Predictable allele frequency changes due to habitat fragmentation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

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Fountain , T E S , Nieminen , M J , Siren , J P , Wong , S C , Lehtonen , R J & Hanski , I A 2016 , ' Predictable allele frequency changes due to habitat fragmentation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly ' , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 113 , no. 10 , pp. 2678–2683 . https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1600951113

Title: Predictable allele frequency changes due to habitat fragmentation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly
Author: Fountain, Toby Edward Soames; Nieminen, Marko Juhani; Siren, Jukka Pekka; Wong, Swee Chong; Lehtonen, Rainer Juhani; Hanski, Ilkka Aulis
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Biosciences
University of Helsinki, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of Helsinki, Biosciences
University of Helsinki, Research Programs Unit
Date: 2016-03-08
Language: eng
Number of pages: 6
Belongs to series: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
ISSN: 0027-8424
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/305646
Abstract: Describing the evolutionary dynamics of now extinct populations is challenging, as their genetic composition before extinction is generally unknown. The Glanville fritillary butterfly has a large extant metapopulation in the Åland Islands in Finland, but declined to extinction in the nearby fragmented southwestern (SW) Finnish archipelago in the 20th century. We genotyped museum samples for 222 SNPs across the genome, including SNPs from candidate genes and neutral regions. SW Finnish populations had significantly reduced genetic diversity before extinction, and their allele frequencies gradually diverged from those in contemporary Åland populations over 80 y. We identified 15 outlier loci among candidate SNPs, mostly related to flight, in which allele frequencies have changed more than the neutral expectation. At outlier loci, allele frequencies in SW Finland shifted in the same direction as newly established populations deviated from old local populations in contemporary Åland. Moreover, outlier allele frequencies in SW Finland resemble those in fragmented landscapes as opposed to continuous landscapes in the Baltic region. These results indicate selection for genotypes associated with good colonization capacity in the highly fragmented landscape before the extinction of the populations. Evolutionary response to habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the viability of the populations, but it did not save the species from regional extinction in the face of severe habitat loss and fragmentation. These results highlight a potentially common situation in changing environments: evolutionary changes are not strong enough to fully compensate for the direct adverse effects of environmental change and thereby rescue populations from extinction.
Subject: adaptive genetic response
contemporary evolution
evolution of dispersal
global change
historical DNA samples
LIFE-HISTORY
LOCAL ADAPTATION
DARWINS FINCHES
CLIMATE-CHANGE
INBREEDING DEPRESSION
POPULATION EXTINCTION
EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS
BALANCING SELECTION
NATURAL-SELECTION
GENETIC EROSION
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
1172 Environmental sciences
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