Indoor Particle Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Exposures in Middle Eastern Microenvironments

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Hussein, T.; Alameer, A.; Jaghbeir, O.; Albeitshaweesh, K.; Malkawi, M.; Boor, B.E.; Koivisto, A.J.; Löndahl, J.; Alrifai, O.; Al-Hunaiti, A. Indoor Particle Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Exposures in Middle Eastern Microenvironments. Atmosphere 2019, 11, 41.

Title: Indoor Particle Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Exposures in Middle Eastern Microenvironments
Author: Hussein, Tareq; Alameer, Ali; Jaghbeir, Omar; Albeitshaweesh, Kolthoum; Malkawi, Mazen; Boor, Brandon E.; Koivisto, Antti Joonas; Löndahl, Jakob; Alrifai, Osama; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2019-12-28
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/309211
Abstract: There is limited research on indoor air quality in the Middle East. In this study, concentrations and size distributions of indoor particles were measured in eight Jordanian dwellings during the winter and summer. Supplemental measurements of selected gaseous pollutants were also conducted. Indoor cooking, heating via the combustion of natural gas and kerosene, and tobacco/shisha smoking were associated with significant increases in the concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles. Particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM) size distributions varied with the different indoor emission sources and among the eight dwellings. Natural gas cooking and natural gas or kerosene heaters were associated with PN concentrations on the order of 100,000 to 400,000 cm<sup>&minus;3</sup> and PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations often in the range of 10 to 150 &micro;g/m<sup>3</sup>. Tobacco and shisha (waterpipe or hookah) smoking, the latter of which is common in Jordan, were found to be strong emitters of indoor ultrafine and fine particles in the dwellings. Non-combustion cooking activities emitted comparably less PN and PM<sub>2.5</sub>. Indoor cooking and combustion processes were also found to increase concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. In general, concentrations of indoor particles were lower during the summer compared to the winter. In the absence of indoor activities, indoor PN and PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations were generally below 10,000 cm<sup>&minus;3</sup> and 30 &micro;g/m<sup>3</sup>, respectively. Collectively, the results suggest that Jordanian indoor environments can be heavily polluted when compared to the surrounding outdoor atmosphere primarily due to the ubiquity of indoor combustion associated with cooking, heating, and smoking.


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