Atomic Layer Deposition of Emerging 2D Semiconductors, HfS2 and ZrS2, for Optoelectronics

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Mattinen , M , Popov , G , Vehkamäki , M , King , P J , Mizohata , K , Jalkanen , P , Räisänen , J , Leskelä , M & Ritala , M 2019 , ' Atomic Layer Deposition of Emerging 2D Semiconductors, HfS2 and ZrS2, for Optoelectronics ' , Chemistry of Materials , vol. 31 , no. 15 , pp. 5713-5724 .

Title: Atomic Layer Deposition of Emerging 2D Semiconductors, HfS2 and ZrS2, for Optoelectronics
Author: Mattinen, Miika; Popov, Georgi; Vehkamäki, Marko; King, Peter J.; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Jalkanen, Pasi; Räisänen, Jyrki; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko
Contributor organization: Department
Department of Chemistry
Materials Physics
Department of Physics
Mikko Ritala / Principal Investigator
Date: 2019-08-13
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: Chemistry of Materials
ISSN: 0897-4756
Abstract: Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials are studied intensively because of their promising performance in diverse applications from electronics to energy storage and catalysis. Recently, HfS2 and ZrS2 have emerged as potential rivals for the commonly studied 2D semiconductors such as MoS2 and WSe2, but their use is hindered by the difficulty of producing continuous films. Herein, we report the first atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes for HfS2 and ZrS2 using HfCl4 and ZrCl4 with H2S as the precursors. We demonstrate the deposition of uniform and continuous films on a range of substrates with accurately controlled thicknesses ranging from a few monolayers to tens of nanometers. The use of semiconductor industry-compatible precursors and temperatures (approximately 400 degrees C) enables facile upscaling of the process. The deposited HfS2 and ZrS2 films are crystalline, smooth, and stoichiometric with oxygen as the main impurity. As an important step toward applications of HfS2 and ZrS2, we show that their sensitivity toward oxidation can be overcome by minimizing the impurities in the reactor and by depositing a protective AlxSiyOz layer on the top without a vacuum break. Finally, we demonstrate HfS2 and ZrS2 photodetectors exhibiting good performance and stable operation in ambient conditions. Photoresponsivity comparable to thin films or even single flakes of HfS2 or ZrS2 deposited at much higher temperatures is achieved, although the response speed seems to be limited by photogating, as is common for 2D photodetectors. We expect the first ALD processes for HfS2 and ZrS2 to enable further exploration of these materials for various semiconductor applications.
116 Chemical sciences
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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