Crustose lichens with lichenicolous fungi from Paleogene amber

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Kaasalainen , U , Kukwa , M , Rikkinen , J & Schmidt , A R 2019 , ' Crustose lichens with lichenicolous fungi from Paleogene amber ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 9 , 10360 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46692-w

Title: Crustose lichens with lichenicolous fungi from Paleogene amber
Author: Kaasalainen, Ulla; Kukwa, Martin; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, University of Göttingen
University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS)
Date: 2019-07-17
Number of pages: 7
Belongs to series: Scientific Reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/304221
Abstract: Lichens, symbiotic consortia of lichen-forming fungi and their photosynthetic partners have long had an extremely poor fossil record. However, recently over 150 new lichens were identified from European Paleogene amber and here we analyse crustose lichens from the new material. Three fossil lichens belong to the extant genus Ochrolechia (Ochrolechiaceae, Lecanoromycetes) and one fossil has conidiomata similar to those produced by modern fungi of the order Arthoniales (Arthoniomycetes). Intriguingly, two fossil Ochrolechia specimens host lichenicolous fungi of the genus Lichenostigma (Lichenostigmatales, Arthoniomycetes). This confirms that both Ochrolechia and Lichenostigma already diversified in the Paleogene and demonstrates that also the specific association between the fungi had evolved by then. The new fossils provide a minimum age constraint for both genera at 34 million years (uppermost Eocene).
Subject: GENUS OCHROLECHIA
FORMING ASCOMYCOTA
CALICIOID LICHENS
CLASSIFICATION
EVOLUTION
FOSSIL
ARTHONIACEAE
ROCCELLACEAE
LECANORALES
PHYLOGENY
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
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