Extensive Coverage of Marine Mineral Concretions Revealed in Shallow Shelf Sea Areas

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Kaikkonen , L , Virtanen , E A , Kostamo , K , Lappalainen , J & Kotilainen , A T 2019 , ' Extensive Coverage of Marine Mineral Concretions Revealed in Shallow Shelf Sea Areas ' , Frontiers in Marine Science , vol. 6 , 541 . https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00541

Title: Extensive Coverage of Marine Mineral Concretions Revealed in Shallow Shelf Sea Areas
Author: Kaikkonen, Laura; Virtanen, Elina A.; Kostamo, Kirsi; Lappalainen, Juho; Kotilainen, Aarno T.
Contributor organization: Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS)
Fisheries and Environmental Management Group
Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme
Department of Geosciences and Geography
Date: 2019-09-04
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: Frontiers in Marine Science
ISSN: 2296-7745
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00541
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/305798
Abstract: Ferromanganese (FeMn) concretions are mineral precipitates found on soft sediment seafloors both in the deep sea and coastal sea areas. These mineral deposits potentially form a three-dimensional habitat for marine organisms, and contain minerals targeted by an emerging seabed mining industry. While FeMn concretions are known to occur abundantly in coastal sea areas, specific information on their spatial distribution and significance for marine ecosystems is lacking. Here, we examine the distribution of FeMn concretions in Finnish marine areas. Drawing on an extensive dataset of 140,000 sites visited by the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU), we examine the occurrence of FeMn concretions from seabed mapping, and use spatial modeling techniques to estimate the potential coverage of FeMn concretions. Using seafloor characteristics and hydrographical conditions as predictor variables, we demonstrate that the extent of seafloors covered by concretions in the northern Baltic Sea is larger than anticipated, as concretions were found at similar to 7000 sites, and were projected to occur on over 11% of the Finnish sea areas. These results provide new insights into seafloor complexity in coastal sea areas, and further enable examining the ecological role and resource potential of seabed mineral concretions.
Subject: 1171 Geosciences
Baltic Sea
Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM)
ferromanganese concretions
marine minerals
polymetallic nodules
seabed habitats
Species Distribution Modeling (SDM)
1172 Environmental sciences
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion

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