Maritime Hunter-Gatherers Adopt Cultivation at the Farming extreme of Northern Europe 5000 Years Ago

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Vanhanen , S , Gustafsson , S , Ranheden , H , Björck , N , Kemell , M & Heyd , V 2019 , ' Maritime Hunter-Gatherers Adopt Cultivation at the Farming extreme of Northern Europe 5000 Years Ago ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 9 , 4756 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41293-z

Title: Maritime Hunter-Gatherers Adopt Cultivation at the Farming extreme of Northern Europe 5000 Years Ago
Author: Vanhanen, Santeri; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ranheden, Håkan; Björck, Niclas; Kemell, Marianna; Heyd, Volker
Contributor organization: Archaeology
Department of Cultures
Department of Chemistry
YMPACT: The Yamnaya Impact on Prehistoric Europe
Faculty of Arts
Date: 2019-03-18
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: Scientific Reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41293-z
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/303870
Abstract: The dynamics of the origins and spread of farming are globally debated in anthropology and archaeology. Lately, numerous aDNA studies have turned the tide in favour of migrations, leaving only a few cases in Neolithic Europe where hunter-gatherers might have adopted agriculture. It is thus widely accepted that agriculture was expanding to its northern extreme in Sweden c. 4000 BC by migrating Funnel Beaker Culture (FBC) farmers. This was followed by intense contacts with local hunter-gatherers, leading to the development of the Pitted Ware Culture (PWC), who nonetheless relied on maritime prey. Here, we present archaeobotanical remains from Sweden and the Aland archipelago (Finland) showing that PWC used free-threshing barley and hulled and free-threshing wheat from c. 3300 BC. We suggest that these hunter-gatherers adopted cultivation from FBC farmers and brought it to islands beyond the 60th parallel north. Based on directly dated grains, land areas suitable for cultivation, and absence of signs of exchange with FBC in Sweden, we argue that PWC cultivated crops in Aland. While we have isotopic and lipid-biomarker proof that their main subsistence was still hunting/fishing/gathering, we argue small-scale cereal use was intended for ritual feasts, when cereal products could have been consumed with pork.
Subject: DATES
EARLIEST EVIDENCE
HUSBANDRY
POTTERY
SOUTHERN
STONE-AGE
TRANSITION
WESTERN
116 Chemical sciences
615 History and Archaeology
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: acceptedVersion


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