The Finnish Environment Institute - Publications archive

 

The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) is both a research institute, and a centre for environmental expertise. SYKE's research focuses on changes in the environment, and seeks ways to control these changes. The repository contains publications of SYKE as well as the offices preceding it such as the National Board of Waters, The National Board of Waters and the Environment and the Finnish Institute of Marine Research. The repository consists of articles, professional and scientific series and monographs.  Further information: syke.fi/publications ; syke.fi/library

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  • Mattila, Tuomas J.; Ezzati, Golnaz (Academic Press., 2022)
    Journal of Environmental Management
    Highlights •Agricultural ditches accumulate legacy P and present a risk for water quality. •Mehlich-3 soil test can identify P saturation and total legacy P amount. •Use of a common soil test allows broad scale mapping of high P risk hotspots. Abstract Agricultural soils have accumulated considerable phosphorus (P) reserves along the transport pathways within land-water continuum. Where P concentrations are excessive compared to the soil P sorption capacity, dissolved soluble P can leach to waterbodies. A phosphorus saturation ratio (PSR = P/(Fe + Al)) can be used to classify high and low risk soils based on a commonly applied Mehlich-3 soil test. PSR has been used for acid mineral soils, but in this study it was applied to sediments and drainage ditch bankside samples. Previous published data was converted to PSR and compared to P availability measurements. The results confirmed earlier findings, that a PSR threshold of 0.1 can delineate high and low P risk sites. By quantifying the amount of P in excess to the threshold, legacy P hotspots could be located in the network which would act as an additional source of P inputs to waters. In the study site, two soils contained over 80% of the excess legacy P, presenting a localized long-term risk to water quality. The findings support using the cost effective Mehlich-3 extraction to identify hotspots with most susceptible soil-P to losses and quantify the amount of potentially leachable legacy P.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Asmala, Eero; Haavisto, Noora; Haraguchi, Lumi; Kraft, Kaisa; Lehto, Anne-Mari; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Norkko, Joanna; Piiparinen, Jonna; Seppälä, Jukka; Vanharanta, Mari; Vehmaa, Anu; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Data in Brief
    Climate change is projected to cause brownification of some coastal seas due to increased runoff of terrestrially derived organic matter. We carried out a mesocosm experiment over 15 days to test the effect of this on the planktonic ecosystem. The experiment was set up in 2.2 m3 plastic bags moored outside the Tvärminne Zoological Station at the SW coast of Finland. We used four treatments, each with three replicates: control (Contr) without any manipulation; addition of a commercially available organic carbon additive called HuminFeed (Hum; 2 mg L−1); addition of inorganic nutrients (Nutr; 5.7 µM NH4 and 0.65µM PO4); and a final treatment of combined Nutr and Hum (Nutr+Hum) additions. Water samples were taken daily, and measured variables included water transparency, organic and inorganic nutrient pools, chlorophyll a (Chla), primary and bacterial production and particle counts by flow cytometry.
  • ZENETOS, Argyro; TSIAMIS, Konstantinos; GALANIDI, Marika; CARVALHO, Natacha; BARTILOTTI, Cátia; CANNING-CLODE, João; CASTRIOTA, Luca; CHAINHO, Paula; COMAS-GONZÁLEZ, Robert; COSTA, Ana C.; DRAGIČEVIĆ, Branko; DULČIĆ, Jakov; FAASSE, Marco; FLORIN, Ann-Britt; GITTENBERGER, Arjan; JAKOBSEN, Hans; JELMERT, Anders; KERCKHOF, Francis; LEHTINIEMI, Maiju; LIVI, Silvia; LUNDGREEN, Kim; MACIC, Vesna; MASSÉ, Cécile; MAVRIČ, Borut; NADDAFI, Rahmat; ORLANDO-BONACA, Martina; PETOVIC, Slavica; PNG-GONZALEZ, Lydia; CARBONELL QUETGLAS, Aina; RIBEIRO, Romeu S.; CIDADE, Tiago; SMOLDERS, Sander; STÆHR, Peter A. U.; VIARD, Frederique; OUTINEN, Okko (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Diversity
    Invasive alien species are a major worldwide driver of biodiversity change. The current study lists verified records of non-indigenous species (NIS) in European marine waters until 2020, with the purpose of establishing a baseline, assessing trends, and discussing appropriate threshold values for good environmental status (GES) according to the relevant European legislation. All NIS records were verified by national experts and trends are presented in six-year assessment periods from 1970 to 2020 according to the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Altogether, 874 NIS have been introduced to European marine waters until 2020 with the Mediterranean Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean hosting most of the introductions. Overall, the number of new introductions has steadily increased since 2000. The annual rate of new introductions reached 21 new NIS in European seas within the last six-year assessment period (2012–2017). This increase is likely due to increased human activities and research efforts that have intensified during the early 21st century within European Seas. As Europe seas are not environmentally, nor geographically homogenous, the setting of threshold values for assessing GES requires regional expertise. Further, once management measures are operational, pathway-specific threshold values would enable assessing the effectiveness of such measures.
