Immunological and toxicological effects of bad indoor air to cause Dampness and Mold Hypersensitivity Syndrome

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dc.contributor University of Helsinki, Department of Bacteriology and Immunology en
dc.contributor University of Helsinki, Department of Pathology en
dc.contributor.author Tuuminen, Tamara
dc.contributor.author Lohi, Jouni
dc.date.accessioned 2019-02-27T13:55:03Z
dc.date.available 2019-02-27T13:55:03Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.citation Tuuminen , T & Lohi , J 2018 , ' Immunological and toxicological effects of bad indoor air to cause Dampness and Mold Hypersensitivity Syndrome ' , AIMS allergy and immunology , vol. 2 , no. 4 , pp. 190-203 . https://doi.org/10.3934/Allergy.2018.4.190 en
dc.identifier.issn 2575-615X
dc.identifier.other PURE: 122737801
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: e2ff7b9c-54a4-4e3a-8e2c-69de1c6539ac
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000456931300003
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/299658
dc.description.abstract Water damage in buildings is a universe problem. Long-lasting or cumulative stay in water damaged buildings is a serious health hazard. Exposure to fungal and bacterial toxins, nanoparticles from dampness microbiota as well as decay products from construction materials together with biocides used for cleaning will first cause irritation of the mucosa and later chronic inflammation with stimulation or inhibition of the compartments of the innate and/or adaptive immunity. Mold-related disease has been called Dampness and Mold Hypersensitive Syndrome (DMHS) because hypersensitivity is the cornerstone feature of the disease. The background of hypersensitivity is both immunologic processes and hyperactivation of sensory receptors, neurogenic inflammation and central sensitisation. Immunologic hypersensitivity can occur either through the production of mold specific IgE-class antibodies, which is rare, or through sensitisation and proliferation of T and B specific lymphocyte clones. Immunological switch to Th2/Th17 arm of adaptive immunity often occurs. DMHS is a systemic and multi-organ disease where involvement of mucosa of pulmonary or gastrointestinal tract is central to the pathology. Symptoms include recurrent infections, chronic rhinosinusitis, swelling of the sinuses, irritation of the eyes and skin, voice problems, chronic non-productive cough, neurological symptoms, joint and muscle symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and cognitive problems. Underdiagnosed or neglected continuous insidious inflammation may lead to Myalgic Encephalitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) especially when trigged by new infections or even vaccination. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) may also develop, however in the later stages of the disease. Chronic cough is sometimes diagnosed as asthma if the criteria for asthma are met. Non-productive cough may also manifest allergic alveolitis, which is often overlooked. Avoidance of new exposure to dampness microbiota is crucial for recovery. We review the underlying toxicological and immunological mechanisms that are central in the pathology of DMHS. en
dc.format.extent 14
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof AIMS allergy and immunology
dc.rights en
dc.subject dampness microbiota en
dc.subject asthma en
dc.subject allergic alveolitis en
dc.subject Dampness and Mold Hypersensitivy Syndrome en
dc.subject inflammation en
dc.subject mucosa en
dc.subject STACHYBOTRYS-CHARTARUM en
dc.subject TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXINS en
dc.subject IMMUNE-RESPONSE en
dc.subject STREPTOMYCES-CALIFORNICUS en
dc.subject INTRANASAL EXPOSURE en
dc.subject NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME en
dc.subject DAMAGED BUILDINGS en
dc.subject DNA-DAMAGE en
dc.subject ASTHMA en
dc.subject HEALTH en
dc.subject 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine en
dc.title Immunological and toxicological effects of bad indoor air to cause Dampness and Mold Hypersensitivity Syndrome en
dc.type Review Article
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.3934/Allergy.2018.4.190
dc.type.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/other
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