Principles and Clinical Uses of Real-Time Ultrasonography in Female Swine Reproduction

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dc.contributor.author Kauffold, Johannes
dc.contributor.author Peltoniemi, Olli
dc.contributor.author Wehrend, Axel
dc.contributor.author Althouse, Gary C.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-01-07T13:55:01Z
dc.date.available 2020-01-07T13:55:01Z
dc.date.issued 2019-11
dc.identifier.citation Kauffold , J , Peltoniemi , O , Wehrend , A & Althouse , G C 2019 , ' Principles and Clinical Uses of Real-Time Ultrasonography in Female Swine Reproduction ' , Animals , vol. 9 , no. 11 , 950 . https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110950
dc.identifier.other PURE: 129608794
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: db0408ef-6db2-454a-ac0d-5cfd7761300b
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000502299900096
dc.identifier.other ORCID: /0000-0002-9481-1837/work/67132554
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/309036
dc.description.abstract Simply Summary: Real-time ultrasonography (RTU) has become an essential diagnostic value when assessing female swine reproduction in either individual or groups of animals. Diagnostic application of RTU is applied throughout most stages of production, including gilt development, breeding, gestation and farrowing. Along with its most common use in on-farm assessment of pregnancy status, RTU is also used to troubleshoot disruptions in reproductive performance such as delayed puberty, prolonged wean-to-estrus interval, absence of post-weaning estrus, decreased conception and farrowing rates, vulval discharge, peripartum and puerperal disorders. This review aims to provide an overview on principles and clinical uses of RTU in female reproduction on commercial swine farms. Abstract: Within the past 30 years, through ongoing technology and portability developments, real-time (b-mode) ultrasonography (RTU) has increasingly become a valuable diagnostic tool in assessing the female reproductive tract in swine. Initially applied in swine production to visually determine pregnancy status, RTU use has expanded to include assessment of the peri-pubertal and mature non-pregnant females as well. Transabdominal and transrectal modalities to visualizing the reproductive tract in swine have been reported with the transabdominal approach more common due to the fact of its ease of accessibility, animal/personnel safety, and reduced time to perform. Adjustable frequency transducers are preferred as they allow optimization of image quality at various depths. If a single transducer frequency must be selected, a 5 MHz probe provides the best versatility for visualizing the reproductive tract in swine. Other basic requirements for ultrasound equipment which will be used on commercial swine farms include being light weight and easy to handle, readily cleanable and disinfectable, long battery-life, and good durability. When using RTU for pregnancy determination, diagnosis is based upon a combination of the animal's breeding records, the presence of embryonic fluid, and, depending upon gestational stage, fetal structures. If RTU is used as a diagnostic tool in assessing reproductive problems in an individual or a group of animals, sonographic evaluation of both the uterus and ovaries is performed. Tissues are delineated and assessed based upon their echogenicity, echotexture, and size. Uses of RTU in clinical practice may include assessment of delayed puberty, prolonged wean-to-estrus interval, absence of post-weaning estrus, herd disruptions in conception and farrowing rates, vulval discharge, peripartum and puerperal disorders. This review aims to provide an overview on principles and clinical uses of RTU with respect to application to address female reproductive performance issues in commercial swine operations. en
dc.format.extent 17
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Animals
dc.rights cc_by
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject swine
dc.subject reproduction
dc.subject ultrasonography
dc.subject imaging
dc.subject diagnostics
dc.subject BLOOD-FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
dc.subject PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS
dc.subject PLACENTA EXPULSION
dc.subject LATE LACTATION
dc.subject LITTER SIZE
dc.subject SOWS
dc.subject ULTRASOUND
dc.subject OVULATION
dc.subject OVARIES
dc.subject PIG
dc.subject 413 Veterinary science
dc.title Principles and Clinical Uses of Real-Time Ultrasonography in Female Swine Reproduction en
dc.type Review Article
dc.contributor.organization Production Animal Medicine
dc.description.reviewstatus Peer reviewed
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110950
dc.relation.issn 2076-2615
dc.rights.accesslevel openAccess
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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