  • Smoliński, Szymon; Ottmann, Daniel; Outinen, Okko; Schadeberg, Amanda; Melli, Valentina; Funk, Lara; Denechaud, Côme; Wieczorek, Alina; Orio, Alessandro; Mussgnug, Robert; Morkūnė, Rasa; Vereide, Emilie Hernes; Zdulska, Maja; Phillips, Genevieve; Lishchenko, Fedor; Srėbalienė, Greta (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022)
    ICES Journal of Marine Science
    Scientific careers and publishing have radically changed in recent decades creating an increasingly competitive environment for early career scientists (ECS). The lack of quantitative data available on ECS in marine and fisheries sciences prevents direct assessment of the consequences of increased competitiveness. We assessed the contributions of ECS (up to 6 years post first publication) to the field using an indirect approach by investigating the authorships of peer-reviewed articles. We analysed 118461 papers published by 184561 authors in the top 20 marine and fisheries sciences journals over the years 1991–2020. We identified a positive long-term trend in the proportion of scientific articles (co-)authored by ECS. This suggests a growing contribution by ECS to publications in the field. However, the mean proportion of ECS (co-)authors within one publication declined significantly over the study period. Subsequent tests demonstrated that articles with ECS (co-)authors receive fewer citations and that the proportion of ECS (co-)authors on an article has a significant negative effect on the number of citations. We discuss the potential causes of these inequalities and urge systematic support to ECS to achieve more balanced opportunities for funding and publishing between ECS and senior scientists.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher; Mosquera, Virginia; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Sallantaus, Tapani; Sarkkola, Sakari (Wiley, 2022)
    Journal of Environmental Quality
    Many recent studies have indicated upward trends in carbon and nutrient concentrations from drained peatland forests over time since their initial drainage, but the mechanisms behind these trends are still poorly understood. We gathered data on nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations discharged from 37 drained boreal peatland forests where we also had data on peat and tree stand characteristics. We found that tree stand volume and peat bulk density were positively correlated with the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations discharged from particularly the deep-peated sites. We interpret these results to indicate that a plausible reason for the reported upward trends in nutrient concentrations is the maturing and growing of the tree stands over time since initial drainage and the consequent increasing evapotranspiration capacity, which results in lowered soil water levels and enhanced aerobic peat mineralization. We discuss how our results should be considered in the management of drained peatland forests.
  • Toikkanen, Jenni; Halme, Panu; Kahanpää, Jere; Toivonen, Marjaana (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Journal of Insect Conservation
    Agricultural intensification has led to structurally simplified landscapes with reduced and fragmented resources for farmland insects. However, studies on the effects of landscape composition on farmland insects have mainly been performed in areas dominated by open arable land and semi-natural grasslands, while studies from forest-dominated landscapes are scarce. This research examined the effects of landscape composition on hoverfly species richness and abundance in arable land in boreal forest-dominated landscapes. Hoverflies were sampled in 22 mass-flowering caraway (Carum carvi) fields in Central Finland using pan traps. The effects of landscape composition on species richness and abundance were examined for all hoverflies, and for species groups with different adult habitat preferences. Landscape composition was measured as proportions of land cover classes within two different radii. Species richness and abundances of all hoverflies, forest species and open-habitat species increased with decreasing arable land cover and/or increasing forest cover within a 500 m radius (the two land cover classes strongly negatively correlated). Wetland species were most abundant in landscapes with an intermediate cover of arable land and forest, and most species-rich in landscapes with intermediate (10%) water cover. The species richness and abundance of mixed-habitat species increased with increasing cover of transitional woodland. Implications for insect conservation Our results show that most hoverfies in arable land benefit from increasing surrounding forest cover even in relatively heterogeneous, forest-dominated landscapes. Preserving or increasing the area of forests and other non-arable habitats is needed to safeguard a diversity of resources for hoverflies, and associated ecosystem services in farmland.
