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  • Ruoppa, Marja; Ojala, Tiina (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1988)
  • Laikari, Hannu (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1987)
  • Lax, Hans-Göran; Vainio, Taru (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1988)
  • Rekolainen, Seppo; Kauppi, Lea (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1988)
  • Unknown author (Ympäristöministeriö, 1992)
  • Raunio, Anne; Schulman, Anna; Kontula, Tytti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2008)
    This publication introduces the results of the first assessment of threatened habitat types in Finland, which was conducted between 2005 and 2007. The objective was to provide a complete description of the current state of the habitat types found in Finland, their development during recent decades, and the threats they are likely to face in the near future. The assessment was conducted by broad-based expert groups that consisted of over 80 specialists in ecology, hydrobiology, forest science, geology, geography, and other fields of expertise, from various research institutes, universities, and administrative bodies. The project was coordinated by the Finnish Environment Institute. The project studied all habitat types that are found in Finland. They were divided into seven main groups: The Baltic Sea and its coast, inland waters and shores, mires, forests, rocky habitats, traditional rural biotopes, the fell area. The concept habitat type has been defined as follows: A habitat type refers to spatially definable land or aquatic areas with characteristic environmental conditions and biota which are similar between these areas but differ from areas of other habitat types. The environmental factors include e.g. soil, climate, and topography. The characteristics of the biota include the composition of typical species and their relative abundances. The concept habitat type can refer to varying units which differ in the size or degree of internal variation. In addition to the habitat types, the most commonly occurring habitat complexes have been taken into consideration in the assessment. No comprehensive and established list or classification system of the various habitat types existed for the needs of the assessment. The classifications that suited the needs of the assessment were chosen or created for each of the seven main habitat groups during the project. A total of 381 habitat types and habitat complexes were assessed, and the information was sufficient on 368 habitat types for which the Red List Categories were defined. Built-up, cultivated, and other habitat types that have been greatly changed by human activity were not included in the assessment. Some of these environments may, however, offer valuable habitats for species of the threatened habitat types. The significance of such substitute habitats is considered briefly in this publication, even though they were not included in the assessment. The second part of the final report (Suomen ympäristö 8/2008, part 2) includes descriptions, general distribution maps, and photographs of the assessed habitat types. Habitat type -specific grounds for the results of the assessment are also provided.
  • Raunio, Anne; Schulman, Anna; Kontula, Tytti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2008)
    This publication introduces the results of the first assessment of threatened habitat types in Finland, which was conducted between 2005 and 2007. The objective was to provide a complete description of the current state of the habitat types found in Finland, their development during recent decades, and the threats they are likely to face in the near future. The assessment was conducted by broad-based expert groups that consisted of over 80 specialists in ecology, hydrobiology, forest science, geology, geography, and other fields of expertise, from various research institutes, universities, and administrative bodies. The project was coordinated by the Finnish Environment Institute. The project studied all habitat types that are found in Finland. They were divided into seven main groups: The Baltic Sea and its coast, inland waters and shores, mires, forests, rocky habitats, traditional rural biotopes, the fell area. The concept habitat type has been defined as follows: A habitat type refers to spatially definable land or aquatic areas with characteristic environmental conditions and biota which are similar between these areas but differ from areas of other habitat types. The environmental factors include e.g. soil, climate, and topography. The characteristics of the biota include the composition of typical species and their relative abundances. The concept habitat type can refer to varying units which differ in the size or degree of internal variation. In addition to the habitat types, the most commonly occurring habitat complexes have been taken into consideration in the assessment. No comprehensive and established list or classification system of the various habitat types existed for the needs of the assessment. The classifications that suited the needs of the assessment were chosen or created for each of the seven main habitat groups during the project. A total of 381 habitat types and habitat complexes were assessed, and the information was sufficient on 368 habitat types for which the Red List Categories were defined. Built-up, cultivated, and other habitat types that have been greatly changed by human activity were not included in the assessment. Some of these environments may, however, offer valuable habitats for species of the threatened habitat types. The significance of such substitute habitats is considered briefly in this publication, even though they were not included in the assessment. The second part of the final report (Suomen ympäristö 8/2008, part 2) includes descriptions, general distribution maps, and photographs of the assessed habitat types. Habitat type -specific grounds for the results of the assessment are also provided.
  • Järvinen, Jukka; Kuusisto, Esko (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1995)
  • Reinikainen, Asta (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1988)
  • Kajander, Juha (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1995)
  • Derome, J; Aarrestad, P-A; Aspholm, P; Bakkestuen, V; Bjerke, J; Erikstad, K; Gytarsky, M; Hartikainen, M; Isaeva, L; Karaban, R; Korotkov, V; Kuzmicheva, V; Lindgren, M; Lindroos, A-J; Myking, T; Poikolainen, J; Rautio, P; Røsberg, I; Salemaa, M; Tömmervik, H; Vassilieva, N (2007)
  • Björklöf, Katarina; Salminen, Jani; Sainio, Pirjo; Jørgensen, Kirsten (2008)
    Evidence for on site biodegradation may be difficult to provide at heterogeneous sites without additional experiments in controlled laboratory conditions. In this study, microbial activities measured as CO2 and CH4 production were compared in situ, in intact soil cores and in bottle microcosms containing sieved soils. In addition, biodegradation rates were determined by measuring the decrease in petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations at 7°C in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Elevated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the soil gas phase indicated that both the aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity potentials were high at the contaminated site. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation rates in laboratory experiments of petroleum hydrocarbons were highest in soils from the most contaminated point and degradation in the aerobic and anaerobic microcosms was linear throughout the incubation, indicating mass-transfer-dependent degradation. Different results for microbial activity measurements were obtained in laboratory studies depending on pretreatment and size of the sample, even when the environmental conditions were mimicked. These differences may be related to differences in the gas exchange rates as well as in changes in the bioavailability of the contaminant in different analyses. When predicting by modeling the behavior of an aged contaminant it is relevant to adapt the models in use to correspond to conditions relevant at the contaminated sites. The variables used in the models should be based on data from the site and on experiments performed using the original aged contaminant without any additions.
  • Amundsen, Per-Arne; Kashulin, Nikolay A.; Koroleva, Irina M.; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Terentjev, Petr M.; Lien, Cesilie; Dalsbø, Laina; Sandimirov, Sergey S.; Kudryavtseva, Lubov P.; Knudsen, Rune (2006)
  • Holmberg, Linda (Hydrografinen toimisto, 1935)
  • Lyytimäki, Jari; Mela, Hanna (Suomen ympäristökeskus (SYKE) & Ilmastonmuutoksen viestintäohjelma, 2006)
  • Pietilä, Raija; Perttunen, Vesa; Kontio, Matti; Pihlaja, Jouni; Pohjola, Riitta (2006)