The Conifer Root and Stem Rot Pathogen (Heterobasidion parviporum): Effectome Analysis and Roles in Interspecific Fungal Interactions

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/307987

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Wen, Z.; Zeng, Z.; Ren, F.; Asiegbu, F.O. The Conifer Root and Stem Rot Pathogen (Heterobasidion parviporum): Effectome Analysis and Roles in Interspecific Fungal Interactions. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 658.

Title: The Conifer Root and Stem Rot Pathogen (Heterobasidion parviporum): Effectome Analysis and Roles in Interspecific Fungal Interactions
Author: Wen, Zilan; Zeng, Zhen; Ren, Fei; Asiegbu, Fred O.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2019-12-05
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/307987
Abstract: <i>Heterobasidion parviporum</i> Niemel&auml; &amp; Korhonen is an economically important basidiomycete, causing root and stem rot disease of Norway spruce (<i>Picea abies</i> (L.) Karst) in Northern Europe. The <i>H. parviporum</i> genome encodes numerous small secreted proteins, which might be of importance for interacting with mycorrhiza symbionts, endophytes, and other saprotrophs. We hypothesized that small secreted proteins from <i>H. parviporum</i> (HpSSPs) are involved in interspecific fungal interaction. To identify HpSSP-coding genes potentially involved, we screened the <i>H. parviporum</i> effectome and compared their transcriptomic profiles during fungal development and in planta tree infection. We further conducted phylogenetic analysis, and identified a subset of hypothetical proteins with nonpredicted domain or unknown function as HpSSPs candidates for further characterization. The HpSSPs candidates were selected based on high-quality sequence, cysteine residue frequency, protein size, and in planta expression. We subsequently explored their roles during in vitro interaction in paired cultures of <i>H. parviporum</i> with ectomycorrhizal <i>Cortinarius gentilis</i>, endophytic <i>Phialocephala sphaeroides</i>, saprotrophs (<i>Mycena</i> sp., <i>Phlebiopsis gigantea</i>, and <i>Phanerochaete chrysosporium</i>), respectively. The transcriptomic profile revealed that a large proportion of effector candidates was either barely expressed or highly expressed under all growth conditions. In vitro dual-culture test showed that <i>P. sphaeroides</i> and <i>C. gentilis</i> were overgrown by <i>H. parviporum</i>. The barrage zone formation or no physical contact observed in paired cultures with the saprotrophs suggest they had either combative interaction or antibiosis effect with <i>H. parviporum</i>. Several HpSSPs individuals were up- or downregulated during the nonself interactions. The results of HpSSPs gene expression patterns provide additional insights into the diverse roles of SSPs in tree infection and interspecific fungal interactions.


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