  • Huuki, Hannu; Karhinen, Santtu; Ashraf, Faisal Bin; Haghighi, Ali Torabi; Marttila, Hannu (Wiley, 2022)
    River Research and Applications
    Hydropower operation optimization in river systems involves market prices, technological constraints affecting the efficiency of turbines, and flow constraints set by an environmental regulator. Comprehensive environmental flow regulation includes the ecological state of a river system and the impact on hydropower value. This article studies the impacts of environmental constraints on hydropower value under varying electricity price volatility scenarios. The effects of maximum flow, minimum flow, and flow ramping constraints are studied analytically and quantitatively. We frame the lost hydropower value as the economic cost of these constraints. We show that the economic costs of the environmental constraints decrease with lower price volatility. We use a marginal cost and marginal benefit framework to illustrate that the optimal flow constraint should be tightened if the price volatility decreases in the electricity market. Our approach illustrates how electricity price volatility influences the analysis of optimal environmental constraints in regulated river systems. Finally, we analyse the effect of different environmental flow release options in fishways on the economic cost of a fishway. If the hydropower operator can optimize the fishway flow allocation, then the loss in hydropower value is lower than under a constant fishway flow.
  • Granlund, Lars; Vesakoski, Ville; Sallinen, Antti; Kolari, Tiina H. M.; Wolff, Franziska; Tahvanainen, Teemu (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Ecosystems
    We investigated recent changes in spatial patterning of fen and bog zones in five boreal aapa mire complexes (mixed peatlands with patterned fen and bog parts) in a multiproxy study. Comparison of old (1940–1970s) and new aerial images revealed decrease of flarks (wet hollows) in patterned fens by 33–63% in middle boreal and 16–42% in northern boreal sites, as lawns of bog Sphagnum mosses expanded over fens. Peat core transects across transformed areas were used to verify the remote sensing inference with stratigraphic analyses of macrofossils, hyperspectral imaging, and age-depth profiles derived from 14C AMS dating and pine pollen density. The transect data revealed that the changes observed by remote sensing during past decades originated already from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) between 1700–1850 CE in bog zones and later in the flarks of fen zones. The average lateral expansion rate of bogs over fen zones was 0.77 m y−1 (range 0.19–1.66) as estimated by remote sensing, and 0.71 m y−1 (range 0.13–1.76) based on peat transects. The contemporary plant communities conformed to the macrofossil communities, and distinct vegetation zones were recognized as representing recently changed areas. The fen-bog transition increased the apparent carbon accumulation, but it can potentially threaten fen species and habitats. These observations indicate that rapid lateral bog expansion over aapa mires may be in progress, but more research is needed to reveal if ongoing fen-bog transitions are a commonplace phenomenon in northern mires.
  • Hjort, Jan; Tukiainen, Helena; Salminen, Henriikka; Kemppinen, Julia; Kiilunen, Petteri; Snåre, Henna; Alahuhta, Janne; Maliniemi, Tuija (Blackwell, 2022)
    Journal of applied ecology
    1. Current global environmental change calls for comprehensive and complementing approaches for biodiversity conservation. According to recent research, consideration of the diversity of Earth's abiotic features (i.e. geodiversity) could provide new insights and applications into the investigation and management of biodiversity. However, methods to map and quantify geodiversity at local scale have not been developed although this scale is important for conservation planning. Here, we introduce a field methodology for observing plot-scale geodiversity, pilot the method in an Arctic–alpine tundra environment, provide empirical evidence on the plot-scale biodiversity–geodiversity relationship and give guidance for practitioners on the implementation of the method. 2. The field method is based on observation of geofeatures, that is, elements of geology, geomorphology and hydrology, from a given area surrounding a location of species observations. As a result, the method provides novel information on the variation of abiotic nature for biodiversity research and management. The method was piloted in northern Norway and Finland by observing geofeatures from 76 sites at three scales (5, 10 and 25 m radii). To explore the relationship between measures of biodiversity and geodiversity, the occurrence of vascular plant species was recorded from 2 m × 2 m plots at the same sites. 3. According to the results, vascular plant species richness was positively correlated with the richness of geofeatures (Rs = 0.18–0.59). The connection was strongest in habitats characterized by deciduous shrubs. The method has a high potential for observing geofeatures without extensive geological or geomorphological training or field survey experience and could be applied by conservation practitioners. 4. Synthesis and applications. Consideration of geodiversity in understanding, analysing and conserving biodiversity could facilitate environmental management and ensure the long-term sustainability of ecosystem functions. With the developed method, it is possible to cost-efficiently observe the elements of geodiversity that are useful in ecology and biodiversity conservation. Our approach can be adapted in different ecosystems and biodiversity investigations. The method can be adjusted depending on the abiotic conditions, expertise of the observer(s) and the equipment available.
