Characterization of Urban New Particle Formation in Amman—Jordan

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Hussein, T.; Atashi, N.; Sogacheva, L.; Hakala, S.; Dada, L.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M. Characterization of Urban New Particle Formation in Amman—Jordan. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 79.

Title: Characterization of Urban New Particle Formation in Amman—Jordan
Author: Hussein, Tareq; Atashi, Nahid; Sogacheva, Larisa; Hakala, Simo; Dada, Lubna; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Date: 2020-01-09
Abstract: We characterized new particle formation (NPF) events in the urban background of Amman during August 2016&ndash;July 2017. The monthly mean of submicron particle number concentration was 1.2 &times; 10<sup>4</sup>&ndash;3.7 &times; 10<sup>4</sup> cm<sup>&minus;3</sup> (exhibited seasonal, weekly, and diurnal variation). Nucleation mode<i> </i>(10&ndash;15 nm) concentration was 0.7 &times; 10<sup>3</sup>&ndash;1.1 &times; 10<sup>3</sup> cm<sup>&minus;3</sup> during daytime with a sharp peak (1.1 &times; 10<sup>3</sup>&ndash;1.8 &times; 10<sup>3</sup> cm<sup>&minus;3</sup>) around noon. We identified 110 NPF events (&asymp;34% of all days) of which 55 showed a decreasing mode diameter after growth. The NPF event occurrence was higher in summer than in winter, and events were accompanied with air mass back trajectories crossing over the Eastern Mediterranean. The mean nucleation rate (<i>J</i><sub>10</sub>) was 1.9 &plusmn; 1.1 cm<sup>&minus;3</sup> s<sup>&minus;1</sup> (monthly mean 1.6&ndash;2.7 cm<sup>&minus;3</sup> s<sup>&minus;1</sup>) and the mean growth rate was 6.8 &plusmn; 3.1 nm/h (4.1&ndash;8.8 nm/h). The formation rate did not have a seasonal pattern, but the growth rate had a seasonal variation (maximum around August and minimum in winter). The mean condensable vapor source rate was 4.1 &plusmn; 2.2 10<sup>5</sup> molecules/cm<sup>3</sup> s (2.6&ndash;6.9 &times; 10<sup>5</sup> molecules/cm<sup>3</sup> s) with a seasonal pattern (maximum around August). The mean condensation sink was 8.9 &plusmn; 3.3 &times; 10<sup>&minus;3</sup> s<sup>&minus;1</sup> (6.4&ndash;14.8 &times; 10<sup>&minus;3</sup> s<sup>&minus;1</sup>) with a seasonal pattern (minimum around June and maximum in winter).

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