Unfavorable and favorable changes in modifiable risk factors and incidence of coronary heart disease : The Whitehall II cohort study

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Virtanen , M , Vahtera , J , Singh-Manoux , A , Elovainio , M , Ferrie , J E & Kivimäki , M 2018 , ' Unfavorable and favorable changes in modifiable risk factors and incidence of coronary heart disease : The Whitehall II cohort study ' , International Journal of Cardiology , vol. 269 , pp. 7-12 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.07.005

Title: Unfavorable and favorable changes in modifiable risk factors and incidence of coronary heart disease : The Whitehall II cohort study
Author: Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Elovainio, Marko; Ferrie, Jane E.; Kivimäki, Mika
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology and Logopedics
University of Helsinki, University College London
Date: 2018-10-15
Language: eng
Number of pages: 6
Belongs to series: International Journal of Cardiology
ISSN: 0167-5273
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/299364
Abstract: Background: Fewstudies have examined long-termassociations of unfavorable and favorable changes in vascular risk factors with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined this issue in a middle-aged disease-free population. Methods: We used repeat data from the Whitehall II cohort study. Five biomedical, behavioral and psychosocial examinations of 8335 participants without CHD produced up to 20,357 person-observations to mimic a non-randomized pseudo-trial. After measurement of potential change in 6 risk factors twice (total cholesterol, blood pressure, smoking, overweight, psychological distress, problems in social relationships), a 5-year follow-up of CHD was undertaken. Results: Incidence of CHD was 7.4/1000 person-years. Increases from normal to high cholesterol (hazard ratio, HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.26-2.00) and from normal to high blood pressure (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.33-2.03), as compared to remaining at the normal level, were associated with increased risk of CHD. In contrast, decreases from high to low levels of cholesterol (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91), psychological distress (HR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.90), and problems in social relationships (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85), and quitting smoking (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.82) were associated with a reduced CHD risk compared to remaining at high risk factor levels. The highest absolute risk was associated with persistent exposure to both high cholesterol and hypertension (incidence 18.1/1000 person-years) and smoking and overweight (incidence 17.7/1000 person-years). Conclusions: While persistent exposures and changes in biological and behavioral risk factors relate to the greatest increases and reductions in 5-year risk of CHD, also favorable changes in psychosocial risk factors appear to reduce CHD risk. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Subject: Ischemic heart disease
Cholesterol
Hypertension
Behavioral
Psychosocial
Pseudo-trial
BODY-MASS INDEX
CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE
MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION
METAANALYSIS
CHOLESTEROL
DEPRESSION
PREDICTOR
MORTALITY
OUTCOMES
THERAPY
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
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