Future temperature and salinity do not exert selection pressure on cyst germination of a toxic phytoplankton species

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Jerney , J , Suikkanen , S , Lindehoff , E & Kremp , A 2019 , ' Future temperature and salinity do not exert selection pressure on cyst germination of a toxic phytoplankton species ' , Ecology and Evolution , vol. 9 , no. 8 , pp. 4443-4451 . https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5009

Title: Future temperature and salinity do not exert selection pressure on cyst germination of a toxic phytoplankton species
Author: Jerney, Jacqueline; Suikkanen, Sanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Kremp, Anke
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Tvärminne Zoological Station
University of Helsinki, Finnish Environment Institute
University of Helsinki, Finnish Environment Institute
Date: 2019-04-01
Language: eng
Number of pages: 9
Belongs to series: Ecology and Evolution
ISSN: 2045-7758
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/304235
Abstract: Abstract Environmental conditions regulate the germination of phytoplankton resting stages. While some factors lead to synchronous germination, others stimulate germination of only a small fraction of the resting stages. This suggests that habitat filters may act on the germination level and thus affect selection of blooming strains. Benthic ?seed banks? of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea are genetically and phenotypically diverse, indicating a high potential for adaptation by selection on standing genetic variation. Here, we experimentally tested the role of climate-related salinity and temperature as selection filters during germination and subsequent establishment of A. ostenfeldii strains. A representative resting cyst population was isolated from sediment samples, and germination and reciprocal transplantation experiments were carried out, including four treatments: Average present day germination conditions and three potential future conditions: high temperature, low salinity, and high temperature in combination with low salinity. We found that the final germination success of A. ostenfeldii resting cysts was unaffected by temperature and salinity in the range tested. A high germination success of more than 80% in all treatments indicates that strains are not selected by temperature and salinity during germination, but selection becomes more important shortly after germination, in the vegetative stage of the life cycle. Moreover, strains were not adapted to germination conditions. Instead, highly plastic responses occurred after transplantation and significantly higher growth rates were observed at higher temperature. High variability of strain-specific responses has probably masked the overall effect of the treatments, highlighting the importance of testing the effect of environmental factors on many strains. It is likely that A. ostenfeldii populations can persist in the future, because suitable strains, which are able to germinate and grow well at potential future climate conditions, are part of the highly diverse cyst population. OPEN RESEARCH BADGES This article has been awarded Open Data badge. All materials and data are publicly accessible via the Open Science Framework at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.c8c83nr. Learn more about the Open Practices badges from the Center for Open Science: https://osf.io/tvyxz/wiki.
Subject: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
adaptation
Alexandrium ostenfeldii
climate change
dinoflagellates
excystment
resting stage
PLANT
EVOLUTIONARY
SEED-GERMINATION
BLOOM
POPULATIONS
DORMANCY
RESTING CYSTS
ALEXANDRIUM-OSTENFELDII DINOPHYCEAE
ADAPTATION
BANKS
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