  • Camarena-Gómez, María Teresa; Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Anu; Spilling, Kristian (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Aquaculture
    Highlights •Producers and authorities are key players developing the macroalgae sector in Europe. •Companies demand a specific macroalgae regulatory framework. •Authorities require assessment of the environmental risks of macroalgae production. •The license can be viewed as a boundary object between macroalgae companies and authorities. Abstract Macroalgae biomass production, understood as cultivation and harvesting, is a minor industry in Europe at present, but the sector is recognized as having substantial growth potential. Here, we framed the environmental license as a boundary object between business and authorities and investigated the details of macroalgal licensing procedures in seven Northern European countries (Finland, Estonia, Sweden, Germany, Norway, Iceland, and Scotland). We conducted surveys and interviews with macroalgae companies and licensing authorities to understand the challenges faced by both sides. Generally, macroalgae production in Northern European countries is regulated by environmental and water laws and is not included in maritime spatial plans. Private actors need to apply for an environmental, water and/or fishing permit to start operations in this sector, often with several authorities involved. The companies expressed their dissatisfaction with non-specific laws and burdensome licensing procedures that may delay or even prevent the start-up. The authorities highlighted the lack of scientific environmental risk assessments of macroalgae production and the need to resolve possible conflicts with other marine sectors. Companies need the license to access markets while authorities view the license as a tool to enforce environmental legislation. As a boundary object, the license is the result of correspondence and cooperation between companies and authorities. A one-step licensing procedure for macroalgae production should be applied to encourage this business and to facilitate the compliance of legislation. In addition, macroalgae related activities should be recognized in the national maritime spatial plans to facilitate long-term planning.
  • Vehanen, Teppo; Sutela, Tapio; Aroviita, Jukka; Karjalainen, Satu-Maaria; Riihimäki, Juha; Larsson, Aron; Vuori, Kari-Matti (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Indicators
    Highlights •The response of aquatic biological indicators to Acid Sulphate soils were studied. •Low pH and content metals were related to amount of AS soils in the catchment. •The assemblage structure of biological groups was strongly spatially structured. •Bioassessment metrics responded to low pH and high acidity differently. •Status assessment of AS rivers should be based on multiple biological elements. Abstract Land use in the Acid Sulphate (AS) soils induces metal and acidity pollution of aquatic ecosystems in coastal areas worldwide. Increasing utilization of AS soils poses increasing risks for deterioration of water bodies. We studied the effects of the coverage of AS soils, together with other catchment land cover attributes, on aquatic assemblages of fish, diatoms and benthic invertebrates in 42 sites along 15 lowland rivers in Finland during three subsequent years. Low pH and increasing content of several metals in the river water were related to high amount of AS soils in the catchment. Especially increasing iron content and water color were correlated to amount of forested areas in the catchment, whereas lower water color values and higher arsenic, chromium and iron concentrations were associated with wetlands. The assemblage structure of all three biological groups was strongly spatially structured among rivers and varied less temporally. The spatial structure of fish and diatoms were strongly affected by the acidic water, whereas invertebrates were more affected by low alkalinity and increasing concentrations of organic matter and iron. Especially fish and benthic invertebrate bioassessment metrics demonstrated for AS soil induced degradation in acidity by responding to low pH and high acidity, while the response from the diatoms index was weaker. The high metal concentrations alone did not seem to add to the degradation in biometrics without further increase in acidification. Our results highlight the importance of recognizing AS soil areas in the catchment to target the mitigation effects. A holistic approach in the mitigation of the adverse effects from AS soils is needed, using several mitigation methods in the catchment, and directing main efforts and protection from human disturbance to catchment areas with the highest proportion of AS soils. Our results suggest that status assessment of AS rivers should be based on multiple biological quality elements and that their metrics could be improved for better detection of impacts from acidity and metal pressures. The effects of metals and their concentrations on aquatic assemblages should be further examined.
