Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

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Nichols , J 2018 , ' Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor ' , Frontiers in Psychology , vol. 8 , 2356 .

Title: Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor
Author: Nichols, Johanna
Contributor organization: Department of Modern Languages 2010-2017
Faculty of Arts
Date: 2018-01-23
Language: eng
Number of pages: 14
Belongs to series: Frontiers in Psychology
ISSN: 1664-1078
Abstract: An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit by addition of a suffix – is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.
Subject: 515 Psychology
6121 Languages
language spread
mixed language
linguistic symbiosis linguistic
frontier conditions
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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