Long working hours and depressive symptoms : systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/302027

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Virtanen , M , Jokela , M , Madsen , I E H , Hanson , L L M , Lallukka , T , Nyberg , S T , Alfredsson , L , Batty , G D , Bjorner , J B , Borritz , M , Burr , H , Dragano , N , Erbel , R , Ferrie , J E , Heikkila , K , Knutsson , A , Koskenvuo , M , Lahelma , E , Nielsen , M L , Oksanen , T , Pejtersen , J H , Pentti , J , Rahkonen , O , Rugulies , R , Salo , P , Schupp , J , Shipley , M J , Siegrist , J , Singh-Manoux , A , Suominen , S B , Theorell , T , Vahtera , J , Wagner , G G , Wang , J L , Yiengprugsawan , V , Westerlund , H & Kivimaki , M 2018 , ' Long working hours and depressive symptoms : systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data ' , Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health , vol. 44 , no. 3 , pp. 239-250 . https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3712

Title: Long working hours and depressive symptoms : systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data
Author: Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Lallukka, Tea; Nyberg, Solja T.; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G. David; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E.; Heikkila, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lahelma, Eero; Nielsen, Martin L.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jurgen; Shipley, Martin J.; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B.; Theorell, Tores; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jian Li; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
University of Helsinki, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark
University of Helsinki, Clinicum
University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki, Markku Koskenvuo / Principal Investigator
University of Helsinki, Center for Population, Health and Society
University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki, Clinicum
University of Helsinki, Clinicum
Date: 2018
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
ISSN: 0355-3140
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/302027
Abstract: Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working >= 55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I-2 = 45.1%, P=0.004). A strong association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.
Subject: depression
mental health
overtime
psychological distress
working life
working time
CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE
MENTAL-HEALTH
FOLLOW-UP
OVERTIME WORK
EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE
PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS
PROSPECTIVE COHORT
RISK-FACTOR
JOB STRAIN
ALCOHOL
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
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