  • Haubrock, Phillip J.; Ahmed, Danish A.; Cuthbert, Ross N.; Stubbington, Rachel; Domisch, Sami; Marquez, Jaime R. G.; Beidas, Ayah; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kiesel, Jens; Shen, Longzhu Q.; Soto, Ismael; Angeler, David G.; Bonada, Núria; Cañedo‐Argüelles, Miguel; Csabai, Zoltán; Datry, Thibault; de Eyto, Elvira; Dohet, Alain; Drohan, Emma; England, Judy; Feio, Maria J.; Forio, Marie A. E.; Goethals, Peter; Graf, Wolfram; Heino, Jani; Hudgins, Emma J.; Jähnig, Sonja C.; Johnson, Richard K.; Larrañaga, Aitor; Leitner, Patrick; L'Hoste, Lionel; Lizee, Marie‐Helene; Maire, Anthony; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Schmidt‐Kloiber, Astrid; Vannevel, Rudy; Várbíró, Gábor; Wiberg‐Larsen, Peter; Haase, Peter (Wiley, 2022)
    Global Change Biology
    Globalization has led to the introduction of thousands of alien species worldwide. With growing impacts by invasive species, understanding the invasion process remains critical for predicting adverse effects and informing efficient management. Theoretically, invasion dynamics have been assumed to follow an “invasion curve” (S-shaped curve of available area invaded over time), but this dynamic has lacked empirical testing using large-scale data and neglects to consider invader abundances. We propose an “impact curve” describing the impacts generated by invasive species over time based on cumulative abundances. To test this curve's large-scale applicability, we used the data-rich New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one of the most damaging freshwater invaders that has invaded almost all of Europe. Using long-term (1979–2020) abundance and environmental data collected across 306 European sites, we observed that P. antipodarum abundance generally increased through time, with slower population growth at higher latitudes and with lower runoff depth. Fifty-nine percent of these populations followed the impact curve, characterized by first occurrence, exponential growth, then long-term saturation. This behaviour is consistent with boom-bust dynamics, as saturation occurs due to a rapid decline in abundance over time. Across sites, we estimated that impact peaked approximately two decades after first detection, but the rate of progression along the invasion process was influenced by local abiotic conditions. The S-shaped impact curve may be common among many invasive species that undergo complex invasion dynamics. This provides a potentially unifying approach to advance understanding of large-scale invasion dynamics and could inform timely management actions to mitigate impacts on ecosystems and economies.
  • Gunia, M.; Laine, M.; Malve, O.; Kallio, K.; Kervinen, M.; Anttila, S.; Kotamäki, N.; Siivola, E.; Kettunen, J.; Kauranne, T. (Elsevier, 2022)
    Environmental modelling and software
    Highlights •Operational data fusion system for coastal water quality monitoring was implemented. •Remote sensing and in-situ data sources are combined using ensemble Kalman smoother. •Result uncertainty is quantified to improve future data collection. •Simple process model captures relevant dynamics in presence of significant data gaps. Abstract We present an operational system for multi-sensor data fusion implemented at the Finnish Environment Institute. The system uses Ensemble Kalman filter and smoother algorithms, which are often used for probabilistic analysis of multi-sensor data. Uncertainty and spatial and temporal correlations present in the available observation data are accounted for to obtain accurate and realistic results. To test the data fusion system, daily chlorophyll-a concentration has been modelled across northern shoreline of Gulf of Finland over the period of August 1st – October 31st 2011. Chlorophyll-a data from routine monitoring stations, ferrybox measurements, and data derived from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite has been used as input. The data fusion system demonstrates the use of existing and well-known Ensemble Kalman filtering and smoothing methods for improving water quality monitoring programs and for ensuring compliance with ecological standards.
