tire particles but not by fibers. • Fibers and tire particles affected chlorpyrifos-induced biomarker changes in woodlice. • Tire particles changed chlorpyrifos effects on woodlice more than polyester fibers. • Microplastics did not affect chlorpyrifos toxicity to springtail reproduction.
  • D'Amato, D.; Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa; Lyytikainen, V.; Matthies, B.D.; Horcea-Milcu, A-I. (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Forest Policy and Economics
    The circular bioeconomy is a highly scrutinized concept in Finland and internationally, with a high degree of polarization regarding forest utilization rates and distrust between certain actors. This offers an interesting case for an exploratory analysis of issues associated with knowledge co-production. Knowledge co-production entails the integration of different knowledge types and collaboration across multiple societal actors with potentially conflicting viewpoints and agendas. We interviewed key organizations operating at the nexus of science and policy in the processes of knowledge co-production regarding the circular bioeconomy in Finland, including representatives from ministries, universities, research institutes, innovation promoters, and interest organizations. Using qualitative content analysis, we assessed the actors' tacit knowledge and perceptions regarding 1) their role in knowledge co-production across knowledge types; 2) elements enabling knowledge co-production; and 3) tensions and needs/opportunities of knowledge co-production. To frame our data collection and analysis, we particularly draw from recent sustainability science literature on knowledge types in co-production. The findings reveal that the three main knowledge types – lay, expert, and scientific – are acknowledged by all actors, but are dealt with, to different extents, according to the roles played by different actors in the process of knowledge generation. Collaboration was reported to be largely project-oriented, enabled by funding, similar mindsets, and organizational/individual networks. Tensions included conflicting ideological positions held by various actors in the circular bioeconomy, mainly hampering the co-production of normative/target knowledge; funding-induced gaps and risks in inter-actor cooperation, mainly affecting process/system knowledge of the circular bioeconomy; and gaps and difficulties in cross-sectoral and cross-discipline engagement, mainly affecting predictive/transformative knowledge. Knowledge synthesis, policy-supporting knowledge, and transformative knowledge were perceived by several interviewees to be important avenues towards improving the sustainability potential of the Finnish forest sector. Highlights • We investigated knowledge co-production on the circular bioeconomy in Finland. • We interviewed key organizations operating at the nexus of science and policy. • Co-production enabled by funding, similar mind-sets, and organizational / individual networks. • Tensions were ideological positions, funding, cross-sectoral/cross-discipline engagement. • Avenues forward were knowledge synthesis, policy-supporting knowledge and transformative knowledge.
  • Saarikoski, Heli; Aapala, Kaisu; Artell, Janne; Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Hjerppe, Turo; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Mustajoki, Jyri; Pouta, Eija; Primmer, Eeva; Vatn, Arild (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecosystem Services
    This paper presents a multi-method valuation study using discrete choice experiment, participatory multi-criteria decision analysis and deliberative citizens’ panels to evaluate the value of peatland ecosystem services in southern Finland. All three valuation studies addressed the same scenarios and drew on the same biophysical assessment data to facilitate a comparison of the valuation processes as well as the results. The results indicate that people place high value on regulating and cultural ecosystem services, especially on biodiversity, and less value on energy peat. The experiences sustain the argument that learning is important as people rarely have ordered set of preferences for unfamiliar objects like regulating services. They also illustrate the scope of citizen and consumer preferences and support the assumptions that preferences may change as a result of well-informed group deliberation. In terms of integration, the lesson learned is that regardless of the preference elicitation method, all valuation studies would benefit from structured and participatory approach when defining the scenarios as well as attributes and their levels. Furthermore, full integration is not possible among different valuation methods, which can be conceptualized as value articulating institutions, operating under different rationalities. Highlights • People placed little value on energy peat, biodiversity was regarded as the most important ecosystem service. • Carbon storage was a difficult concept for discrete choice experiment respondents. • Participatory multi-criteria decision analysis was helpful in structuring the analysis. • Deliberative valuation contributed to leaning on ecosystem services. • Full integration between valuation methods based on different understanding of rationality is problematic.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Asmala, Eero; Haavisto, Noora; Haraguchi, Lumi; Kraft, Kaisa; Lehto, Anne-Mari; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Norkko, Joanna; Piiparinen, Jonna; Seppälä, Jukka; Vanharanta, Mari; Vehmaa, Anu; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Data in Brief
    Climate change is projected to cause brownification of some coastal seas due to increased runoff of terrestrially derived organic matter. We carried out a mesocosm experiment over 15 days to test the effect of this on the planktonic ecosystem. The experiment was set up in 2.2 m3 plastic bags moored outside the Tvärminne Zoological Station at the SW coast of Finland. We used four treatments, each with three replicates: control (Contr) without any manipulation; addition of a commercially available organic carbon additive called HuminFeed (Hum; 2 mg L−1); addition of inorganic nutrients (Nutr; 5.7 µM NH4 and 0.65µM PO4); and a final treatment of combined Nutr and Hum (Nutr+Hum) additions. Water samples were taken daily, and measured variables included water transparency, organic and inorganic nutrient pools, chlorophyll a (Chla), primary and bacterial production and particle counts by flow cytometry.
  • Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Zverev, Vitali; Gusarov, Vladimir I.; Korobushkin, Daniil I.; Krivosheina, Nina P.; Mattila, Jaakko; Mutanen, Marko; Popova, Anna; Prosvirov, Alexander S; Punttila, Pekka; Söderman, Guy; Stanska, Marzena; Taylor, Astrid; Vahtera, Varpu; Zubrii, Natalia; Zvereva, Elena L. (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Simple Summary We used a 1000 km long latitudinal gradient in north-western Russia to study the potential impacts of a changing climate on soil invertebrates visible by a naked eye (insects, spiders, earthworms etc.). We extracted these animals from soil, weighed them and identified them to the species level. We found that the diversity of soil invertebrates decreased towards the north, whereas the latitudinal pattern in biomass depended on the animal’s feeding habit. The biomass of species feeding on live plant roots and fungal mycelia decreased towards the north, whereas the biomass of species feeding on dead plant tissues and live invertebrates showed no significant latitudinal changes. The discovery of this variation in latitudinal biomass patterns suggests that soil invertebrates from different feeding guilds may respond differently to climate change. As a result, the biomass ratio between consumers and their food resources (e.g., herbivores and plants, predators and prey) may change. We poorly understood how this change will affect the future structure and functions of boreal forest ecosystems. Abstract Latitudinal gradients allow insights into the factors that shape ecosystem structure and delimit ecosystem processes, particularly climate. We asked whether the biomass and diversity of soil macrofauna in boreal forests change systematically along a latitudinal gradient spanning from 60° N to 69° N. Invertebrates (3697 individuals) were extracted from 400 soil samples (20 × 20 cm, 30 cm depth) collected at ten sites in 2015–2016 and then weighed and identified. We discovered 265 species living in soil and on the soil surface; their average density was 0.486 g d·w·m−2. The species-level diversity decreased from low to high latitudes. The biomass of soil macrofauna showed no latitudinal changes in early summer but decreased towards the north in late summer. This variation among study sites was associated with the decrease in mean annual temperature by ca 5 °C and with variation in fine root biomass. The biomass of herbivores and fungivores decreased towards the north, whereas the biomass of detritivores and predators showed no significant latitudinal changes. This variation in latitudinal biomass patterns among the soil macrofauna feeding guilds suggests that these guilds may respond differently to climate change, with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem structure and functions.
  • Mölsä, Kiia M.; Horn, Susanna; Dahlbo, Helena; Rissanen, Marja (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Journal of Cleaner Production
    The environmental impacts of current, predominantly linear, life cycles of textiles are widespread and substantial. Although applying circular economy (CE) approaches offers the potential to support the transition to more sustainable textile value chains, there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting the choice of individual CE strategies for different types of textiles. The aim of this paper is to study and compare the environmental impacts of introducing different CE strategies (reuse, recycle) into the life cycle of cotton roller towels in terms of climate change impact and water consumption. According to the results, a linear life cycle of a cotton roller towel causes a climate change impact of 12.4 g CO2e/hand-drying and water consumption of 2.4 l/hand-drying. Combining different CE strategies (reuse and recycling), the roller towel's impacts could be reduced to as low as 8.9 g CO2e and 0.5 l water/hand-drying. The results indicate that the key to reducing the climate change impacts and water consumption of the towel is the increase of use times of the product, but the impacts are more ambiguous for recycling. The benefits of recycling, and even the prioritization between different CE strategies depends on the type of recycling technology and substituted material. For gaining clearer benefits from CE of cotton roller towels or any cotton textiles, there is a further need for technology development and support for selecting the correct strategies and processes. Highlights • Cotton towels can gain dissimilar water and climate benefits from circular strategies. • Reuse offers clear climate and water benefits compared to a linear life cycle. • Impact of chemical textile recycling varies with process and product substituted. • For increased recycling benefits, technologies need development and careful selection. • Reuse and recycling can be combined for maximum benefit.