Strain-Stiffening of Agarose Gels

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dc.contributor University of Helsinki, CAN-PRO - Translational Cancer Medicine Program en
dc.contributor University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry en
dc.contributor University of Helsinki, CAN-PRO - Translational Cancer Medicine Program en
dc.contributor.author Bertula, Kia
dc.contributor.author Martikainen, Lahja
dc.contributor.author Munne, Pauliina
dc.contributor.author Hietala, Sami
dc.contributor.author Klefström, Juha
dc.contributor.author Ikkala, Olli
dc.contributor.author Nonappa, Dr.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-08-13T06:04:01Z
dc.date.available 2019-08-13T06:04:01Z
dc.date.issued 2019-06
dc.identifier.citation Bertula , K , Martikainen , L , Munne , P , Hietala , S , Klefström , J , Ikkala , O & Nonappa , D 2019 , ' Strain-Stiffening of Agarose Gels ' , Acs macro letters , vol. 8 , no. 6 , pp. 670-675 . https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.9b00258 en
dc.identifier.issn 2161-1653
dc.identifier.other PURE: 126094256
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 0208a37c-e11b-4dbc-81cc-bdf9e32b4dbb
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000472682300009
dc.identifier.other ORCID: /0000-0003-1448-1813/work/60609258
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/304522
dc.description.abstract Strain-stiffening is one of the characteristic properties of biological hydrogels and extracellular matrices, where the stiffness increases upon increased deformation. Whereas strain-stiffening is ubiquitous in protein-based materials, it has been less observed for polysaccharide and synthetic polymer gels. Here we show that agarose, that is, a common linear polysaccharide, forms helical fibrillar bundles upon cooling from aqueous solution. The hydrogels with these semiflexible fibrils show pronounced strain-stiffening. However, to reveal strain-stiffening, suppressing wall slippage turned as untrivial. Upon exploring different sample preparation techniques and rheological architectures, the cross-hatched parallel plate geometries and in situ gelation in the rheometer successfully prevented the slippage and resolved the strain-stiffening behavior. Combining with microscopy, we conclude that strain-stiffening is due to the semiflexible nature of the agarose fibrils and their geometrical connectivity, which is below the central-force isostatic critical connectivity. The biocompatibility and the observed strain-stiffening suggest the potential of agarose hydrogels in biomedical applications. en
dc.format.extent 11
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Acs macro letters
dc.rights en
dc.subject NEGATIVE NORMAL STRESS en
dc.subject NONLINEAR ELASTICITY en
dc.subject WALL SLIP en
dc.subject MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES en
dc.subject HYDROGELS en
dc.subject NETWORKS en
dc.subject ELASTOMERS en
dc.subject 116 Chemical sciences en
dc.title Strain-Stiffening of Agarose Gels en
dc.type Article
dc.description.version Peer reviewed
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.9b00258
dc.type.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/other
dc.type.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
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