  • Jupke, Jonathan F.; Birk, Sebastian; Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; Aroviita, Jukka; Barquín, José; Belmar, Oscar; Bonada, Núria; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Chiriac, Gabriel; Elexová, Emília Mišíková; Feld, Christian K.; Ferreira, M. Teresa; Haase, Peter; Huttunen, Kaisa-Leena; Lazaridou, Maria; Lešťáková, Margita; Miliša, Marko; Muotka, Timo; Paavola, Riku; Panek, Piotr; Pařil, Petr; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M.; Polášek, Marek; Sandin, Leonard; Schmera, Dénes; Straka, Michal; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Schäfer, Ralf B. (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Highlights •River typologies are indispensable for biomonitoring and ecological research. •River types should delineate distinct biotic communities. •We tested this for European river typologies using macroinvertebrates. •Communities were dissimilar between types; only marginally more similar within. •Our results support using typologies for studies of large-scale biodiversity trends Abstract Humans have severely altered freshwater ecosystems globally, causing a loss of biodiversity. Regulatory frameworks, like the Water Framework Directive, have been developed to support actions that halt and reverse this loss. These frameworks use typology systems that summarize freshwater ecosystems into environmentally delineated types. Within types, ecosystems that are minimally impacted by human activities, i.e., in reference conditions, are expected to be similar concerning physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. This assumption is critical when water quality assessments rely on comparisons to type-specific reference conditions. Lyche Solheim et al. (2019) developed a pan-European river typology system, the Broad River Types, that unifies the national Water Framework Directive typology systems and is gaining traction within the research community. However, it is unknown how similar biological communities are within these individual Broad River Types. We used analysis of similarities and classification strength analysis to examine if the Broad River Types delineate distinct macroinvertebrate communities across Europe and whether they outperform two ecoregional approaches: the European Biogeographical Regions and Illies' Freshwater Ecoregions. We determined indicator and typical taxa for the types of all three typology systems and evaluated their distinctiveness. All three typology systems captured more variation in macroinvertebrate communities than random combinations of sites. The results were similar among typology systems, but the Broad River Types always performed worse than either the Biogeographic Regions or Illies' Freshwater Ecoregions. Despite reaching statistical significance, the statistics of analysis of similarity and classification strength were low in all tests indicating substantial overlap among the macroinvertebrate communities of different types. We conclude that the Broad River Types do not represent an improvement upon existing freshwater typologies when used to delineate macroinvertebrate communities and we propose future avenues for advancement: regionally constrained types, better recognition of intermittent rivers, and consideration of biotic communities.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Asmala, Eero; Haavisto, Noora; Haraguchi, Lumi; Kraft, Kaisa; Lehto, Anne-Mari; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Norkko, Joanna; Piiparinen, Jonna; Seppälä, Jukka; Vanharanta, Mari; Vehmaa, Anu; Ylöstalo, Pasi; Tamminen, Timo (Elsevier, 2022)
    Science of the Total Environment
    Highlights •Modest brownification did not affect primary production, but increased bacterial production. •Concentration of inorganic nitrogen was the primary driver for the phytoplankton development. •Brownification benefitted picophytoplankton. Abstract Climate change is projected to cause brownification of some coastal seas due to increased runoff of terrestrially derived organic matter. We carried out a mesocosm experiment (15 d) to test the effect of this on the planktonic ecosystem expecting reduced primary production and shifts in the phytoplankton community composition. The experiment was set up in 2.2 m3 mesocosm bags using four treatments, each with three replicates: control (Contr) without any manipulation, organic carbon additive HuminFeed (Hum; 2 mg L−1), inorganic nutrients (Nutr; 5.7 μM NH4 and 0.65 μM PO4), and combined Nutr and Hum (Nutr + Hum) additions. Measured variables included organic and inorganic nutrient pools, chlorophyll a (Chla), primary and bacterial production and particle counts by flow cytometry. The bags with added inorganic nutrients developed a phytoplankton bloom that depleted inorganic N at day 6, followed by a rapid decline in Chla. Brownification did not reduce primary production at the tested concentration. Bacterial production was lowest in the Contr, but similar in the three treatments receiving additions likely due to increased carbon available for heterotrophic bacteria. Picoeukaryotes clearly benefited by brownification after inorganic N depletion, which could be due to more effective nutrient recycling, nutrient affinity, light absorption, or alternatively lower grazing pressure. In conclusion, brownification shifted the phytoplankton community composition towards smaller species with potential effects on carbon fluxes, such as sinking rates and export to the sea floor.
