Out of focus – brain attention control deficits in adult ADHD

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Salmi , J , Salmela , V , Salo , E , Mikkola , K , Leppämäki , S , Tani , P , Hokkanen , L , Laasonen , M , Numminen , J & Alho , K 2018 , ' Out of focus – brain attention control deficits in adult ADHD ' , Brain Research , vol. 1692 , pp. 12-22 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2018.04.019

Title: Out of focus – brain attention control deficits in adult ADHD
Author: Salmi, Juha; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Mikkola, Katri; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Laasonen, Marja; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology and Logopedics
University of Helsinki, Perception Action Cognition
University of Helsinki, Medicum
University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology and Logopedics
University of Helsinki, Department of Psychiatry
University of Helsinki, Department of Psychiatry
University of Helsinki, Medicum
University of Helsinki, Medicum
University of Helsinki, HUS Medical Imaging Center
University of Helsinki, Medicum
Date: 2018-08-01
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: Brain Research
ISSN: 0006-8993
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/301139
Abstract: Modern environments are full of information, and place high demands on the attention control mechanisms that allow the selection of information from one (focused attention) or multiple (divided attention) sources, react to changes in a given situation (stimulus-driven attention), and allocate effort according to demands (task-positive and task-negative activity). We aimed to reveal how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects the brain functions associated with these attention control processes in constantly demanding tasks. Sixteen adults with ADHD and 17 controls performed adaptive visual and auditory discrimination tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Overlapping brain activity in frontoparietal saliency and default-mode networks, as well as in the somato-motor, cerebellar, and striatal areas were observed in all participants. In the ADHD participants, we observed exclusive activity enhancement in the brain areas typically considered to be primarily involved in other attention control functions: During auditory-focused attention, we observed higher activation in the sensory cortical areas of irrelevant modality and the default-mode network (DMN). DMN activity also increased during divided attention in the ADHD group, in turn decreasing during a simple button-press task. Adding irrelevant stimulation resulted in enhanced activity in the salience network. Finally, the irrelevant distractors that capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner activated dorsal attention networks and the cerebellum. Our findings suggest that attention control deficits involve the activation of irrelevant sensory modality, problems in regulating the level of attention on demand, and may encumber top-down processing in cases of irrelevant information. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subject: ADHD
Divided attention
fMRI
Focused attention
Stimulus-driven attention
HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
HUMAN CORTEX
TOP-DOWN
DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
SUSTAINED ATTENTION
SELECTIVE ATTENTION
AUDITORY ATTENTION
SPATIAL ATTENTION
PARIETAL CORTEX
DEFAULT MODE
515 Psychology
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
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