Toxin Variability Estimations of 68 Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) Strains from The Netherlands Reveal a Novel Abundant Gymnodimine

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dc.contributor.author Martens, Helge
dc.contributor.author Tillmann, Urban
dc.contributor.author Harju, Kirsi
dc.contributor.author Dell'Aversano, Carmela
dc.contributor.author Tartaglione, Luciana
dc.contributor.author Krock, Bernd
dc.date.accessioned 2019-02-15T11:53:01Z
dc.date.available 2019-02-15T11:53:01Z
dc.date.issued 2017-06
dc.identifier.citation Martens , H , Tillmann , U , Harju , K , Dell'Aversano , C , Tartaglione , L & Krock , B 2017 , ' Toxin Variability Estimations of 68 Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) Strains from The Netherlands Reveal a Novel Abundant Gymnodimine ' , Microorganisms , vol. 5 , no. 2 , UNSP 29 . https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020029
dc.identifier.other PURE: 122357150
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 190e3c5c-588e-4065-825c-a561b970e1be
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000443143800016
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/299110
dc.description.abstract Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2. We also examined the production of spiroimine toxins by the Dutch A. ostenfeldii strains. An extensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed a high intraspecific variability of spirolides (SPX) and gymnodimines (GYM). Spirolides included 13-desMethyl-spirolide C generally as the major compound and several other mostly unknown SPX-like compounds that were detected and characterized. Besides spirolides, the presence of gymnodimine A and 12-Methyl-gymnodimine A was confirmed, together with two new gymnodimines. One of these was tentatively identified as an analogue of gymnodimine D and was the most abundant gymnodimine (calculated cell quota up to 274 pg cell(-1), expressed as GYM A equivalents). Our multi-clonal approach adds new analogues to the increasing number of compounds in these toxin classes and revealed a high strain variability in cell quota and in toxin profile of toxic compounds within a single population. en
dc.format.extent 24
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Microorganisms
dc.rights cc_by
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject Alexandrium ostenfeldii
dc.subject PSP-toxins
dc.subject spiroimines
dc.subject spirolides
dc.subject gymnodimines
dc.subject liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
dc.subject SPIROLIDE MARINE TOXINS
dc.subject MASS-SPECTROMETRY
dc.subject PERUVIANUM BALECH
dc.subject MENDIOLA BALECH
dc.subject INTRASPECIFIC VARIABILITY
dc.subject SHELLFISH TOXINS
dc.subject NEW-ZEALAND
dc.subject BALTIC SEA
dc.subject DINOFLAGELLATE
dc.subject TANGEN
dc.subject 116 Chemical sciences
dc.title Toxin Variability Estimations of 68 Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) Strains from The Netherlands Reveal a Novel Abundant Gymnodimine en
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.organization VERIFIN
dc.contributor.organization Department of Chemistry
dc.description.reviewstatus Peer reviewed
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020029
dc.relation.issn 2076-2607
dc.rights.accesslevel openAccess
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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