  • Evans, Luke Christopher; Melero, Yolanda; Schmucki, Reto; Boersch‐Supan, Philipp H.; Brotons, Lluís; Fontaine, Colin; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kuussaari, Mikko; Massimino, Dario; Robinson, Robert A.; Roy, David B.; Schweiger, Oliver; Settele, Josef; Stefanescu, Constanti; van Turnhout, Chris A. M.; Oliver, Tom Henry (Wiley, 2022)
    Global Ecology and Biogeography
    Aim: It is important to understand the factors affecting community stability because ecosystem function is increasingly at risk from biodiversity loss. Here, we evaluate how a key factor, the position of local environmental conditions within the thermal range of the species, influences the stability of butterfly communities at a continental scale. Location: Spain, UK and Finland. Time period: 1999–2017. Major taxa studied: Butterflies. Methods: We tested the following hypotheses about how species responses to temperature anomalies aggregate to influence stability: Hypothesis 1, species have contrasting responses to local temperature anomalies at opposing edges of their thermal range; hypothesis 2, communities with central thermal range positions have higher community stability; and the impacts of thermal range position on community stability are driven by hypothesis 3, population asynchrony, or hypothesis 4, additive population stability. Data were analysed at 876 sites for 157 species. Results: We found some support for hypothesis 1, because there were interactions between thermal range and response to temperature anomalies such that species at different range edges could provide weak compensatory dynamics. However, responses were nonlinear, suggesting strong declines with extreme anomalies, particularly at the hot range edge. Hypothesis 2 was supported in part, because community stability increased with central thermal range positions and declined at the edges, after accounting for species richness and community abundance. Thermal range position was weakly correlated with asynchrony (hypothesis 3) and population stability (hypothesis 4), although species richness and population abundance had larger impacts. Main conclusions: Future extreme heat events will be likely to impact species negatively across their thermal range, but might be particularly impactful on populations at the hottest end of the thermal range. Thermal range position influenced community stability because range edge communities were stable. However, the prediction of community stability from thermal range position is challenging because of nonlinear responses to temperature, with small temperature anomalies producing weak compensatory dynamics, but large extreme events synchronizing dynamics. KEYWORDS asynchrony, biodiversity, biogeography, community stability, diversity–stability, insects, integrated Laplace approximation, long-term monitoring, range positionis challenging because of nonlinear responses to temperature, with small temperature anomalies producing weak compensatory dynamics, but large extreme events synchronizing dynamics.
  • Ikkala, Lauri; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ilmonen, Jari; Similä, Maarit; Rehell, Sakari; Kumpula, Timo; Päkkilä, Lassi; Klöve, Björn; Marttila, Hannu (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Remote Sensing
    Peatland restoration aims to achieve pristine water pathway conditions to recover dispersed wetness, water quality, biodiversity and carbon sequestration. Restoration monitoring needs new methods for understanding the spatial effects of restoration in peatlands. We introduce an approach using high-resolution data produced with an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) and supported by the available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data to reveal the hydrological impacts of elevation changes in peatlands due to restoration. The impacts were assessed by analyzing flow accumulation and the SAGA Wetness Index (SWI). UAS campaigns were implemented at two boreal minerotrophic peatland sites in degraded and restored states. Simultaneously, the control campaigns mapped pristine sites to reveal the method sensitivity of external factors. The results revealed that the data accuracy is sufficient for describing the primary elevation changes caused by excavation. The cell-wise root mean square error in elevation was on average 48 mm when two pristine UAS campaigns were compared with each other, and 98 mm when each UAS campaign was compared with the LiDAR data. Furthermore, spatial patterns of more subtle peat swelling and subsidence were found. The restorations were assessed as successful, as dispersing the flows increased the mean wetness by 2.9–6.9%, while the absolute changes at the pristine sites were 0.4–2.4%. The wetness also became more evenly distributed as the standard deviation decreased by 13–15% (a 3.1–3.6% change for pristine). The total length of the main flow routes increased by 25–37% (a 3.1–8.1% change for pristine), representing the increased dispersion and convolution of flow. The validity of the method was supported by the field-determined soil water content (SWC), which showed a statistically significant correlation (R2 = 0.26–0.42) for the restoration sites but not for the control sites, possibly due to their upslope catchment areas being too small. Despite the uncertainties related to the heterogenic soil properties and complex groundwater interactions, we conclude the method to have potential for estimating changed flow paths and wetness following peatland restoration.
  • Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Yuzhou; García-Girón, Jorge; Tan, Kai; Wang, Lei; Ge, Yihao; Yan, Yunzhi (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Animals
    Simple Summary Species interactions are one of the main factors affecting community assembly, yet the role of such interactions remains mostly unknown. Here, we investigated roles of potential species associations in fish community assembly in the Qiupu River, China. Our results suggested that potential species associations might have been underestimated in stream fish community assembly. The contribution of potential species associations to fish community assembly can be reflected by interaction network structures. Omnivorous species play an important role in maintaining network structure as they may have more associations with other species. This study highlights the importance of capturing species associations in river ecosystems across different geographical and environmental settings. Abstract Environmental filtering, spatial factors and species interactions are fundamental ecological mechanisms for community organisation, yet the role of such interactions across different environmental and spatial settings remains mostly unknown. In this study, we investigated fish community organisation scenarios and seasonal species-to-species associations potentially reflecting biotic associations along the Qiupu River (China). Based on a latent variable approach and a tree-based method, we compared the relative contribution of the abiotic environment, spatial covariates and potential species associations for variation in the community structure, and assessed whether different assembly scenarios were modulated by concomitant changes in the interaction network structure of fish communities across seasons. We found that potential species associations might have been underestimated in community-based assessments of stream fish. Omnivore species, since they have more associations with other species, were found to be key components sustaining fish interaction networks across different stream orders. Hence, we suggest that species interactions, such as predation and competition, likely played a key role in community structure. For instance, indices accounting for network structure, such as connectance and nestedness, were strongly correlated with the unexplained residuals from our latent variable approach, thereby re-emphasising that biotic signals, potentially reflecting species interactions, may be of primary importance in determining stream fish communities across seasons. Overall, our findings indicate that interaction network structures are a powerful tool to reflect the contribution of potential species associations to community assembly. From an applied perspective, this study should encourage freshwater ecologists to empirically capture and manage biotic constraints in stream ecosystems across different geographical and environmental settings, especially in the context of the ever-increasing impacts of human-induced local extinction debts and species invasions.
  • Stahl Olafsson, Anton; Purves, Ross S.; Wartmann, Flurina M.; Garcia-Martin, Maria; Fagerholm, Nora; Torralba, Mario; Albert, Christian; Verbrugge, Laura N.H.; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia; Kaaronen, Roope; Hartmann, Maximilian; Raymond, Christopher M. (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Landscape and Urban Planning
    Highlights •We compare the use of PPGIS and Flickr in landscape value assessments. •Landscape values and their spatial patterns are compared across sites. •We find more cross-site differences than similarities both in spatial patterns and value types. •PPGIS elicits a wider spectrum of values, while Flickr mainly elicits relationships to and with landscapes. •We recommend a complementary use in future landscape value studies. Abstract In this study, we bring together participatory mapping and analysis of geolocated social media content from the Flickr platform in an assessment of similarities and differences in their utility for landscape value elicitation. We do so in a Pan-European context comparing types of landscape values and their spatial patterns across 19 case sites in 11 European countries. Across these sites, we find great variety in volume, types and spatial patterns of landscape values elicited from participatory mapping by local people and opportunistic use of tags and image locations crowdsourced from Flickr. Most agreement in spatial patterns across the two data sets are found in densely populated landscapes; however, comparison of types of perceived landscape values is challenged by the differing assumptions of each value elicitation technique. We argue for the complementary potential of both approaches and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of using the two together in landscape research, planning and management. An integrated approach is likely to increase the inclusiveness of landscape value assessments.
  • Hurmekoski, Elias; Suuronen, Juulia; Ahlvik, Lassi; Kunttu, Janni; Myllyviita, Tanja (Wiley, 2022)
    Journal of Industrial Ecology
    Wood products may help to avoid fossil emissions when they substitute for more fossilintensive products. However, the estimates of avoided fossil emissions attributed to wood use tend to be based on incomplete market assumptions. Wood products are assumed to fully substitute for non-wood products, yet substitution rarely occurs 1:1 and wood products can also substitute for each other. This study outlines a systematic procedure grounded on economic theory for approximating the existence and rate of substitution between wood and non-wood products, and calculates the marginal avoided fossil emissions with both conventional assumptions and more realistic assumptions based on an expert survey, taking the case of textile markets. The results suggest that regenerated cellulosic fibers (RCFs) are not perfect substitutes for synthetic fibers, meaning that part of an additional RCF supply will replace established textile fibers while part of it merely adds to the overall textile supply, and thereby aggregate fossil emissions. Moreover, in the long term, RCFs are more likely to substitute for synthetics than for cotton, and in the short term, non-viscose RCFs are more likely to substitute for contemporary viscose than for polyester or cotton. In the specified case, the alteration of market assumptions leads to quadrupling the marginal substitution impacts of wood use. Besides the relatively high fossil intensity of con temporary viscose, this is partly explained by increased absolute aggregate fossil emissions. Producing a more realistic account of substitution processes in the forest products markets is central in directing investments that ensure a net reduction in fossil emissions.

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