Oral and Systemic Effects of Xylitol Consumption

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/305074

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Janket , S-J , Benwait , J , Isaac , P , Ackerson , L K & Meurman , J H 2019 , ' Oral and Systemic Effects of Xylitol Consumption ' , Caries Research , vol. 53 , no. 5 , pp. 491-501 . https://doi.org/10.1159/000499194

Title: Oral and Systemic Effects of Xylitol Consumption
Author: Janket, Sok-Ja; Benwait, Jaspreet; Isaac, Paul; Ackerson, Leland K.; Meurman, Jukka H.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Clinicum
Date: 2019
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: Caries Research
ISSN: 0008-6568
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/305074
Abstract: Recent results of randomized trials testing the efficacy of xylitol in caries prevention have been conflicting. This narrative review reveals the sources of discrepancy. The following databases were searched for the terms xylitol or artificial sweeteners restricted to the English language: PubMed, Web of Science, Evidenced-Based Medicine, Scopus, and the Cochrane database. In a separate search, the terms dental caries or cariogenicity or glucosyltransferase or low glycemic or low insulinemic or dysbiosis or gut microbiome were used and then combined. In section I, findings regarding the role of xylitol in dental caries prevention, the appropriateness of research methods, and the causes for potential biases are summarized. In section II, the systemic effects of xylitol on gut microbiota as well as low-glycemic/insulinogenic systemic effects are evaluated and summarized. The substitution of a carbonyl group with an alcohol radical in xylitol hinders its absorption and slowly releases sugar into the bloodstream. This quality of xylitol is beneficial for diabetic patients to maintain a constant glucose level. Although this quality of xylitol has been proven in in vitro and animal studies, it has yet to be proven in humans. Paradoxically, recent animal studies reported hyperglycemia and intestinal dysbiosis with artificial sweetener consumption. Upon careful inspection of evidence, it was revealed that these reports may be due to misinterpretation of original references or flaws in study methodology. Any systemic benefits of xylitol intake must be weighed in consideration with the well-established adverse gastrointestinal consequences. The contribution of xylitol to gut dysbiosis that may affect systemic immunity warrants further research.
Subject: Anticariogenicity
Antiacidogenicity
Glucosyltransferase
Gut dysbiosis
Low-glycemic effects
Gut microbiome
CONTAINING CHEWING GUM
DENTAL-CARIES
MUTANS STREPTOCOCCI
SUGAR ALCOHOLS
NONNUTRITIVE SWEETENERS
ANTICARIES EFFICACY
MICROBIAL COMMUNITY
CLINICAL-TRIAL
LONG-TERM
SORBITOL
313 Dentistry
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